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Application of the SDS-PAGE method for the characterisation of winter wheat flour quality
Published May 23, 2006

The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method a concrete example. It was also tested whether, it was possible to obtain a better baking quality product from a large amount of poor quality less valuable wheat by fractioning the flour according to particle sizes after grinding. We studied the rheological properties of flours with different particle size fractions from the original flour. The baking quality of the original flour was B2. The 125-90 and 90-63 μm fractions have significantly better baking quality (B1) than the original flour. The protein contents of these flour fractions were also significantly higher than the protein content of the original flour. We had a question: what has influenced the baking quality: the protein content or other factors? We searched for an explanation on these results in the protein composition of the flour samples. We studied the distribution of glutenin-fractions by SDS-PAGE method and evaluated them. We found with correlation analysis that the amount of LMW-Glutenin D-group (52-60 kDa) is in a strong, negative correlation to the baking quality (r = – 0.855*). Therefore, the baking quality of flour samples was influenced by this glutenin fraction.

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The influence of fraction size on the chemical composition of winter wheat flour
Published December 15, 2010

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human  mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, ...such as: the laboratory mill should be provided  with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different sieving techniques, 
widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions. Various flours of the wheat pattern sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. 
In producing this pattern we used FQC109 type of mill. There were 5 different corn sizes of 250-200; 200-160; 160-125; 125-100; <100 μms used in the partition of the fractions. The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production.

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Study of effects on quality of different wheat flour fraction
Published November 2, 2009

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a...s: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following  measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too. 

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Effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the quality frozen dough bread made from diferent wheat flour
Published October 5, 2010

A laboratory scale no-time frozen dough procedure that approximates Romanian commercial practice has been
developed and used to study the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the bread quality of a straight
grade wheat flour during prolonged storage (2 days to 26 weeks). All treatments (baking absorption level, mixing
en...ergy input, mixer type, fermentation and intermediate proof times, removal of oxidant and/or dough
strengthening conditioners and partial freeze-thaw cycles) had significant effects (P<0.05) upon bread quality (loaf
volume and/or bread score). In general, these effects were more pronounced with extended frozen storage time.
High baking absorption, undermixing, bulk fermentation (> 1 h) and removal of oxidant and/or surfactants had
the most dramatic effects. Addition of a very strong flour at 30% to strengthen the wheat flour had no significant
effect (P>0.05) upon bread quality under optimum conditions.

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The analysis of flour blends as affected by the behaviour of two different quality flours of triticale under different fertilizer treatments
Published October 24, 2016

Triticale is likely used in many countries in human consumption, due to its advantageous agronomical and nutritional properties mostly in blends. The baking quality of blends depends not just on the proportions of the used flours but also on their individual quality what can be influenced by fertilizer treatments.

22 flour blends were p...repared with commercial wheat flour and triticale wholemeal flour in proportions from 0% to 100%. The triticale was treated with different amount of fertilizers (N30P30K30, N60P0K0). Changes of wet gluten contents and extensograph parameters of the blends were determined. The quality of blends significantly depends on the fertilizer treatment of triticale beside the proportions of the flours. When the N60P0K0 treated triticale was used in blends, wet gluten and extensibility values were significantly higher, but in case of resistant to extensions (Rmax) the N30P30K30 treated samples gave higher values. The measured values of wet gluten and extensibility were above the expected values (synergism), while in the case of resistance to extension the expected values were higher than the measured values (antagonism).

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Changes of Quality of Winter Wheat During Maturing
Published December 6, 2005

We analysed the flour of two winter wheat varieties to determine the effect of maturity state and grain position in the ear on the element composition of flour. Samples were taken from the 14th to the 42th day of anthesis. Ear samples were cut into three (basal, central and apical) parts, the trashed grains were milled, and the element composit...ions of the flours were determined.
We found that the grain position within the ear has an effect on flour element content. Flours of apical grains had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur contents than flours of central and basal grains. The nutrients can be divided into two parts, based on the formation of element content during maturation. Nitrogen, sulphur and copper contents changed continuously during maturity, while the P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr and Zn contents decreased until a specific value and became nearly constant in the second half of maturity. We found that – although the nitrogen concentration of flours changed continuously – the amount of nitrogen in the flours reached a constant value for the second half of maturity.

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Effect of weather conditions on the protein content and baking value of winter wheat flour
Published May 23, 2006

We searched for connections between weather conditions (with its sub-parameters as precipitation and average temperature) and the yearly formation of two quality parameters (protein content and baking value) on three levels of mineral fertilization, based on the results of a variety comparison experiment on chernozem soil, to select those parameters and critical periods which have significant effects on the quality of winter wheat flour.
We established that the protein content of winter wheat flour can be increased with increasing levels of mineral fertilizers. Protein content is lower and has higher deviation during non-fertilized conditions in different cropping years than on higher fertilization levels. Thus, it seems proved again that quality (as protein content) is mainly formed by the crop year, but can be improved with adequate agricultural engineering (with mineral fertilization in the present case). The higher sum of precipitation in May, and the lower average temperature after flowering, have the highest increasing effect on the protein content of flour of the examined parameters. Based on the results of the examined period, the rainier and warmer term than average before flowering and lower – average amount of precipitation and colder circumstances are favourable for higher baking values. The analysis with data of decades, proves the importance of the first half of May and the middle of June as especially important periods for quality formation. An increasing nutrient supply has different effects on the varieties; mineral fertilization increased the baking value of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety in almost every case, but the second level of fertilization decreased it in half of the examined years. Additionally, mineral fertilization played a role in the stabilization of the quality of highlighted varieties.

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Effects of cultivar and fertilization on extensograph parameters of winter wheat flours
Published December 15, 2010

In present paper we have examined the effect of mineral fertilization on the extensograph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by fertilization. Flours were from 4 cultivars grown at six nitrogen fertilizer. The average flour protein content of cultivars ...was very different (11.8, 13.0, 14.3, and 13.07%, respectively). We have found that the extensograph
properties of dough are affected by mineral fertilization, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of fertilizer doses. We estimates the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph properties, based on our investigations, it became obvious that the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph parameters is really strong.

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Use of extensigraph in the examination of wheat flours
Published December 21, 2008

The extensograph is widely used in quality control and research laboratories studying wheat flour quality. The most commonly used measurements include Rm, the maximum resistance (maximum height of the curve); R5 the resistance at a constant extension of 5 cm; E, extensibility (total curve length); Rm/E, the ratio of maximum resistance to extens...ion; and A, the area under curve. The extensograph has proved useful in the classification and assessment of flours on the physical dough properties. Another important application is its use in wheat breeding programs. Furthermore, extensograph is an excellent tool to study the effects of a wide range of ingredients on dough properties of wheat flour (like oxidants, enzymes, salt and additives), and it can also be used measure the changes during the frozen storage. In the present study we provide a review of the scientific literature concerning the possible applications of the extensograph.

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Búzalisztek minőségének becslése tészta nyújtás-szakítás alapján állományvizsgáló műszerrel
Published March 27, 2002

Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.

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Stability analysis of different winter wheat genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012

Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c...hanges in the wet gluten content, gluten speading and protein content of five wheat genotypes at six fertilization levels.
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization. 

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Examination of wheat rheological characteristics by near-infrared spectroscopy
Published December 16, 2012

Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages that make it a widely used analitical method in the different areas, like agricultural and food industry as well. In wheat quality control rheological characteristics of dough made from wheat flour are as important as physical and chemical properties too. In this work we examined rheological proper...ties of wheat flour samples by alveograph, and spectral data of the same samples were collected by FOSS Infratec 1241 instrument. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for two alveograph parameter (P/L és W) to get calibration equations.

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The occurrence and phenology of moth pests in different granary of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
Published November 10, 2010

The aims of my studies were the followings: primarily to find correlation between the conditions of granary and the occurrence of moth pests. Secondly I studied the effect of disinfection on individual numbers in the population of moths. My studies were started in May 2009 in six different places of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Indianmeal mot...h (Plodia interpunctella) and Mediterranean Flour Moth (Ephestia kuehniella) traps with pheromone were installed in four repetitions as well as Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitotroga cerealella) traps in also four repetitions. Control traps without attractant were also placed at every place.
From my researches, it became clear that the disinfection alone is not enough to protect cereals from moths. As in the case of crop protection, we need to apply integrated pest management.
We have to make differences between preventive protections from moth pests and the elimination of them by chemicals.
Up to my opinion, the regular checking and cleaning of the granary are important as well as the prognosis of the possible occurrence of moths. The prognosis is considered important because the studied moths do not feed at the adult stage or only at a low level. However, the caterpillars coming from the eggs placed by females can cause a significant damage in the stored cereals.
The studied sex pheromone traps are proved to be useful for the reduction of number of moths since the traps caught lots of them. These traps are relatively cheap because only the temporarily changes of pheromones increase the cost.

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Effect of agrotechnological treatment on nutritive value of common millet
Published May 16, 2017

The cultivation of common millet shows an increasing tendency due to its adaptability to extreme poor circumstances. In addition, millet do not contain gluten forming proteins such as gliadin and glutenin, therefore people with gluten intolerance could consume it. The vitamin B and mineral content increase the importance of millet. The aim of o...ur experiment was to measure the quality of flour of two millet varieties treated with different nitrogen fertilizer doses.

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Research on rheological characteristics of winter wheat varieties
Published July 16, 2007

The gluten examination test is dominant in Hungary, comparing it to the qualification system of other countries. The determination of alveographic parameters is a basic criterion of winter wheat specifications in some western and southern European countries.
In the Hungarian and foreign winter wheat qualification systems, in the standards, is no limit for extensographical parameters. Customers dictate the limits and make their claims as to the specifications.
We analyzed the alveographic and extensographical parameters of 19 winter wheat varieties grown by the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Hungary, and we made a comparison between the results in the challenges of the European Union expectations.
Examining the information of alveographic and extensographical values, we found that the experimental varieties provide high base to flour types suitable for baking bread and baker’s ware. The GK Élet, GK Petur, GK Memento, GK Csillag, GK Kapos and GK Marcel varieties can meet the market of paste flour needs, too.
In the variety series, the GK Kalász represents the highest values and the GK Garaboly shows the lowest parameters regarding the alveographic W and the resistance to extension.
On the basis of relation, we can establish that we can estimate the following little known and used quality indexes: the extensographical resistance to extension with extensographical energy and the alveographic W value, the extensographical energy with the alveographic W value and the alveographic P and L values with the other alveographic parameters.

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Opportunities for improving the nutritional value of cereal-based products
Published November 13, 2012

We set up experiments for improving the nutritional value of cerealbased products. Our aims were to decrease the energy content of bakery products with the mixing of plant originated raw materials and byproducts with high fibre contents, and we have evaluated the effect of sodium-chloride on the physical properties of bakery products. We found ...that the apple pomace, the byproduct of juice production, is excellent for increasing of fibre content of bakery products and the further aim of investigation is to develop economical ways of hygienic byproduct handling and purification. Our experiments, evaluate the bakery use of triticale, have significant achievements and the breads made from triticale flour and whole-grain are commercially available nowadays. Our investigations included the possibilities of decrease of toxin contamination of cereals and our results can form a part of risk estimation systems after further experiments .

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The effect of climatic change on the rheological properties of winter wheat doughs
Published October 5, 2010

In present paper we have examined the effect of climatic change on the extensigraph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality
of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by weather conditions during growing period. Flours were from 5
cultivars grown at one location in three cropping years. We have... found that the extensigraph properties of dough are affected by the weather
conditions, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation. In generally, the
higher average day temperature and lower precipitation level is favourable to produce winter wheat flour with better quality

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Model Experiment Analysis of the Antioxidant Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Published July 16, 2007

Corn milled like flour was crumbled with 5% butter containing a high level of conjugated linoleic acid, then kept exposed to air on an aluminium tray at a layer of 1 cm thickness. Its acid number, peroxide number and fatty acid composition were measured weekly. It was established that during a 24 week long period, there was very little change i...n the composition of fatty acids, but after this, in parallel with the increasing acid number and peroxide number, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids decreased, while those values for saturated fatty acids did not change considerably. With these investigations, the authors proved the antioxidant effect of conjugated linoleic acid.

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Study of some cooking and eating quality characters on some Egyptian rice genotypes
Published April 23, 2014

Some Egyptian rice genotypes [i.e. Japonica (Sakha 104), Japonica/Indica (Egyptian hybrid1) and Indica (Giza 182)] were investigated to evaluate the cooking and eating quality characters. High significant differences in grain shape were observed among rice genotypes. Hulling, milling and head rice percentage were higher in Sakha 104 than other ...rice genotypes, while Indica type (Giza 182) recorded the lowest values in milling and physical characters. No significant differences were found in chemical composition of the three genotypes of rice was recorded, but Giza 182 had the highest protein content. All Egyptian rice genotypes were low in gelatinization temperature and soft in gel consistency. Japonica and Indica rice varieties were low in amylase content, while Japonica/Indica rice variety was intermediate. The use of RVA is considered a good index for palatability evaluation for milled rice flour and starch. The Indica and Japonica/Indica types are low in breakdown viscosity, but higher in cooked pasta than Japonica type. Japonica type recorded the best score in panel test, followed by Indica type, while Indica/Japonica rice variety was the least accepted by Egyptian consumer.

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Wheat cleaning and milling technologies to reduce DON toxin contamination
Published December 15, 2019

Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat.

The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON concentration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method.

Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.

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New possibilities to determine wheat quality parameters by near-infrared spectroscopy
Published December 15, 2010

Analyses and methods in wheat quality determination require more sample, time, work and cost, thatswhy flour quality control needs rapid, reliable tools. Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages, which make it suitable in quality control. NIR instruments need calibrations to their work. In our study we examined gluten content, falling num...ber, valorigrpahic waterabsorption, alveographic P/L and W value of wheat samples. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for each property. The results show that we got such calibration modells, which are able to predict the properties (expect falling number) with enough accuracy.

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The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
Published February 3, 2016

We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.

Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).

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Examination of extensographical parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour
Published November 2, 2009

In the trade of the European Union principally the analysis of alveographical and extensographical parameters mean the acceptance system.
In the present study we analysed the extensographical parameters of 10 winter wheat varieties breed by the Cereal Research Non Profit Company with Brabender extensigraph and we made a comparison, correlati...on among the results. The examinations with Brabender the following among: show the GK Kalász and the GK Élet varieties show high resistance of extension and the GK Petur variety produces high extensibility. The GK Garaboly has shown low extensibility and energy. The other parameters had different values in the examined three years. The measurings with SMS2 Texture Analyser show middle positive correlation between extensibility and subarea. There are weak correlation between at the significantial level in the 90, 135 resistence of extension by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser and in the 45 extensibility by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser of relaxed dough. There is no correlation among other parameters. 

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Examination of different grain hardness varieties of the grinding technology properties of wheat
Published September 5, 2018

In the mill industry, the purpose of the grinding technology is to separate wheat endospermium and shell and to recover grists. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is shredding. Flour quantity and quality produced from wheat depends on the variety of wheat that will be shredded, the type of grinding equipment and the... condition used before the grinding. For this reason, during my experiments, I ground two grain structured varieties of wheat in laboratory conditions using a disk grinder, stone grinder and roll grinder in air-dry and conditioned states. We measured the equipment’s performance and the produced grist’s particle size distribution, followed by the calculation of the energy requirements of the grinders. In the grinding experiments we compared the ash contents of the different particle sized grist’s fractions to map the wheat’s particular properties.

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Comparison of alveohraph and extensigraph properties of winter wheat samples
Published November 2, 2009

The rheological properties of dough are determined by the amount and proportion of gliadin and glutenin proteins. Extensibility and resistance to the extension of doughs which can be measured using the extensigraph or alveograph allow good assesment of the baking behavior under realistic conditions. In our study, we compared the extensigraph an...d alveograph parameters of 87 flour samples. The results showed that the alveograph parameters were different from the extensigraph parameters. The classification of wheat varieties was different, and the order of varieties, as well. The alveograph properties were affected by other factors than the extensigraph properties, except the W value. The two rheological tests did not give similar results, therefor neither test are replaceable.

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