No. 2 (2023)

Published December 1, 2023



  • Influence of temperature and variety on seed germination of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) at different germination times

    Seed germination is an important stage in crop development that affects plant performance, crop yield, and quality. Many factors influence seed germination, and one of the most important factors is temperature. The closer the temperature is to the optimum, the faster germination will occur. Temperature affects seed germination in various plants and varies depending on the variety. Therefore, the effect of temperature on seed germination is necessary to investigate, also for soybean varieties. Soybean is one of the world's most valuable oil-seed crops. Generally, proper seedling establishment and germination of soybean seeds are crucial processes in the survival and growth cycle of the crop. Thus, a study was done to investigate the influence of temperature and variety on soybean seed germination at different times after sowing. The experiment was carried out at the Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Crop Production Laboratory. Seeds of two soybean varieties were subjected to three different temperatures: 15, 25, and 35 °C, and two soybean varieties, Martina and Johanna were tested. There were four germination times based on the days after sowing: Days 3, 5, 7, and 9. This experiment was set up with a completely randomized block design and four replications. According to the findings of this study, the Martina variety showed a better germination rate as well as higher vigor and viability than the Johanna variety in the first 12 days after sowing. At temperatures of 15 °C and 25 °C, both varieties achieved comparable percentages of viability, but they were more vigorous at 25 °C due to better total seedling length. Thus, the information gained from this study will indirectly determine and confirm the proper temperature for the initial growth of the Martina and Johanna varieties.

  • Comparing the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in organic and conventional agriculture

    The European Green Deal was published by the European Commission in 2019. The main aim of the program is to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, making Europe the first climate-neutral continent in the world. To achieve this, criteria are also set for agriculture: increasing the share of land under organic farming to 25%, reducing the use of fertilisers and pesticides. However, the benefits of organic farming are widely debated. The aim of our study was to compare the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids bred in Martonvasar in two different cropping environments. The silage yields of 20 different maize hybrids were evaluated in a three replicate small plot experiment in an organic field and an adjacent conventional field. The average green mass yield of the hybrids was 36,58 t ha-1 in the organic field and 43,03 t ha-1 in the conventional. The green mass yield in the organic area was 20% lower than in the conventional area, and the dry matter yield and digestible dry matter yield were about 18% lower. Hybrids of different maturity groups responded differently to organic cultivation. The yields of early hybrids decreased more and late hybrids less in the organic farming compared to the conventional production.

  • Effect of sufficient and deficit irrigation with different salt inputs on the yield of cucumber

    Soil salinisation is considered one of the major environmental hazards threatening agricultural productivity and can be accentuated by climate change as well as the use of low-quality water in irrigation. This is the case in our study area which is affected by secondary salinisation due to the use of saline irrigation water for horticultural production. Deficit irrigation technique is implemented especially in arid and semiarid regions due to its potential to optimise water productivity while maintaining or increasing crop yield. The main objective of this study was to compare the effect of irrigation with sufficient (SD) and deficit (DD) doses. This research was carried out in Karcag in 2020. Cucumber was grown on a meadow chernozem soil and was irrigated with SD and DD of two irrigation water qualities. Soil moisture was monitored and crop yields were recorded. Despite the differences in quality and quantity of water, the application of less water by DD maintained the same yield as SD. We found a non-significant difference between the average soil moisture contents under the treatments (15.5 v/v% for SD and 13.5 v/v% for DD). Deficit irrigation can be an efficient technique due to its potential for improving water use efficiency, maintaining sufficient soil moisture content favourable for proper crop development and yield.

  • Overview of test methods used to classify wheat flour and bread samples – REVIEW

    In Hungary, common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare) is of good quality and world famous. In addition, it plays an important role in the human diet. The classification of flours ground from wheat is quite decisive and there are several methods for its examination. The most important flour testing requirements include moisture content, protein content gluten properties and the most important bakery value number. The measured characteristics give us the opportunity to conclude about the properties of the dough, and then bakery products. Several dynamic and static methods have been developed to study the physical properties of dough. The evaluation of products can be carried out in several respects with the help of a baking test. The multitude of methods currently used to qualify flour, dough and finished products also proves that the overview of the methods is quite topical.

  • The analysis of ostrich chick vitality

    Examinations on ostrich chick vitality can help to improve the effectiveness of Hungarian ostrich husbandry and hatching technology. The investigations were carried out on an ostrich breeder farm in Eastern Hungary. For the analyses, the Tona et al. (2003) scoring system was applied presenting eight main criteria (activity, feather, condition, eyesight, the condition of navel and leg, the amount of the remaining shell membrane and egg content, and the size and tenderness of the abdomen). Most chicks (98.08%) were vigilant and had clean and dry feathers. There was no difference between the average hatching weights between May and August but a decreasing tendency was shown during the laying season. The vitality total score was above 90 in each evaluated month and was not affected by the hatching month. Our results revealed that the vitality of chicks was not affected by either the hatching month (P=0.51) or the weight category (P=0.11). Neither the hatching weight of chicks and leg condition were correlated (P=0.79). Results showed that the Tona scoring system with small modifications can be well applied to ostrich chicks. Practical on-farm usage of the system can be suggested as an aid in day-old chick evaluation. After individual marking of chicks, the investigation of growth and culling rate could be carried out for more precise conclusions, involving more farms and laying seasons.

  • Study on the cold tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines in Phytotron

    Maize has come a long way from the tropics to the temperate zone. In the beginning, the spreading of maize was prevented by its sensitivity to cold. Improved cold tolerance at germination is one of the most important conditions for early sowing. The advantage of cold tolerant hybrids is that they can be sown earlier, allowing longer growing seasons and higher yields, due to the fact that the most sensitive period in terms of water requirements, flowering, takes place earlier, i.e. before the onset of summer drought and heat.

    In Martonvásár, continuous research is carried out to improve the cold tolerance of maize. In the present experiment, the cold tolerance of 30 genetically different maize inbred lines was investigated in a Phytotron climate chamber (PGV-36). The aim of our research is to identify cold tolerant lines that can be used as parental components to produce proper cold tolerant hybrids and/or as sources of starting materials for new cold tolerant inbred lines. After observing and evaluating changes in phenological traits under cold-test, the results of the cold-tolerance traits of interest have been used to highlight several inbred lines that could be good starting materials for further research on genetic selection for cold tolerance.

  • Influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the technological quality of wheat

    Wheat is one of the most grown crops around the world. Its primary use is in the production of bread, bakery, and confectionery. The provision of essential nutrients, mainly nitrogen, plays a pivotal role in the growth and development of wheat. The wheat varieties used in the experiment are Alfold and Mv. Menrot. The rates of nitrogen used in the experiment are: 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 kg N ha-1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on technological quality of wheat and to find the appropriate fertiliser rate to reduce pollution. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation did not show a significant effect on thousand kernel weight and test weight. However, nitrogen fertilisation significantly affected protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index, and the falling number. The higher the nitrogen fertilisation the better the technological quality parameters of the wheat. The protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index and the falling number were the lowest at 0 kg N ha-1 followed by 200 kg N ha-1 then 400 kg N ha-1 and the highest at 600 kg N ha-1.

  • Effect of ethephon levels and amino acids on the growth characteristics of oat crop

    A field experiment was conducted during the 2021-2022 season in an agricultural field in Basra Governorate. The aim was to study the effect of spraying ethephon and amino acids on the growth characteristics of oats (Avena sativa L.) Shifa cultivar. The experiment involved three levels of ethephon (0, 0.240, and 0.600 kg ha-1), represented by the symbols E0, E1, and E2 respectively, and two spray levels of amino acids (0 and 5 ml L-1), represented by the symbols A0 and A1. A factorial experiment was applied using the R.C.B.D (randomized complete block design) in a split plots arrangement with three replications. The results revealed significant differences in the levels of ethephon for most of the studied characteristics. The level of 0.240 kg ha-1 (E1) was superior in terms of chlorophyll content, crop growth rate, and the number of tillers, with increases of 39.07%, 39.26%, and 16.36%, respectively, compared to the control treatment (E0). Regarding the amino acids treatments, spraying at a concentration of 5 ml L-1 (A1) demonstrated significant superiority, resulting in the highest plant height, flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, and crop growth rate. This study concludes that amino acids play a crucial role in plant growth, and the combination of 5 ml L-1 amino acids with 0.240 kg ha-1 of ethephon significantly increased chlorophyll content and crop growth rate.

  • Landscape tools to support the educational use of school grounds

    Recent years have seen an increasing emphasis on child-friendly concepts in landscape architecture and urban planning, as well as a growing emphasis on school grounds and environmental education, both in terms of pedagogy and landscape design. School grounds provide places for active engagement with the environment, for experiencing what is taught in class, and, are therefore of particular importance for education and for building children's connection with nature. The aim of this research is to develop a set of landscape architecture tools that can be used to promote child-friendly and education-centered design of school grounds. The research collects and organises the different school ground features, drawing on literature research, and the analysis of the Framework Curriculum. The toolkit presented in this paper lists and evaluates each feature according to its function, its relevance to school subjects and the specific knowledge or skills it can help to acquire, its space requirements and feasibility. To conclude, school grounds offer opportunities for teaching almost any subject and can therefore be linked to educational activities in multiple ways. The results of this research are to be developed into design guidelines in order to be used by designers and teachers alike, to help develop school grounds contributing to the well-being and environmental awareness of new generations.

  • The potential of biological control on invasive weed species

    Sorghum halepense is one of the invasive species in Europe. This study was made to identify the morphology of fungi on invasive weed species samples on the roots of Sorghum halepense. The samples were collected in the region of Debrecen. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the microscopic form of fungi. The samples were put on PDA and for identification of fungi is based on the morphological characteristics of the features and colonies of conidia that were developed in Petri dishes.

    The examination of the culture revealed that the fungus from the root of Sorghum halepense was Aspergillus niger. Pathogenicity and the relationship between the fungus and Sorghum halepense are still uncertain so in the future pathogenicity tests and re-isolations from plants are very important steps.

  • Investigation of the impacts of the by-product of sewage treatment on some characteristics of maize in the early growth stage

    The use of sewage sludge on arable land has been widespread for many years. This by-product, treated as waste, can provide valuable nutrients to the soil, but the applied amount of sewage sludge to arable land is limited. The possibility of application of sewage sludge is essentially determined by the composition of the sludge. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate that the physiological, morphological, and biochemical parameters of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Armagnac) linearly change with increasing concentrations of sewage sludge (25%, 50%, and 75% as m/m%). The experiment was set up in a glasshouse. The following parameters were investigated: plant height, relative chlorophyll content, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids), and leaf proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and PS II quantum efficiency in the 3-leaf stages of the plants. Sewage sludge applied in lower doses had a beneficial effect on the initial growth of maize. The relative chlorophyll content was significantly higher in all treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference in the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II reaction centers among the treatments. In this experiment, different concentrations of sewage sludge treatments had different impacts on the MDA and proline content of maize leaves. The proline content was significantly higher in all treatments, while the MDA content did not change significantly compared to the control.

  • Global tendencies in turkey meat production, trade and consumption

    Global meat production totaled 357 million metric tons in 2021. Poultry accounted for nearly 40 percent of total meat production, including 4.2 percent of turkey meat (5.8 million tons). Global turkey meat production has stagnated between 5.5 and 6.0 million tons since 2008, in contrast to the monotonous upward trend in poultry meat production. Turkey meat production generally occurs under well-integrated conditions, with some large multinational companies and smaller, regional players. The industry is exposed to a number of factors that affect supply and demand, including disease outbreaks, government regulations, consumer preferences, and economic conditions. Key factors driving market growth include population growth, urbanisation, and increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits of turkey meat over other meats. In addition, advances in processing, packaging, and distribution technology have improved turkey meat's shelf life and availability, further fueling growth. Turkey farming and production are mainly concentrated in certain regions such as North America and Europe, where industrialisation has a long history and infrastructure is well developed. Turkey meat production in these areas is sufficient to meet local demand and is often exported to other regions. However, in other regions where turkey farming is less developed, such as parts of Asia and Africa, turkey meat production is insufficient to meet local demand. This type of meat must be imported from other regions. The degree of self-sufficiency in turkey meat depends on the level of development of the sector in each region. This study investigates the factors affecting global and regional markets for turkey meat and systematised the development of global consumption, production, and trade of turkey meat.

  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) harvest and plant replacement methods in aquaponia

    The aim of the study is to investigate the potential of basil leaf mass production under aquaponic conditions with different harvest and plant replacement methods. Aquaponics is a combination of soil-less crop production hydroponics and aquaculture and it is can use and clean the wastewater of intensive aquaculture systems. Three groups were established in the 6 units during the six-week harvest and seedling rotation cycles. Group 1 individuals remain in the units throughout the breeding season. Group 2 individuals were replaced every 12 weeks, while Group 3 individuals were replaced every six weeks, at the same time as harvest. Data from the experiment were analysed to determine how the harvest and replacement protocol of basil plants influences the amount of leaves harvested, the percentage of leaves harvested relative to the plant stem, and the changes in plant height, SPAD and NDVI during harvest and replacement. A continuously maintained and harvested healthy basil stock under aquaponic conditions can provide a consistent leaf mass all year round without the extra cost of replacing and producing seedlings.

  • Review on the fatty acid profile and free fatty acid of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Carp or ponty in Hungarian, is considered commercial freshwater fish, which is an adaptable species in both wild and cultured conditions. Carp has high nutritional value content, favorable taste, it is rich in protein, and low in saturated fat. The nutritional content in fish is composed of many chemical constituents and influenced by many factors. One of the components that its content may be different due to internal and external factors is fatty acids, which may vary depending on endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous or internal factors include the genetic, size, sexual maturity, and life cycle phase. While microclimate, water quality, quality of food or diet habit, and the amount of available food or starvation are considered as exogenous or environmental factors. Freshwater fish has the ability to convert essential fatty acid into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid like AA, EPA, and DHA. Most results showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the dominant SFA and MUFA in carp both for wild and farmed carp in all seasons. The PUFA for wild carp was mainly dominated by DHA, while on farmed carp by LA. It confirmed that high LA content in farmed carp was related to the diet habit. The amount of lipid and FA were changed in line with the season. Even the statistical analysis showed no significant difference, but some studies showed a contrasting result. Moreover, most obtained results acknowledged that FA tends to decrease during the spawning period. The amount and composition of FA were affected by the total lipid content. The lipid must be broken down into simpler compounds such as FA or FFA for the metabolism of fish. The result of metabolism then transported into the utilising tissue and used as energy.

  • Disease incidence of shot-hole disease of plum in two training systems

    Of the foliar diseases of European plum, Wilsonomyces carpopilus is the most commonly occurring fungal pathogen. The aim of this two-year study was to investigate the susceptibility of ‘Čačanska lepotica’ plum variety to shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) in two different training system with 4 x 1.5 m and 6 x 3 m tree spacings. The obtained results showed that the cultivar is susceptible to this disease and by the end of the vegetational period disease incident was above 50% in both years in both tree spacings. In 2018 disease incidence was higher in both spacing than in 2019, reaching almost 90% at the 4 x 1.5 m tree spacing plot. There were few significant differences between high and low density tree spacings. The results highlighted the importance of inoculum accumulation late in the season.

  • Application of mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria inoculations in the cultivation of processing tomato under water shortage

    The effect of mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on some physiological properties, yield and soluble solid content (Brix) of ‘Uno Rosso’ F1 processing tomato was studied under water scarcity. Inoculation was performed with mycorrhizal fungi (M) and rhizobacteria preparation (PH) at sowing (M1, PH1) and sowing + planting (M2, PH2). The treated and untreated plants were grown with regular irrigation (RI = ET100%), with deficit irrigation (DI = ET50%) and without irrigation (I0). In drought, the canopy temperature of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (M1, M2) decreased significantly, however, the decrease was small in those treated with the bacterium (PH1, PH2), while the SPAD value of the leaves of plants treated only with Phylazonit increased significantly. On two occasions, inoculations (M2, PH2) significantly increased the total yield and marketable yield, however, under water deficiency, a higher rate of green yield was detected than untreated plants. In dry year using deficit irrigation, the one-time inoculation (M1, PH1) provided a more favorable Brix value, while the double treatments reduced the Brix. In moderate water scarcity, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation (M2) is preferable, while under weak water stress, the use of rhizobacteria inoculation (PH2) is more favorable.

  • The impact of population management on urban and rural Hooded Crow populations

    Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), originally native to agricultural areas, has become widespread in urban areas in recent decades. However, this process has negative consequences on urban animals and humans. Due to these problems, the control of urban crow populations is needed. Crows also cause significant damage to wildlife management, and are constantly being controlled in rural areas as well. In this study, we compare rural and urban populations to find out whether hunting activities have a population reduction effect. In the rural population, the reduction is carried out by weapons and traps, while the urban crows are controlled using traps only. In both sample areas, crow nests were surveyed during the nesting period. 29 active nests were monitored in the rural area in 2021, and 39 in 2022. In the urban area, 44 nests were recorded in 2021 and 35 nests in 2022. In 2021, 30 individuals were removed in the rural area, and 84 in 2022. In the urban area, 223 individuals were removed in 2021 and 144 in 2022. Results show that the number of crows removed follows the number of active nests, so that the reduction of a given year is likely to have an effect on the following year's nesting population. Because traps mostly capture juvenile birds, reducing the breeding population in the city can only be achieved in the long-term. Considering this, it is likely that increased attention to population control can effectively maintain crow populations and reduce the problems they cause.

  • Growth and yield patterns of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) sample trees affected by site conditions: case studies

    The trees removed from the long-term experiment plots are available for the measurements as lying trees. Through the determination of the volume in sections along the stem, the stem form, the stem volume and other factors can be specified. The comparison of the stems of individual trees of first and third yield classes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands shows that site conditions have a main effect on the yield (mean tree volume). The difference can be as high as 53% at the age of 30 depending on the sites. To determine the growth patterns based on tree volume is rather a new approach in the light of the relevant literature. The obtained results also highlight the importance of choosing the appropriate tree species for a given site.

  • Impact of tillage systems on maize emergence

    In Europe, there has been a significant change in the way tillage is approached in recent years. This change is due to a growing awareness among farmers, politicians and society as a whole that soil is not a renewable resource in itself. From an agricultural point of view, the greatest impact on soil condition can be achieved through the use of the applied tillage systems.  My research takes this approach as a basis when examining the different tillage systems and their impact on the environment. In this context, conventional and a variety of no-tillage systems are examined in this paper. As a next step, it is examined how the environmental conditions created by the different tillage systems influence the emergence of maize hybrids. The analyses are carried out in a multi-factorial, long-term tillage field experiment. The same batch of the same hybrid seed was sown in several crop years, and the effects of environmental conditions on the emergence process were examined. Environmental effects and emergence-related uptake were measured in the examined plots. Measurements of environmental effects included air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature measured at seeding depth, as well as % cover of stem residue on the surface in the treated plots. The first emergence time measurements of the sown crop in the plots of each treatment were compared and relationships between these factors were investigated.

  • How have thermal conditions changed in different phenological stages of apple (Malus domestica) in Northeastern Hungary?

    In temperate climates, most fruit trees need cold weather, low temperatures in winter, and a certain amount of heat during the growing season until harvest. One of the most apparent effects of climate change is the elevated temperature in all seasons of the year. In our study, the changes in thermal conditions have been calculated in Hungary's most significant growing region of apples using the Chill Unit for winters and the Growing Degree Days for summers. The meteorological data were obtained from the gridded dataset of the Hungarian Meteorological Service on a 10 km × 10 km grid, so the whole studied area is well-covered over the last 50 years. The results show that the trees are more exposed to early budding than a few decades ago. Furthermore, the accumulated heat amount in summers has increased drastically, which may increase the heat stress and lead to higher yield losses.

  • Ecological value of wood energy plantations in the support of some animal groups

    Today, some environmental problems have reached such severe proportions that it is no longer enough to recognise them, but environmentally friendly solutions must be used to reduce them. The reduction in the area of natural forests of native species is causing problems in several ways.

    This research aimed to highlight how environmental, conservation and economic interests can be reconciled. In addition to natural forests, wood energy plantations are becoming increasingly important. Energy import dependency is a problem for most countries, for which wood energy plantations can partly offer an alternative. Native forests can be protected, and their area increased where possible. Meanwhile, energy plantations can be established in areas with low agricultural productivity.

    In this experiment, I studied a plantation of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur), a Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and a Paulownia (Paulownia Shan Tong). I selected burrowing birds and ground-dwelling arthropods as indicator groups. I did this by establishing a nesting colony and soil trapping. I wanted to demonstrate that, in addition to natural forests, wood energy plantations have a role not only in economic terms but also in maintaining certain animal groups. Soil trapping tests were carried out in all three tree plantations.

    The obtained results showed that in the Paulownia plantation, the occupancy rate of nest boxes was almost 100%, while in the Black Locust plantation it was around 30%. Among the species that occupied the nesting sites, the Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and the Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) were more abundant, while Great Tit (Parus major) was present in the Black Locust plantation. These are opportunistic species for which nesting opportunity is the most important factor, since their feeding area (in the case of the Common Starling and the Eurasian Tree Sparrow) is not typical of the nesting area. The soil trap investigations show that there are no significant differences in the composition of the arthropod group (beetles, spiders) in the study areas.

  • Investigation of the effect of allithiamine-enriched feed on the poultry gut microbiome composition and resistome

    Over the past 20–25 years, the poultry industry has evolved into a specific protein production system. However, the stress resulting from intensive rearing practices has led to numerous negative consequences, making the optimisation of livestock gut microbiome composition crucial for mitigating these effects. Advancements in modern molecular biology methods have brought attention to the impacts of nutrients on gut microbiota. In our study, we extensively investigated the changes induced by feed formulations rich in phytonutrients on the gastrointestinal microbiota of livestock using targeted 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our objective is to examine how the developed feed prototype affects the composition of core microbiomes in raised poultry, community diversity, and the resilience of complex microbial networks. We seek correlations between biological livestock and environmental samples to identify which community constituents, in what proportions and occurrences, may play a role in the development of specific diseases. Based on our measurement results, it can be asserted that allithiamine positively modulated "beneficial" community constituents. Beyond the impact of allithiamine-enriched feed rich in phytonutrients, the composition of the microbial community in the poultry gastrointestinal tract is significantly influenced by the age of the birds. Furthermore, due to the presence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens in environmental samples from livestock facilities, appropriate transmission risk management measures are of paramount importance.

  • Effect of Silver willow “Russian olive” (Elaeagnus angustifolia) on extensive sheep management

    We carried out a study in the Karcag Research Institute, which affected the areas of narrow-leaved silver willow. In the framework of this research, we performed Balázs's coenology, and thus established the degree of Borhidi degradation, which resulted in the fact that the areas of the silver willow were degraded practically irreversibly, the diversity of the grassland has decreased. We consider it very important to study these grassland areas of silver willows, as they can provide an additional fodder base for sheep grazing, which will also increase the sustainability of the grassland. The obtained soil analysis results show that the soil samples of the silver willow areas are richer in nitrogen (p-value: 0.006) and phosphorus (p-value: 0.003) than the examined control area.