Vol 6, No Különszám (2013)
Households are characterised by diff erent life cycles with diff erent income structures and expenses. They have to be considered and planned in ti me, so that their fi nancial background can be ensured. Regarding effi ciency households are able to make their opti mal choices from diff erent alternati ves on the basis of their own system of obj...ecti ves. In many cases households are unable to make these eff ecti ve decisions, which is usually due to the low level of their fi nancial culture. There are certain points in people’s lives when it is useful to have a large amount of savings. One of these points is the old age when people cannot earn a suffi cient amount of money. The other one takes place when someone starts his or her career or a family and when they make a living so as to be able to support themselves. One alternati ve of household life cycles is to set up their own business and operate it. Even during the operati on of interprises we can diff erenti ate several life cycles. Households taking up enterprises are usually able to plan the necessary fi nancial background to launch their businesses and to prepare business plans for a profi table operati on as well as adjust them to changes, which is not an easy task. In our research we write about savings and we describe their roles in given life cycles. This writi ng includes some important elements of our research.
A number of factors aff ect the competi ti veness of businesses; fi scal policy is one of them. It has constantly been changing in Hungary recently. However, enterprises would need a more predictable business environment. The aim of this brief study is to point out its importance.
Hungarian customers have become more price sensiti ve and more conscious and their shopping occasions have become bett er planned as a result of the world economic depression. The freshness of the product, the price level, and the choice of goods have remained important aspects when choosing the place of shopping, but the signifi cance of speci...al off ers and price reducti ons has increased for customers. Our research fi ndings show that one goes shopping less
frequently than a couple of years earlier. The decrease of the frequency of shopping also means that the scope of shops visited has become wider; the customer is willing to go farther for a bargain; the convenience of shopping plays a secondary role. Because of go-around shopping customer royalty has fallen and customer spending has spread thin over shops.
The family is the smallest unit of society. According to the classical, ideal interpretati on of family it consists of a father, a mother and at least of one child. According to the traditi onal model the father id the breadwinner, he supports the family; whereas the mother runs the household, she brings up the children; the children’s task i...s studying, perhaps helping the mother with running the household. On hearing the word ‘family’ ‘unity’ and ‘harmony’ come to mind, whereas each family member has diff erent personaliti es with more or less sameness. They try to solve the problems arising in the family together, but every family member can have their own problems. Family members infl uence one another’s decisions, which can involve economic decisions, too. The number of children exercises the greatest infl uence on economic decisions. In our fast, modern, consumer society children wield the most signifi cant purchasing power. Their needs usually defi ne the family’s purchasing habits. Today children demonstrate their own needs in the market.
In our present study we wish to point out the peculiariti es of women’s cosmeti cs buying habits. In our interview examinati on we have tried to get a closer picture of the characteristi cs of women’s buying habits and their atti tudes to cosmeti cs. The topicality of our research has been supported by several phenomena. On the one hand, th...e most frequent associati on with women is ‘beauty’; a woman always has to be well-groomed, prett y, and beauti ful according to the expectati ons of society. On the other hand, the appreciati on of the role of the body appears as a general trend in society, which means that each product or service, which serves bodily culture and care, play a more and more important role. Many other authors (Davis-Rigaux 1974, Popcorn- Marigold 2001, Pólya 2012) have already discussed women’s cosmeti cs buying habits, fi rst of all their decision making role within the family, but because of the topicality of the theme we have considered it important to conduct further, empirical examinati on.
The global economic crisis, which started in 2008, has negati vely aff ected all sectors of the economy. Many businesses have gone bankrupt, including old, leading and successful companies but others have remained successful and have acquired a larger market share. Despite this many business owners have tried to enter the market with more or le...ss success. This trend can also be observed in the fi eld of logisti cs and transportati on.
On the basis of our secondary research fi ndings it can be stated that the majority of young Hungarians are intensive consumers of foods with a high level of fat, salt and sugar. We can state that they do not understand the noti ons of food labels, and are not aware of the signs’ meaning on product packages. Only half of the young read the li...st of ingredients on the back of products. The situati on is even more aggravated as only 40% of respondents are aware of the eff ects of components (by their own avowal). There are no food labels supporti ng consumer decisions in Hungary. It is necessary to take other countries’ practi ce into considerati on, for example the practi ce, the food labels of the USA and the idea of the Hungarian Nati onal Heart Foundati on.
In our research we were looking for a relati onship between childhood obesity and the mother’s body type, lifestyle. We have examined the relati onship between body type according to BMI and own opinion of respondent mothers with the use of Cramer’s V coeffi cient. The opinion of respondents does not refl ect the reality in Hungary. The Cra...mer’s V coeffi cient, which measures the relati onship between body type according to BMI and own opinion of mothers was medium: 0.519, which means that the respondents cannot assess their own BMI and body type. The body type of children perceived by their mothers was also inaccurate. According to our research we can state that body type of mothers exercises infl uence on the body type of children. The extent of infl uence depends on the age of children (3.6 – 8.5%).
Nowadays people have been browsing the websites of accommodati ons before travelling to gather more informati on. A good website can be a good source of informati on and a good adverti sing tool if it is well-structured and easily understandable. That is the reason why resorts need to concentrate not only on their services but also on their own... websites. My research study has two disti ncti ve parts. In the fi rst part I introduce the fi ndings of my questi onnaire-based survey focusing on the use of hotel websites by guests. Then in the second part I analyze and classify the websites of the four hotels in questi on. I also assess the
structure and the content of hotel websites; and fi nd out possibiliti es for their development and improvement.
Although in recent years there has been an innovati ve development in the market of fl avored beers Radlers are new products. That is why I have chosen this topic; there are only few studies on this subject. I would like to get to know the diff erent channel strategies and tools that are used in practi ce. In my research I interviewed a manager... of one of the biggest companies and used quanti tati ve methodology to fi nd out the opinion of area managers.
Nowadays hyper- and supermarkets, which have been opening by the dozen, have been off ering various price ranges and fl avour categories of chocolate for customers. Apart from premium quality chocolate, they also off er their own brands. According to Hungarian manufacturers and retailers in the last couple of years a positi ve shift can be obse...rved towards quality chocolates, fi rst of all chocolate fi gure products made from milk chocolate and exclusive desserts that are
bought in large quanti ti es despite their high prices. What factors (price, fl avour, and brand) and to what extent infl uence our choice of products? The aim of my paper has been to reveal and analyse the chocolate buying habits of young people in their twenti es.
The paper aims to present the representati on of a literary dialect at the phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntacti c levels on the basis of The Color Purple and The Bluest Eye, two novels writt en by two Afro-American female writers, Alice Walker and Toni Morrison respecti vely. The paper strives to set up a theoreti cal framework fo...r dialect translati on. Finally it evaluates the Hungarian translati ons of the two novels.
One of the determining factors of the countryside’s competi ti veness are innovati ve enterprises. Through their development programmes they boost the use of the countryside’s own resources and reprogram the knowledge bases, which open new spaces for development by building on countryside traditi ons. The innovator is a key factor in this p...rocess. The innovator is capable of realising the need for change, is capable of renewal and holds the competencies that determine the success of his enterprise and thereby the competi ti veness of his environment and that of the countryside.
The present study acquaints the reader with the designer behaviour of product designer engineers, which is very useful for agro-technical, operati onal, and agro-marketi ng experts who strive for value-based purchases and is of novelty for industrial product developers and designers. The designer-engineer has an integrati ng personality. He giv...es a signifi cant added value to the product. He is responsible not only for the outer appearance of the product, but also for the harmony of functi on, form, and technical content. The purpose of the present study is to investi gate the following types of behaviour: industrial view, materialisti c view, systemic planning, eco-planning, ergonomic planning, bionic planning, communicati ve planning, marketi ng-centred planning, and formal planning.
Many companies do not realise even today that the acquisiti on of adequate insurance cover has become a separate profession. The largest companies employ a special, so-called ‘risk manager’, who has extensive experti se and considerable experience on the basis of which he considers, analyses, compares various opti ons and makes decisions be...aring in mind the interests of his company. The three quarters of agricultural products are semi-fi nished products or processed food products; therefore the Product Liability Act can be interpreted more easily in the case of agricultural products. I am convinced that preference is given to those companies and products that meet the strict criteria and have been given a clean product certi fi cati on, which means that they are polluti on-free products and have a product liability insurance.
In our research we have applied sociological methods in the investi gati on of the Croati an minority communiti es, of their values or scope of acti ons and their identi ty preservati on methods in the 21st century. As an interesti ng fact of the research, in Vas County communiti es we have found identi fi cati on and diff erenti ati on in and...between classical and cultural nati on percepti on. We have investi gated the approach of identi fi cati on and as a result we can state that nati onal symbols are important elements of identi fi cati on. There are associati onal symbols originated from the nati onal past in the communiti es’ collecti ve mind (like fl ag, coat of arms, crown, and anthem). In the aspect of belonging to Hungarians, these dimensions appeared again in the research, but in this evaluati on the abstract concepts are too strong (for example: identi ty, cultural awareness). There was no signifi cant diff erence regarding the judgment criteria as regards who belongs to Croati an or Hungarian communiti es. Belonging to Croati an communiti es is realised by less perceivable abstracti ons.
Beyond the cultural nati on concept, belonging to Hungarians’ natural elements are the form and traditi on (border, ‘I was born in Hungary’, nati onality).
These parameters fi t bett er into the state nati on percepti on. These traditi ons are stronger presented among senior citi zens and under-educated populati on.
In 2003 the Hungarian Parliament emphasised the importance of preventi on by the elaborati on, the discussion and the adopti on of the Nati onal Crime Preventi on Strategy. The prioriti es of the strategy are as follows: the reducti on of child crime and juvenile delinquency, the increase in the safety of citi es, the preventi on of domesti c v...iolence and victi m support and the preventi on of repeat victi mizati on. In order to achieve these goals, the County’s insti tuti ons have to be able to achieve an eff ecti ve collaborati on. Crime preventi on is primarily not a police task, but rather the responsibility of social insti tuti ons, child and youth welfare insti tuti ons, and last but not least the potenti al victi m’s own responsibility.