No 27 (2007)

Published November 15, 2007

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Articles

Evaluation of KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2- DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extractants for estimating available Cu in soils
5-9

KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2-DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extraction
methods were compared to determine the plant available Cu
amounts in the soil samples. In the soil extracts, the amounts of
copper were measurable. In the buffered CaCl2-DTPA-TEA
extracts, data showed the lowest values.
On the applied soils, a corr...elation was observed between
plant removal and soil Cu using extractants mentioned above. The
closest correlation appeared in the case of sandy soils.
From the results of statistical analysis, it appears that soil
properties may play role in the efficiency of the extraction using
either CaCl2-DTPA or KCl-EDTA solutions.
To establish more reliable relations, further studies with
different types of soils are needed.

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Sequence stability at SSR, ISSR and mtDNA loci of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) from the middle ages
10-19

Seed remains of medieval millet, recovered from a 15th century layer (King’s Palace, Budapest, Hungary), showed reddish yellow grain color after rehydrating on tissue culture medium that was close to grain color of modern cultivar Omszkoje. aDNA of medieval c. millet was extracted successfully, analyzed and compared to modern common millets b...y ISSR, SSR, CAPS and mtDNA. Analyses of fragments and sequences revealed
polymorphism at seven ISSR loci (22 alleles) and at the 5S-18S rDNA locus of mtDNA. CAPS analysis of the 5S-18S rDNA fragment revealed no SNPs in the restriction sites of six endonucleases TaqI, BsuRI, HinfI, MboI, AluI and RsaI. Sequence alignments of the restriction fragments RsaI also revealed
consensus sequence in the medieval sample compared to a modern variety. Morphological characterization of twenty common millet (Panicum miliaceum L., 2n=4×=36) cultivars and landraces revealed four distinct clusters which were apparently consistent with the grain colors of black, black and brown, red, yellow, and white. In the comparative AFLP, SSR and mtDNA analysis modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ was used. AFLP analysis revealed that extensive DNA degradation had occurred in the 4th CENT. ancient millet resulting in only 2 (1.2%) AFLP fragments (98.8% degradation),
compared to the 15th CENT. medieval millet with 158 (40%) fragments (60% degradation) and modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ with 264 fragments (100%). Eight AFLP fragments were sequenced after reamplification and cloning. Microsatellite (SSR) analysis at the nuclear gln4, sh1, rps28 and rps15 loci of the medieval DNA revealed one SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the 29th position (A to G) of rps28 locus compared to modern millet.
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) fragment (MboI) amplified at the 5S-18S-rDNA locus in the medieval millet showed no molecular changes compared to modern millet. The results underline the significance of survived aDNA extraction and analysis of excavated seeds for comparative analysis and molecular reconstruction of ancient and extinct plant genotypes. An attempted phenotype reconstruction indicated that medieval common millet showed the closest morphological similarity to modern millet cultivar Omszkoje. 

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Effect of fertilization on the potentially mineralize N forms of soil of long term field experiment was set in an acidic sandy soil
20-24

The aim of this paper was to provide further information about the nitrogen mineralization processes of soil. A modified incubation technique was applied to establish the amount of easily soluble mineral and organic N forms during the incubation period. An acidic sandy soil was used for incubation, which was sampled from the „Westsik” long-...term field experiment. The incubation was carried out on fifteen selected soil samples which were received different treatments since the experiment was set up. 
From the obtained results, the amount of potentially mineralizable N and the mineralization rate constant were determined. Results of chemical analysis and biological interpretation of results are discussed.

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Managing the relationship between natural spawning areas on unprotected floodplains and on protected man-made fishponds
25-31

The economic land management of unprotected floodplain areas is possible only if considered jointly with protected floodplain areas, for which facility fisheries provide a solution. One solution could be that a part of the natural fish increment of the spawning-grounds on unprotected floodplains be raised in protected side fishponds and then la...ter sold. This kind of fishery utilization is also favourable from economic, conservationist and flood protection aspects.

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Examinations connected with productive life in Hungarian Holstein Friesian populations
32-39

In Hungary, an intensive dairy population has developed in the last few decades as the result of upgrading to Holstein-Friesian. Intensive milk production, adjusted with housing and feeding, unfavorably affected secondary traits. The number of days between two calvings has increased remarkably and productive lifetime has decreased drastically. ...In the interest of profitable milk production, it is important that cows should be able to stay in the herd as long as possible, in order to have great lifetime productivity.
The aim of this paper was to compare the production and pedigree of cows with eight or more lactations to cows which were culled after their first lactation.
It can be stated that cows with longer herd lives produced more milk in their first lactation than those which were culled after their first lactation. When analyzing the pedigree effect of sires, this could not be proven, although some bulls, mainly of Hungarian origin, appeared at a higher frequency. In the analysis of the effect of dams, it was found that many of the offspring of the cows with longer herd lives had similarly great lifetime productivity. Correlation between herdlife and milk production quantity traits was found to be mild or stronger (r>0,60), while according to our analysis, there is no correlation between herdlife and milk production quality traits.

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Determining factors of test weight in maize (Zea mays L.)
40-42

Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for thi...s reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.

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Investigation of directions of crossing in maize (Zea mays L.)
43-48

In Hungary, we examined eight features of twelve direct cross hybrids over a period of three years. The twelve hybrids were derived from direct and reciprocal crosses of four parental lines. We did not find significant differences in the cases of stalk diameter and leaf number in the average of 3 years in any of the hybrids. Statistically expla...inable differences in primary branches were observed in hybrids UDH5 and UDH8 and also in UDH6 and UDH11. It was evident in both instances that degrees of heterosis in reciprocal crosses far exceeded those of direct ones. High tassel branch number was dominant over the low one; consequently, parents with higher tassel numbers enforced their effects during the formation of this trait in hybrids. We experienced positive correlation (r=0.67**) between plant height and main ear height. A positive correlation (r=0.89**) was also found between the tassel length of the main axis above the lowest and the upper side branch. We observed a medium correlation (r=-0.42**) between the number of primary lateral branches and plant height. The number of primary lateral branches showed the highest heterosis. These results can be utilized in practical selection and seed production.

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Results of fast neutron induced mutations in M1 and M2 generations of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour)
49-54

Due to climatic barriers, the genetic variability of Sorghum varieties decreases away from the gene centre, therefore hybrids cultivated in Hungary are restricted to a relatively limited genetic basis. This limited genetic basis results in a lower rate of genetic improvement, so the genetic basis of cytoplasm factors are to be extended. We enha...nced the diversity of primary materials by fast neutron treatment. As a result of this treatment we detected sterile, deformed specimens with double panicles in the stock treated with a dose of 12.5 Gy in the M1 generation. Agronomically useful
specimens were found in the stock treated with 10 Gy and 7.5 Gy doses, where the leaf area index (LAI) and Harvest- index gave higher values than those of the control group. In the stock treated with 5 Gy dose, variations were less significant. In the reseeded M2 generation we detected albino specimens with extreme chlorophyll defects in the 10 Gy Zádor stock.

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Foliar treatments of Sugar beet
55-59

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments. 

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Microsatellite Diversity of Androgenic Black Poplar (Populus nigra)
60-67

Genetic variation of somatic clones (1 to 35) of black poplar (Populus nigra) developed from two anther-donor trees N-SL and N-309 was determined by five SSR primer pairs. Twenty SSR alleles were detected, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1 to 6, with an average of 3.3 including WPMS-2 (5 alleles), WPMS-4 (6 alleles), WPMS-6 (2 alle...les), WPMS-20 (6 alleles) and PTR-4 (1 allele) detected by ALF (automatic laser fluorometer). A
dendrogram produced by SPSS11 based on the presence versus absence of SSR alleles discriminated the groups of somatic clones of N-SL from somatic clones of N-309. The polymorphic markers of WPMS-2 (5 alleles), WPMS-4 (6 alleles) and WPMS-20 (6 alleles) revealed clonal variation in 1 clone (37) out of the 6 from the N-309 tree, and three subgroups out of the 29 somatic clones from the N-SL tree (17 and 24), (2 and 14) and (10 and 15). The remaining 23 of the 29 N-SL somatic clones with uniform genetic similarity suggests a good degree of genetic stability in black poplar. Nevertheless, the new SSR-clones may provide useful new genetic resources for poplar breeding. 

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The stinging nettle as an alternative food crop
68-70

Vegetables play an important role in human health and have an important effect on the human diet. It is equally serious to improve the volume, the diversity and the year round equability of vegetable consumption. The stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is an alternative vegetable crop and available from the beginning of Spring to the end of Autu...mn; therefore, it can improve both the diversity and the equability of vegetable consumption. The stinging nettle has a superb nutritive value, it is a prospinach and it can be cooked in many ways.

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Application of microsatellite fingerprints for pedigree analysis of Hungaricum grapevine varieties
71-77

the Carpathian Basin were involved into our examination, which aimed at genotyping their accessions. DNA fingerprints of 101 varieties were determined with 6 microsatellite markers till 2005, resulting in successful discrimination of the accessions. Based on these results for pedigree determination, even more cultivars and primers were involved... into the analyses. For studying the origin of Csabagyöngye and for proving the parent-progeny relations of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály, 19 microsatellite markers were applied, while 11 were selected for tracing the origin of Királyleányka. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated with cluster analysis and demonstrated by dendrogram, proving that the varieties can be discriminated from each other based on the microsatellite allele sizes. Pedigree of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály has been confirmed by microsatellite allele size results, searching for the parents of Csabagyöngye and Királyleányka is in progress, since the molecular-marker based pedigree does not correspond with the putative origin of these cultivars. Our results excluded progeny-parent relationships in the
Csabagyöngye-Bronnerstraube-Muscat ottonel (Ottonel muskotály) and the Királyleányka-Kövérszőlő combinations. 

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DHAC-induced transgene overexpression in 35S-gshI GMO poplar (Populus × canescens)
78-83

Relative gene expression levels of transgene gshI (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase cloned from E. coli) were analyzed by qRT-PCR in two transgenic poplar (Populus × canescens) clones (11ggs and 6lgl) and wild type (WT). An extremely high expression level of transgene gshI was observed in the 6lgl clone (13.5-fold) compared to 11ggs (1.0) sample...s, which level was doubled (1.8-fold) in the DHAC (5.6-dihydro-5'-azacytidine hydrochloride) treated (at 10-4 M for 7 days) 6lgl samples but not in the 11ggs clone (0.4-fold). Contrary to this result, relative copy number of transgene gshI in the 6lgl clone was found to be less 60% less (1.0) then in the 11ggs samples (1.6). Relative expression levels of proper poplar gene gsh1-poplar showed significantly higher responsiveness to DHAC treatment than transgene gshI with the highest expression level in the untransformed (WT) poplar
clone (19.7-fold) compared to transformed 6lgl (8.7-fold) and 11ggs (2.5-fold) clones. For internal controls constitutively expressed housekeeping genes a-tubulin were applied. For data analysis, the 2−ΔΔCt method was used. DHAC applied in long-term cultures (27 days) at low concentrations (10-8 – 10-6 M) showed morphogenetic activity by initiating de novo root development of leaf discs.

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Morphological diversity of current melons (Cucumis melo) compared to a medieval type
84-90

Morphological diversity of melon (Cucumis melo); phenotype reconstruction of a medieval sample. Morphological diversity among 47 melon (Cucumis melo) cultivars and landraces from Hungarian germplasm collection (ABI, Tápiószele) were analyzed with an ultimate aim to characterize morphologically cv. Hógolyó, which showed the closest genetic s...imilarity to a medieval melon recovered from the 15th century. Cultivars based on fruit morphology were grouped into the three main types of melon as reticulatus, cantalupensis and inodorus. Cluster analysis (by SPSS-11) based on 23 morphological (quantitative and qualitative) traits recorded revealed an extreme diversity among accessions, nevertheless cultivars were clustered into main melon clusters with only two exceptions of inodorus type cv. Zimovka J. and Afghanistan. Cultivars Sweet ananas and Ezüst ananász; and  two Hungarian landraces Kisteleki and Nagycserkeszi showed close similarity. Cultivars Hógolyó and Túrkeve of inodorus type
were also grouped in one cluster, which provide insight into the morphological reconstruction of the medieval melon recovered from the 15th century. These results also indicate that old Hungarian landraces could be re-introduced into breeding programs for broadening genetic base of melon.

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Isolation of promoters of tissue and ripening-specific strawberry genes by TAIL-PCR and bioinformatic characterization of the sequences
91-99

Isolation of ripening- and tissue-specific promoters has become a very important subject of the genetic regulation and plant physiology research in recent years. It could be possible to reveal the regulation of gene expression, and it may be a very useful approach in the biotechnology. In our work, we have isolated promoter regions of genes exh...ibiting ripening- and tissuespecific expression in our previous experiments, and the data were
characterized by bioinformatic methods. In the sequence of the ripening-specific Spatula and ACC-oxidase promoters (ACCoxidase is one of the key-enzymes of ethylene biosynthesis, directly related to the process of ripening); we could identify auxin- and ethylene-related cis-regulatory elements. This suggests that there is an interaction between ripening and ethylene-synthesis, in case of non-climacteric strawberry, too. We investigated the promoter regions of three green receptacle-specific genes (putative nitrilaselike protein, Ring transcription factor and an aquaporin protein)
and we could identify several regulatory elements, which refer to hormonal regulation. Additionally, we could find several cisacting elements which associated with stress-responsiveness and endospermium-specific expression. 

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Selection of powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes with molecular markers
100-104

Incorporation of competitive quality and resistance against the most important fungal diseases (powdery and downy mildew) in a cultivar is one of the most important aims of grapevine breeding. In the 20th century, the most advanced results in grapevine resistance breeding were achieved by French researchers. They used resistant cultivars in mor...e than 30% of their growing areas. In these varieties, North American wild Vitis
species were the resistance gene sources. The discovery of immunity-like resistance of Muscadinia rotundifolia opened new perspectives in resistance breeding. M. rotundifolia harbours a dominant powdery mildew gene, providing resistance in highquality cultivars after back-crosses with V. vinifera varieties. M. rotundifolia has been involved in the Hungarian grape breeding programs since 1996, thanks to a French-Hungarian variety exchange. In addition to traditional selection methods, application of MAS (Marker Assisted Selection) based on various types of
molecular markers, can provide additional tools for these efforts. Run1 locus, responsible for powdery mildew resistance, was identified in Muscadinia rotundifolia. Molecular markers closely linked to this locus are very significant in screening progenies deriving from M. rotundifolia and V. vinifera crosses, making possible the discrimination between resistant and susceptible genotypes at DNA level. In our analyses BC5 progeny of {(M. rotundifola×V. vinifera) BC4}×Cardinal (V. vinifera) tested for powdery symptoms were analysed with PCR-RFLP (GLP1- 12P1P3) and microsatellite markers (VMC4f3.1, VMC8g9). Our results proved the applicability of the linked markers and reliability of marker assisted selection.

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Gene resources for improvement of drought tolerance and yield quality in dry pea breeding
105-111

The effectiveness of selection for improved drought tolerance and consumption quality in the progeny of crosses between pea cultivars with semi-leafless (afila) and normal leaves and different origins, respectively, were investigated. After single crosses, parent cultivars and F1, F2 and F3 generations were grown under non-irrigated conditions ...in the same trials. We created a colour scale from 1 to 9 to measure statistically the shade of seed colour. The tolerance of genotypes against high temperature was measured by the number of pods per plant. The 3:1 segregation
observed in the F2 generation of crosses between semi-leafless and conventional cultivars indicated that the semi-leafless character is determined by a recessive gene. In contrast, the ratios of conventional (Af) and semi-leafless (af) genotypes were 7:1 and 9:1 ratio in the progenies of crosses of Af × af. The genetic progress was effective for improving the seed quality in F3 generation from crosses Af x af where we found that multiple
dominant alleles controlled the orange colour of cotyledons and its high heritability (h2 A=0,63). Selection is more effective in producing the genotypes with high yield and normal leaves if the crosses were made between the western European cultivars such as semi-leafless Profi and Delta used as maternal cultivars and conventional Auralia cultivars. In this case, there were decreases in the consumption quality, such as seed size and shade of colour. The selection based on the seed weight of single plants for increasing drought tolerance seemed to be more effective in F4
strains with normal leaves originated from Czechoslovakian maternal cultivar Y228; however, the genetic progress in the improvement of seed size and colour quality was slow. 

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Examination of two artichoke cultivars under single year Hungarian climate conditions
112-115

Based on the results of a previous experiment, we concluded that by choosing a suitable cultivar, it is possible to produce artichoke in a one-year cultivation system in Hungarian weather circumstances. The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the performance of two Californian artichoke cultivars (Green Globe, Imperial Star) ...under the local conditions. Experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003, by using four
different sowing and two different planting dates (03.01. and 03.20. – planting 05.07.; 04.24. and 05.06. – planting 06.12.). For both cultivars, 100% of the plants initiated buds. In most of the cases, Imperial Star produced higher total and marketable yields than Green Globe did, while it formed bigger and more uniform buds. Our opinion is that the main reason for this result was that Imperial Star tolerated the dry and warm Hungarian summer much better. Irrespective of the variety by earlier sowing dates higher total yield was achieved. Based on our results, we found that under Hungarian circumstances, both cultivars could produce acceptable total yields. However, the weather circumstances of the given year influenced bud quality, and thus marketable yield, to a great extent. 

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Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production
116-119

Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas othe...r substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.

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SNP analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA loci in modern and ancient melons (Cucumis melo)
120-124

ITS (internal tanscribed spacer) profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains extracted from an extinct sample recovered from the 15th century (Budapest, Hungary) were compared to 31 modern melon cultivars and landraces. An aseptic incubation followed by ITS analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated (Asper...gillus) medieval seeds and to detect SNPs in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs were observed at the 94–95 bp (GC to either RC, RS or AG) of ITS1; and at 414 bp (A-to-T substitution), 470 bp (T to Y or C), 610 bp (A to R or G) of ITS2. The results facilitate the final aim of molecular and morphological reconstructions of ancient melon tpyes.

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Sequence heterogeneity of nSSR and cpDNA loci of Cucurbits (Citrullus sp.)
125-134

The evolution of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) microsatellites from the 15th century (Debrecen); 13th (Buda); and 18th century, (Pannonhalma) were analyzed. Microsatellite (nSSR, nuclear simple sequence repeat) and cpDNA profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains were compared to modern water melon cultivars and landraces. Sixteen pri...mer pairs were applied. Sequence analysis at the (CT)26 and cpDNA trnV loci revealed a (CT)3 and Adenin deletions, respectively, form the current water melon cultivar compared to the medieval sample. Cila-1), a new LTR retrotansposon has been described. For morphological reconstruction, a dendrogram produced by SPSS11 based on the presence versus absence of 24 phenotypic characters were also analyzed.

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Optimalization of nutrient supply and row space in the growing of annual caraway
135-138

Concerning the nutrient supply, it was found that the highest crop was produced with the N80K0 treatment (81.38 g m-2). The K application resulted in a decrease in crop yield. The highest crop yield per plant was found in plots with 48 cm row space. The best germination was reached in the plots with 48 cm row space (73%).
If the l...evel of K was elevated, the essential oil content increased. The maximum essential oil content was reached by treatment N0K80 (2.6284 ml 100 g sza.-1). The composition of essential oil was influenced both by the nutrient supply and by the growing area. Increasing the row space the ratio of d-carvone decreased. The amount of d-carvone was uniquely increased by use of K. The highest carvone level (66.25%) was identified at the N80+70K80 treatment as an average of row spaces.

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Hydro-cultural growing of cut flower in greenhouse
139-146

The closed system hydro-cultural growing is environmentfriendly,  the chemical fertilizer used for nourishing material supply does not contaminate the soil water and it is possible to eliminate the chemical materials accumulating during the disinfection of the soil getting into the environment. It can be mechanized and regulated well so th...e optimum growing conditions can be fixed for the plant and as a consequence higher yield can be reached both for the carnation and for Zantedeschia and for Rosa. Growing method with saving both the nourishing material and the water. Taking all the above into consideration timing is easier and better, it can be programmed better than the traditional chemo-cultural growing.

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Studying of quality parameters of Hungarian and Greek honey samples
147-153

Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality c...ontinuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.

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Theoretical Basics of Internal Auditing at Public Administration Institutions
154-159

In the past months, in the time of the reforms of the new millennium, the modernisation and transformation of the public sphere have been a constant issue in Hungary due to globalisation and the country’s accession to the European Union. The provision of transparency and comparability is required from each member state by the challenges of gl...obalisation, legal harmonisation and the unification process. That is why it is essential to harmonise and adjust to one another the internal and external auditing systems of public institutions on the levels of both the institutions and sectors. The study reviews the theoretical foundations and basic principles of the public institutions’ internal auditing system, as well as it aims to provide an overall picture of the legal background of the auditing system and its changes. By including the main principles, standards and the most important regulations, the study’s informative approach aims to assist anyone interested in the further and deeper research into the subject.

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Simulation of optimizing decisions and risk analysis in investment plans
160-164

Investments always contain risks, as data referring to the future are planned and uncertain. Therefore, besides feasibility analyses we need to perform risk analyses, as well. Through statistic simulation methods, our aim is to examine how uncertain and prospective data as risk factors affect investment-profitability indices. On the other hand,... our aim is to find out the optimal innovation – financing decisions by using decision optimizing
methods.

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Clusteranalysis as a swine farm qualifying method
165-174

Cluster Analysis is one of the most favorite multivariable statistical methods, which is actually a special type of aggregating method. Observations are clustered by variables belonged to the observations. Our purpose is to create such clusters, in which the elements are the most similar, and between the clusters they are the most variant. For ...example these clusters could be the qualitative classifications of farms.
There have been several methods in Cluster Analysis as well as numerous distance measures, which could be used. In this article, we study all of these methods and measures. After we show the theoretical background, we apply the method in a given casestudy to control the qualitative classifications of experts. In this study, we use both the hierarchical and the non-hierarchical method, and also compare them. We would like to attract the attention that the most important problem of the analysis is to determine the optimal of clusters.

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When and what quantity shall we buy? Optimal cereal – acquisition strategies
175-181

For farm products, it is typical that goods appear in a certain period of time in gross; therefore, from the viewpoint of forestallers/users, it is an important question how much and when to buy and for growers how much and when to sell. Among the costs that have affects on income, we have to emphasize stockkeeping costs (i.e. cost of tied-up c...apital, ordering costs) and acquisition costs. The last one is very important, because we can
notice great divergences in prices for cereals associated with the significant seasonal factors for a given year, so acquisition prices affect substantially the evolution of our costs.
We can establish the strategies in two steps: setting up 2 models and interconnecting them. One means the strategies that differ from each other in ordering quantities and these comparative analyses. This model contains the analyses of seasonal effects and also the results that we apply in the model. The other one is a dynamical mathematical programming model which – by considering alternative investments – helps us to choose from the strategies in the previously mentioned model that one, which assures us maximum income. 

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Open Method of Coordination in the European research policy
182-187

Research, development and innovation (R+D) are of great importance nowadays as regards the competetiveness and economic growth of any given country. In the European Union the Lisbon Strategy considers R+D as a crutial means to enhance european competetiveness. The EU is substansially lagging behind its main competitors (USA, Japan) in this doma...in, furthermore developing countries (China, India) have recently been making
great progress, thus posing additional challanges to our continent.  The EU needs to assess the present situation as soon as possible and meet the latest challenges in the most efficient way. In order to achieve this objective, the concept of the European Research Area (ERA) has been elaborated with the aim of reorganising, regrouping and integrating existing structures. The open method of coordination (OMC) is playing an important role in the implementation of this common area. It constitutes an alternative policy-making merthod to pure „intergovernmentalism” and the
„community method”. The OMC in the field of research policy is coordinated by the Scientific and Research Committe (CREST), which provides a forum for member states to share their experience and reach their common goals.

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Food Safety in EU Higher Education
188-197

Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In ...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary. 

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CO2 Emission trade in the European Union and Hungary
198-203

The environmental policy of the European Union focuses on decreasing emission of greenhouse gases. However there is no knowledge about the effect and the operation of the environmental economic methods which could efficiently influence this process. Therefore, practical emission trade was investigated. Recently, the commerce of AUEs started to ...change in Hungary, as well. Most transactions are made by a broker. Electronic commerce, which can be made with or without a broker, is spreading. The benefit of this form is that it is simple and cheap, in spite of the entrance fee of the stock exchange. This study could help to utilize carbon quotas in different types of commerce.

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Examination of the angle position on the cone dispenser
204-207

The most important distributing construction of small plot seed-drills and fertiliser dispensers is the cone dispenser. The cone dispenser can operate based on simple gravity or with an Oyjord-type cone-cell or Hege-type cone-belt structure. The unevenness of spreading of each type is significantly influenced by the aberration of the vertical a...ngle position of the cone dispenser. An approximate method was improved modelling of the fault of the cone dispenser. In my article, I will provide information about the essence of the model and its derivations.
On the model, I cover the cone piston with a theoretical net and at random scale between each scale interval I count the forces acting on the grain and the movement of the grain. If I set the scale of the net close enough, with good proximity, I get the whole orbit. The unevenness of dispensing can be calculated from the position of the grains getting to the bottom of the cone in case of different geometric data. My measurements imply that an approximate method is able to model both the tendency and the value of the deviation caused by the fault of the angle position. Both the theoretical model and the measurement prove that 2-3° deviation results in significant change in the unevenness of dispensing.

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Agricultural Biotechnology MSc. course and agriculture in the 21st century
208-214

The establishment of an Agricultural Biotechnology MSc. course creates a new direction in Hungarian higher education. As an introduction, the article summarizes the main theoretical and practical possibilities and results of biotechnology which have necessitated launching the course. Subsequently, the preliminaries, aims and requirements of the... Masters course are introduced. The main data of the agricultural MSc course at Szent István University in Gödöllő (Hungary) are the following: 4 semesters, 120 credits, 1200 contact hours, 4 weeks training in a biotech laboratory, 6 fundamental subjects, 8 basic subjects in biotechnology. Plant and animal biotechnology, are the two options for specialization and both have 10 separate professional subjects. The teaching staff consists of 34 teachers (93% of them have PhDs or higher scientific degrees) from 10 Departments of 3 Faculties of Szent István University.

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Heat treatment and microbial digestion of poulty feather for biogas production
215-219

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feathers for biogas production. Feathers were treated at 70, 100, 140 °C, and subsequently digested by Bacillus licheniformis, or keratin disintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of p...arameters influencing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature,
feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments, as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dynamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extinction level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolysis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. Regarding the pretreatments at 70, 100 and 140 °C, the digestion of feather was the most intensive at 70 °C. The most extensive digestion was observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion was
detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.  

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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