Since the appearance of the foreign currency denominated loan it has received a lot of good and bad criticism because - due to the crisis of 2008 - the exchange rate movements and the loan instalments increased. While the foreign currency credit was favourable at the time of borrowing, later it became a big problem for the borrowers. The crisis... of 2008 was unexpected for the countries who have foreign currency loans, and who did not have crisis management mechanisms which could help to manage the crisis. Because of the crisis more and more people have got into trouble about their increasing loan instalments. Since 2008 the Hungarian government has been trying to help the Hungarian people with crisis management measures, like exchange rate pegging, home protection action plan, repayment at a fixed exchange rate, converting the loan into Hungarian forint, etc. Since February 2015 the compulsory conversion of loan into HUF has been in force and it has helped a lot of people having a foreign currency loan but there are still people who cannot take advantage of the settlement and need similar state help to decrease their credit burden. So unfortunately the problem of people having a foreign currency loan has not been solved completely but we are on the good track.
In the autumn of 2008 the world economic crisis erupting in the United States of America dealt the economy and labour market of Hungary a hard blow. The economic crisis strengthened the adverse labour-market situation in the country’s more backward eastern areas, above all in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. With the aim of reduction of the incr...easing unemployment the Hungarian Employment Policy applies a number of labour-market tools. Public employment is one of the most important labour market tools. In my research I examined the role of public employment in the reduction of unemployment. In my thesis I looked for the answer to the question if public employment is able to handle unemployment efficiently and to reduce long-term unemployment. In my thesis I examined two of the most important public work programmes – between the period of 2009 and 2011 – which employed the highest number of workers in comparison with earlier programmes. I prepared the comparative analysis of the two programmes based on my own aspect system highlighting the strong and the weak points of these programmes. My research is based on scientific literature, various studies in this field, scientific and international professional journals and Internet sources.
The global economic crisis, which started in 2008, has negati vely aff ected all sectors of the economy. Many businesses have gone bankrupt, including old, leading and successful companies but others have remained successful and have acquired a larger market share. Despite this many business owners have tried to enter the market with more or le...ss success. This trend can also be observed in the fi eld of logisti cs and transportati on.
Analysis of the complex environmental effects of food production and consumption points to the need of examining the ethical side of these issues. The study is is looking for possible answers to the questions 1.) what connections theology and theological ethics have to the current ecological crisis in a historic perspective, 2.) what emphasis e...ating, food production and consumption receive in ecotheological ethics, and 3.) whether contemporary theology is able to offer approaches which are acceptable and inspiring for audiences from a wider ecoethical background.
It is a natural demand in each sector of economy to recognise the errors which threaten effective and produci ve operai on, to disclose cause and eff ect relai onships, to draw the lessons and define responsibility. In stagnai ng economy and crisis period the tendencies searching responsible are fastening, the complex examinai on of the scope o...f the problems are mostly failed to come about, at er marking and proclaiming the scapegoat only partial solutions born, and because of different interest a signifi cant number of problems remain unsolved. Arising positive effects on the level of macroeconomy in some cases exert negative influence to microsphere, so during searching for solutions – besides analysing processes - it is inevitable to examine also their generated, sometimes cumulating effects. Spreading criticism in the last periods blamed bureaucracy, accounting service system and its forecasi ng ability to explain low level of economic growth. Finding way-out methods are aimed at the question if it is possible that – besides reduci on of bureaucracy - accountancy has an implement system which - above micro level line – can indicate approaching crisis also on the field of macroeconomy with more speed and effectiveness, giving enough i me and space for interveni on opportunii es. Approaches may start from numerous aspects, my study examine a possible part and some of its components.
The Romani population in Central Europe is fighting with many societal problems. Societal crises appear in connection with employment, housing, demographic development and backwardness in education. All these factors have a negati ve impact on the health of the population: the health status of the Romani is worse than that of the non-Romani pop...ulation living around them. The compensati on of these disadvantages does not solely depend on providing equal opportunities. The Romani people’s special diseases originating from their special genetic characteristics and their way of life distinguish them from the non-Romani population. A uniform treatment does not offer a solution. In their healthcare we should consider and give priority to the Romani specific
diseases, such as founder mutati ons common in the Romani populati on as autosomal recessive disorders. Whereas the mutati ons frequently observed in the Romani groups are sporadicin other, non-Romani populati ons worldwide. Thus the founder mutati on analysis is important for predicting the incidence of certain rare diseases not readily thought about in non-Romani, yet possibly present in the local Romani populati ons, especially when diagnosti c problems appear. The research of these diseases is especially important in terms of populati on genetics, public health, and also economically due to the expansive existence of the Romani populati on. The identification of these diseases allows a rapid diagnosis and in some cases it also delays the onset of symptoms. It can have a great impact on public health intervention as it makes the planning and the implementation of targeted preventative measures possible.
While the question of sustainability has received more and more attention and publicity in the past decades, all ecosystems services has been constantly deteriorating during the same period. There is an abyss between theory and rhetoric and meaningful and effective action. Our present-day socio-ecological crisis is the result of a distorted wor...ld view which in turn is caused by deep psychological mechanisms affecting the individual and the society. Recognizing these underlying mechanisms, making people aware of how they work might help change the suicidal course that the developed societies based on free market capitalism, neoliberal ideology and excessive consumerism has been on in the last two hundred years. This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles that seem to have been hindering effective action.
Terror organizations threat those huge places and buildings which are used by a big mass of people. Public transportation hubs such as airports are most preferred places of terrorist attacks. If we prepare a small explosive device, we can cause a huge harm in the aircraft killing a lot of people. Security regulations have been improved to creat...e new methods to prevent terrorist attacks. The main targets are at the airport the airplanes on the runway and already in the air, the arrival and departure halls, and the air traffic control and radar systems. To protect human life and airplanes in the airport security they check the passengers, their handluggage, their registered baggage and the cargo. I would like to show you how we can avoid the terrorist attacks and this present article gives an overview of the application of such equipment, their types and the working principles of the devices of airport security systems.
Nowadays there is more and more focus on researches of food shopping behaviour, as its key role in social practices -and in the shaping of life quality after all - is inevitable due to social effects of basic re-structuring and their undisclosed nature in the post socialist countries. These social effects are still going on because of the crisi...s and changes in trade politics.Earlier researches more or less focus on abstract ranges, separating daily social behaviour from their solid contexts.This is why I chose East Hungary with its smaller decretionary income and purchasing power as the spatial focus of my reasearch and the method of focus group discussion and questionnarie with food shoppers in the frame of a qualitative research and quantitative research. On the other hand, one of the reasons of the timeliness of chosing this topic is that several researchers (Totth, 2012, Polya-Szucs, 2013; Szakály, 2014) and market research institutes came to the conclusion that Hungarian customers prefer products of Hungarian origin to goods from abroad if they are cheaper than their foreign equivalent. That is why for Hungarian customers cheap own brands can be a priority even over less costly imported goods.
Nowadays in the growing competition every enterprise has to strive to meet all the customer expectations and to serve the customers at a higher level than their competitors, In order to meet these requirements the stockpiling, the second phase of the trade in goods has to be appropriate from every aspect. To offset the negative aspects of the e...conomic crisis and to meet the sales targets the sales have to be smooth, so the stockpiling also has to be adequate from the aspects
of quantity, quality and choice. For this purpose we have analysed and evaluated the stockpiling at the Grande-Inox Ltd and have made suggestions.
Logistics is key for retailing because product availability is a signifi cant element of customer service and has key importance for compei i veness as well. In the following I would like to demonstrate the strategic retail models of the academic literature and give diff erent points of view on retail logisi cs. Then, with the help of an empiri...cal study I will elaborate on the model of Hungarian retail logistics.
Nowadays in the growing competition every enterprise has to strive to meet all the customer expectations and to serve the customers at a higher level than their competitors, In order to meet these requirements the procurement, the first phase of the trade in goods has to be appropriate from every aspect. To offset the negative aspects of the ec...onomic crisis and to meet the sales targets the sales have to be smooth, so the procurement also has to be adequate from the aspects of quantity, quality, choice and also of time. For this purpose we have analysed and evaluated the procurement at the Grande-Inox Ltd and have made suggestions.
Aviai on is the quickest and most praci cal way of locomoi on, to which people have been paying at eni on for thousands of years. Today – on account of air traffi c, energy crisis and environmentalism – the power source of the aircrat became a key issue. In addii on to fl ight safety, there is a growing emphasis on environmentally friendly...operai on. The ineffi cient burning of fossil fuels comes hand in hand with the signifi cant pollutant emission and noise pollui on which bother even those living far from the airports. Nowadays the most important objeci ve of researchers and developers is to create an effi cient, clean and quiet airplane, thus as a new idea they at empt to ui lize electricity in this form on board the aircrat . The ari cle presents some various energy resources through some example of unmanned aerial vehicle.
Corrupti on is a complex phenomenon related to hidden economy, which is also a barrier to economic development and hinders the outbreak from the crisis. Corrupti on is becoming a more sophisti cated instrument of hidden economies and is present in every country parallel to the ever intense accelerati on of our globalized world. Its extent depen...ds on, among other things, economic dispariti es, social deformati ons, unequal burden-sharing, the rather ingenious forms of tax evasion, social morality, the country’s economic development, controlling mechanism and, more importantly, the subtle relati ons of economic crime with the prevailing powers. Hidden economy and corrupti on are interrelated phenomena. Uneven economic development, unemployment, social insecurity, contradicti ons of the legal regulati ons, and lack of transparency all provide an incenti ve to the violati on of ethical business practi ces, the exploitati on of the benefi ts of economic crime, the reinvestment of such profi ts into the business sphere and the appearance of corrupti on in the politi cal decision-making. Corrupti on is a social symptom, a subsistence constraint, a deviant form as well as a status security instrument, the mild (moral) judgment of which encourages parti cipati on in the hidden economy and economic crises. If the state or the politi cs seeks to infl uence the development of the economy and assumes excessive responsibility or procurer function, it diminishes the principle of public burdens and supports the expansion of corrupti on and the operati on of hidden economy at the sametime.
The central thought of this article is the relationship between the stability of public finances and the sustainable economic development of the country. The paper aims to find an answer to the question to what extent the outer and inner conditions of the social and economic functioning have contributed to, and hindered the domestic development... in the quarter of the century after the change of the regime. The article proves that stability and growth are predisposed to strengthen each other. In absence of financial stability, we cannot talk about competitiveness as a prerequisite for the sustainability of growth, or in a wider sense, the realization of the public good. The latter can be observed basically in the fact that the interests of financial stability and growth are in equilibrium and the satisfaction of socio economic needs is realized in the frame defined by them.
Financial planning, the propensity to save and self-caring habits effect not only the households' financial management, but they effect the economical, political, social and cultural situation of the whole country. The intellectual skills of hungarians are undeveloped, which stems from the lack of financial literacy of individuals. More and mor...e people realize the need for economic and financial knowledge since the 2008 economic crisis, and that the development of financial culture is essential. In our research we examined, how the financial awareness and the willingness to save of individuals and households can be influenced.
After joining the EU, micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises came to the focus of attention in Hungary for their grandiose role in both employment and producing added value. Due to their flexibility, creativity and adaptability SMEs find new market opportunities easier. Also, SMEs can find their way and seize appearing opportunities more q...uickly under rapidly changing, insecure and high-risk circumstances.When analysing the sector, besides the investigation of the external environment, it is also important to focus on internal factors. The success of businesses is not only influenced by their access to financial resources, but also by their internal organisational structure and the standard of their organisational culture. In the present phase of world economy, when
transports are delayed, credits are harder to obtain and companies downsize, leaders have to make careful and considerate management and operational decisions. Thus financial decisions have considerable short and long-term effects on the success of business operation.This research paper aims at a comprehensive study of the present situation of the Hungarian SME sector, some of its financing opportunities, as well as factors that hinder its development. Another purpose of the present writing is to lay the theoretical foundations for a primary questionnaire research exploring the financing characteristics of SMEs in Hungary.