Vol. 4 No. 3 (2019)

Published September 9, 2019



  • A Possible Way to Encourage Sustainable Consumption

    With the growth and spread of the concept of sustainable consumption and with the re-emergence of issues related to needs, the basic concepts of consumption need to be analyzed from aspects not inspected by mainstream economics. Consumer behaviour is largely determined by the prevailing values of society and nowadays consumption symbolizes social status. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the concept of utility, to review traditional and alternative concepts and aspirations related to the promotion of sustainable consumption. The authors argue, that utility can not only be examined by narrow economic considerations; the values of present and future generations also must be taken into account when determining what is considered to be useful. The study concludes by presenting alternative financial solutions that encourage sustainable consumption. The presented examples demonstrate, that complementary currency models are suitable means to encourage sustainable consumer behaviour. These are external motivational tools eliciting the desired behaviour through reward schemes.

  • Comparative Analysis of Equestrian Facilities in the North Great Plain Region

    Equestrian services appear in recreation, sports and tourism as well. The favorable natural and cultural values of Hungary and the image of the equestrian nation based on the traditions of the horse provide a favorable background for the development of supply elements. The lowland character and horse culture of the Northern Great Plain region, and the continuous development of horseback riding services here, reinforces the equestrian supply element in the field of sport and leisure. Our in - depth interviews were conducted among service providers with a “horseshoe rating” (N = 11) operating in the Northern Great Plain Region. The results show that all service providers consider and plan the development of equine, infrastructure and human resources, although the source of its financing is different (from state, other successful businesses, realized business results of equestrian enterprises). Equestrian service providers with no horseshoe rating have identified the improvement of quality, the 3, 4, and 5 horseshoe qualified service providers for the expansion of the complex program offering and product diversification.

  • Examination of the Informative Part of the Notes to the Financial Statement Amongst Hungarian Companies Engaged in Sports Activities

    Currently, the role of sports has intensified and changed; by now, it has become a separate area of interest from an originally civil, exercise-based, private leisure activity. In the case of sports-related economic research, both macro- and microeconomic research can be mentioned. Its economic significance, its contribution to employment, national economic income, and consumer spending is involved in macro-level research, while the examination of the functioning of sports services and organizations, and the characteristics of demand and supply are micro-level research activities. One of the reasons for the development of sports activities was the increase in their economic significance, which created a need for their economic analysis. The necessary information can only be obtained from the two fundamental parts of the annual statements (balance sheet and profit and loss account) if the notes on the account contains the information that contribute to the more comprehensive interpretation of the other parts of the annual statement. In our research, we examine whether the notes on the accounts of companies include the information, which could help obtain necessary financial knowledge concerning the partner companies. For the analyses, we used the notes on the accounts of companies, which have sports activity (Hungarian NACE No. 931) as their main line of business. By means of text mining, we analyse the extent to which the notes on the accounts are in conformity with the Accounting Act.

  • Comparative Analysis of the Notes to the Financial Statement of Companies Engaged in Sports Activities in Hungary, Based on the Information of the General Part

    Contribution of the sports sector to GDP in the EU Member States is close to 5%, while in Hungary it is approximately 1-1.5%. This ratio is likely to increase, for which various subsidies of corporate tax provide a good basis. The information mentioned above confirms that the economic analysis of companies engaged in sports activities is an interesting and necessary field of research. In our research, we examine whether the notes on the accounts of companies include the information, which could help obtain necessary financial knowledge concerning the partner companies. For the analyses, we used the notes on the accounts of companies, which have sports activity (Hungarian NACE No. 931) as their main line of business. By means of text mining, we analyse the extent to which the notes on the accounts are in conformity with the Accounting Act. The sports activity companies are analysed using various packages of the R statistical system. By means of text mining, we analyse the extent to which the notes on the accounts provide the necessary information that would be indispensable for the proper interpretation of the balance sheet and the profit and loss account.

  • Sportcivil szervezetek – számok a támogatások növekedése mögött

    A KSH adatgyűjtési tevékenységének köszönhetően a nonprofit szervezetekre vonatkozó átfogó adatok mind adatbázis, mind tájékoztató formájában elérhetőek. A gazdasági adatok között feltűnik az az évről-évre hasonló nagyságú, domináns támogatási részesedés. Különös tekintettel a klasszikus civil szervezetekre ez egyértelműen jelzi azt, hogy a szféra támogatáskitett és támogatásfüggő. Ezek a szervezetek ugyanis kimondottan alkalmasak támogatások fogadására. Tanulmányunkban szeretnénk másodelemzés révén rávilágítani arra, hogy a sporttal foglalkozó civil szervezetek/sportcivil szervezetek száma milyen összefüggésben van a támogatásokkal, különös tekintettel két specifikus támogatási formára, a NEA-ra és a TAO-ra vonatkozóan. Az eredmények arra utalnak, hogy van összefüggés a támogatások összegének növekedése és a sportcivil szervezetek számbeli növekedése között, és ez kifejezetten igaz az egyik legrégebbi és legújabb támogatási forma esetében is.

  • The Issue of Hidden Hunger

    Mankind faces major challenges in the area of food safety and food security. In addition to the growing population, urbanization, climate change, global environmental change and economic inequality, as well as instability, have a major impact on balanced food supply. According to the WHO (2018) study, not only the elimination of hunger is a problem, but also the increase of our well-being. While 0.8 billion people suffer from a lack of available food, 33% of the global population is overweight, 30% of them are obese. In a long term our growing well-being can also be a great problem. There are three types of dietary problems that coexist in parallel: the hunger and malnutrition, the microelement deficiency, and excessive nutrition and obesity. These three health problems represent a serious burden on public health, which has to be considered in the context of food security and food safety.

  • The Role of Health Protective Effect in the Food Purchase of the Population

    In our homecountry just like in other developing countries, civilization diseases can be realized not only as individual costs but also through social security expenditures and from the expenditure side of the national economy. The main risk factors for the spread of civilization diseases include inadequate food consumption, lack of physical activity and genetic conditions. The topic of this research is the role of health food in daily nutrition and in buying food for the population, which addresses current issues and concerns as described above.

  • The Operating and Financing Environmental of Local Public Transport

    In Hungary the financing of the local public transportation is becoming a great obligation for the public service providers. The institutional framework of the national segment is in line with the european standards, nevertheless based on the analysis of the revenues it is clear to see that the core problem is to be found in the hungarian compensation system. The free and reduced rate fares originating from the social fare subvention system need to be reviewed and the realistic adjustment of the price compensation is evitable, due to the fact that the volume of the state normative compensation is not able to reach the volume off loss in revenues in the local public transportation. The amount of compensation required by local governments is raising every year. Besides assuring the stable operation it is also important to maintain the high quality of services and improve the segment in order to raise the number of passangers.

  • Pop Trade Policy – Some Reflections on the Current Trade Policy of the US

    After a brief review of the antecedents our paper aims to systematically organize the recent and current changes in the trade policy of the United States in three broader areas: her changing attitudes towards TPP and WTO, the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the trade war being fought, mostly against China. Our goal is to relate these changes to the trade policy of the former presidential terms, to understand them in the framework of populism and that of the economic policy questions solved only by the second best answer, that is, by protectionism.

Mechanical Engineering

  • Augmented Reality

    This paper is an overview of augmented reality’s basic concepts and its connection to the logistics field. The paper includes a brief history of the tech and how it differs to the virtual reality. The main goal is to understand how augmented reality is being used in logistics to innovate and enhance services. It refers to how courier and freight companies are taking advantage of this technology to upgrade the warehouses, transportation and enhance value added services. It also analyses how the retail market is modernizing its stores and is using mobile applications for online shopping. Using augmented reality has overall pros and cons and even though is a technology on its early stages it shows a great potential to revolutionize the supply chain in its totality.


Vehicle Engineering

Mechatronical Engineering

  • Modernisation of FESTO MPS Station with Implementation into Cyber-Physical Space

    In the course of our thesis we dealt with the implementation of a manufacturing cell. For this we used the FESTO MPS modules. The production cell is controlled by a PLC. We have not only implemented a unique layout and workflow), but also added new features to the system. This means using two control units, one of which is responsible for controlling the process, while the other is managing a web interface. On the web interface, you can see the warehouse containing the finished workpieces and order palettes assembled from different workpieces, or you can set the type and quantity of workpieces to be stored in the warehouse

Management Sciences

  • The significance of analysing potential conflicts in the sales-marketing integration

    Our research aims to identify the critical interfaces between sales and marketing that need to be improved in order to ensure productive cooperation. The relationship between the two departments is full of conflicts and interdependencies. The improvement of communication is of strategical importance, as it is key to staying competitive in the market. The effectiveness and quality of the sales-marketing cooperation is a key factor that is negatively affected by personal and organisational factors as well as a lack of information and conflicts. In addition to the key factors of managing the sales-marketing interfaces, we have also identified the actions that can promote their improvement, including strategic and organisational roles and responsibilities. Our empirical research results show that regular information exchange, more common and interdisciplinary meetings, and a clearly communicated and implemented corporate vision have a positive effect on the coordination and integration of the sales and marketing departments. Consequently, management is reponsible for establishing a corporate vision, i.e. a comprehensive management culture that is clearly communicated across the board in order to increase the employees’ sense of belonging. Of all elements of management culture, the most important factors are coordination and the establishment of a common strategic sysyem. All in all, corporate profit, which is of key importance to the employer, is largely dependent on the successful integration of the sales and marketing departments, which can be achieved through the implementation of the above factors.

  • Overview of the Appearance of Management Information Systems In Hungarian Higher Education through the Example of the University of Debrecen

    In recent years, the ever-decreasing number of students in Hungarian higher education has created a serious competition between institutions, in which not only national but also foreign universities prove to be competitive. In order for national institutions to be able to compete adequately in this competition, managers need to be provided with well-structured, up-to-date information that can support decision-making. The management information system, which successfully adapted at the University of Debrecen, has been in operation for years and provides significant support in data reporting and ad hoc reporting, but there are still many opportunities for advancement. The study draws attention to the importance of management information systems through the example of the University of Debrecen.

  • Sport, the Remedy of Stress

    The study examines the relationship between mental health, resilience and perceived stress among leisureand competitive athletes. Three questionnaires (Keyes Mental Health Continuous Scale, Detected Stress Questionnaire, and 10-item CD-RISC Questionnaire) were studied, filled out by a total of 436 people, of which 297 were competitive athletes and 139 leisure athletes. The main question of my research was whether there is a difference between these three variables, and how resilience and perceived stress affect three factors of mental health, athletes in leisure and competition. The results show that for all variables the athletes of the competition achieved a better average value than the leisure athletes, and I could show a significant difference in the mean values in the case of the emotional and social well-being variables. Moreover, perceived stress had a greater impact on emotional well-being, while resilience had a positive effect on psychological and social well-being.

  • Return of Ethics into Business Activities – From Utilitarianism to Conscious Consumers (review)

    According to the common understanding of economic science people following their own preferences looking for ractional decisions which might bring the biggest advantage available. General economic models take this pre-condition as an axiom, however while analysing real processes and motivation, human side, ethics and values cannot be ignored. Business ethics has always been part of economics though having a diminishing role occasionally. Current developing movements of conscious consumers reveal the importance of the topic, highlighting personal creed and moral principles. Analytical frameworks incorporating ethical considerations are albeit more complicated hence offer more realistic interpretation of economic activities and therefore practical benefits at the end. Our study is a general review on this phenomenon.

  • Extreme Sports Consumption Implications from a Re-search

    Nowadays, more and more research focuses on recreational sports consumption, its motivational background, the determination of target group characteristics. Extreme sports are becoming more and more prominent in leisure sports and are increasingly represented in competitive sports. In our research, we are dealing with Extreme Sports Consumption, Questionnaires were collected in the form of a Google Survey, an online questionnaire survey, which was divided into groups of people who focused on individuals with a variety of social media and targeted extreme sport interests. Data was processed using IBM SPSS software, basic statistics and correlation analysis. Our results were also graphically illustrated. After data deletion, we processed 167 questionnaires. The results show that men prefer extreme sports. Our study shows that in Hungary, the most popular recreational extreme sports are cross cycling, rock climbing, mountain bike, paintball and skateboarding. Among young people with higher incomes, there is a significantly higher proportion of extreme sports consumption. Because expensive sport thus assumes higher discrepancies in income and higher spending propensity, which is confirmed by our research. The brand selection of sports equipment for young adults with extreme sports is not characterized by extreme sports-specific brands, but by classic market-leading sports brands (Nike, Adidas).

  • The Relationship Between Sports Civic Organizations and Human Resources

    Every spring the Hungarian Central Statistical Office records through its ELEKTRA database system the human and economic related operation data of the past year of civic organizations. This data source is usually considered as a standard at the evaluation of the domestic civic sphere. Still, the available handout titled “Most important features of the non-profit sector”, applying mainly descriptive statistics only provides a brief picture of specifications of the sector. Parallel with it, its background database is available yearly, which provides a unique possibility for a researcher to perform secondary analysis aiming to reveal deeper relationship. The objective of our study is purely to reveal a minor part of this considerable field, the relationship between subsidies and human resources mainly due to the fact, that human resource in this sector is composed of employees and volunteers, and it is questionable whether subsidies have an impact on employment.  Results revealed that there is a relationship between human resources and subsidies, where mainly private nature subsidies have a strong impact equally on voluntariness and work related employment

  • Research of Healthy Behavior at Faculty of Economic Sciences' sport sciences' students at the University of Debrecen

    Nowadays the healthy lifestyle is getting more and more attention, thanks to emerging health trends. The review of the literature summarizes the latest results of research on two aspects of healthy behavior. In our primary research, we measured the sporting and dietry habits of sport sciences’ students at University of Debrecen. In the case of sporting habits, we asked the students about the frequency and motivation of sports. In the other hand we asked them about their dietary habits about the frequency and amount of vegetable, fruit and fluid consumption. After the evaluation of survey we can say that the 70% of respondents are satisfied with their physical condition. We can tell about the frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption is that the 15-20% of students eat vegetables and / or fruits daily. However, it can be said about the fluid intake of students that seventysix percent of them are consuming fluid daily.

  • Level of Digital Competences and the Examination the Relationship Between Unemployment and in Job-Trainings in the European Union

    In this study we examined the digital competences by the EU Member States between 2015 and 2017 based on data of OECD and EuroStat. We wanted to know, are there any relationship between the unemployment and the level of digital competences. We realised that, in these countries where the percentage of individuals with basic digital skills is higher, there the harmonized unemployment rate is lower, than in those states where the individuals have above-average digital skills. In the case of lower educated states (where the citizens do not have a general digital knowledge), the unemployment rate is higher. We researched the openness of companies towards individuals with different levels of digital knowledge. In these countries, where the more educated people live there provide the comapnies more chance to take part further trainings, than in the less educated countires. We found a moderately strong negative correlation between the group of individuals who have low overall digital skills and in-work trainings. It means, if a country has individuals with a few digital competences, there the organisations will not offer trainings them. According to the available data we could divide the EU Member States in three clusters. These groups are underdeveloped, developing, developed countries. The biggest difference is between these groups in the quantity of skilled people, however the distribution of individuals in the developed group also shows interesting features. We realised in these countries the so-called „reverse competence pyramid”. It means, as the level of skill grows, the number of individuals, who own it, grows as well. As a continuation of the research, it would be worth examining the countries regionally, so it would be clear where are, the "digital kingdoms" can be found. On the one hand this could help the state in the allocation of digital education, on the other hand, it would also improve the position of companies. They could create regional centers in less developed countries, thus outsourcing expensive high added value work.

  • Personality Traits and Their Validity in Predicting Job Performance at Recruitment: a Review

    One of the most critical challenges human resources management usually faces is the procedure of recruitment and selection. At the recruitment, the factor of qualification is very important. However, HR management should take into account the personality of the candidate. For example, most of the companies' profits rely on the performance of the frontline employee and their behavior toward the customer. Therefore, HR management usually uses the assessment of personality and integrity. Based on the literature, there is a correlation between personality traits and job performance. This study is a literature review analysis which contains previous studies in regard to the of Big Five Factors at the recruitment and their validity in predicting employee’s performance in the firm.

  • Analysis of consumers’ eating attitudes having animal-origin diet

    The spread of civilization illnesses realized in the developed societies has also reached the less-developed ones as well. The reason behind this phenomenon is the non-proper food consumption among the first places. This study is dealing with the plant-based nutrition and its characteristics. The authors’ aim was to examine the consumers’ opinion on the plant-based diet.

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