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Organogenesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Embu) as affected by antibiotics and growth regulators
Published August 14, 2002

The influence of antibiotics (cefotaxime, timentin, kanamycin and hygromycin) and growth regulators (indolacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine) was evaluated on eggplant organogenesis. Solanum melongena hypocotyl segments (6 to 10 mm length), taken from 16 to 20-days in vitro grown seedlings, were used as explants. The basic medium was ...composed by MS salts, Gamborg vitamins and 2% sucrose, solidified with agar 0.8% and pH adjusted to 5.7±0.2. Morphogenesis was impaired at 50 to 100 mg L-I kanamycin and 7.5 mg L-1 hygromycin. Both Timentin and cefotaxime reduced the frequency of regenerating explants meanwhile hyperhydricity was not affected. A decrease in root regeneration was observed with increasing cefotaxime concentrations, although, timentin had no effect on root regeneration, as compared to the control treatment. Interestingly, the number of adventitious roots was more noticeable at 0.25 mg L-I IAA plus 0.5 mg L-1 BAP. However, if just IAA was added led to higher number of regenerated roots compared to other treatments.

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In vitro regeneration from cotyledons of watermelon
Published August 23, 2000

Cotyledonary segments of five different genotypes of watermelon were used to induce organogenesis. Five different hormone combinations were applied to enhance the induction of shoot formation on the surface of the segments. The phases of organogenesis were followed with light and scanning electron microscope. Shoots were obtained after four wee...ks, then the shoots were transferred to hormone free medium for root induction.

This method of regeneration can be applied in transformation experiments. GUS histochemical assay was made to check the expected success of using Agrobacterium for the transformation.

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Shoot induction and plant regeneration from cotyledon segments of the muskmelon variety "hógolyó"
Published May 24, 1999

Cotyledonary segments of the casaba type muskmelon variety "Hógolyó" were used to induce organogenesis. Fifty different hormone combinations were applied to enhance the induction of shoot formation on the edge of the segments. The phases of organogenesis were followed with light- and scanning electron microscope. Shoot induction was achieved ...with high frequency. The shoots were transferred to hormone free media for root induction. The rooted plantlets were planted out to soil.

NAA was feasible and the method can be applied in transformation experiments.


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Study of genetic transformation efficiency via organogenesis and embryogenesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Embti): effects of co-culture, temperature and kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection procedures
Published October 16, 2002

The effects of kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection and co-culture temperature ranging from 22 to 28 °C upon eggplant transformation efficiency were evaluated. Both morphogenic pathways, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, were adopted using cotiledonary and hypocotyl explants, respectively. Somatic embryos were recovered in the prese...nce of both antibiotics, although lesser escapes were observed in hygromycin-supplemented medium. Indeed, selection provided by this antibiotic was more efficient compared to kanamycin, nevertheless, shoot regeneration was not observed with hygromycin. Significant difference on the frequency of cotiledonary explants displaying callus (FEC) was observed as embryogenesis was concerned, although a higher number of embryos was observed in hygromycin selective media. The frequency of explants presenting callus (FEC), embryos (FEE) and shoots or buds (FERG) did not differ statistically for the tested co-culture temperatures, although higher regenerant number was observed at 24 °C.

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Genetic engineering of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for resistance to fungal diseases using g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)
Published April 22, 2014

In the present study, g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida coding for 2-pyrone synthase which contribute for fungal and insect resistance was used. The aim was to work out an efficient approach of genetic transformation for apple cvs. ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘MM111’, ‘M26’ rootstocks for improving their fungal resistance... using genetic engineering techniques. Adventitious shoot formation from leaf pieces of apples studied was achieved using middle leaf segments taken from the youngest leaves from in vitro-grown plants.
Optimum conditions for ‚direct’ shoot organogenesis resulted in high regeneration efficiency of  0%, 95%, 92%, 94% in the studied apples respectively. Putative transgenic shoots could be obtained on MS media with B5 Vitamins, 5.0 mg l-1 BAP, or 2.0 mg l-1 TDZ with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA in the presence of the selection agent “PPT” at 3.0-5.0 mgl-1. Shoot multiplication of transgenic shoots was achieved on: MS + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg l-1 BAP + 0.3 mg l-1 IBA, 0.2 mg l-1 GA3+1.0 g/l MES+ 30 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l Agar, with the selection agent PPT at 5.0 mg l-1 and were subcultured every 4 weeks in order to get sufficient material to confirm transformation of the putative shoots obtained. Six, seven, one and six transgenic clones of the apples studied respectively have been obtained and confirmed by selection on the media containing the selection agent “PPT” and by PCR analysis using the suitable primers in all clones obtained for the presence of the selection” bar gene (447 bp) and the gene-of- interest “g2PS1” (1244 bp), with transformation efficiency of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.1% and 0.3% respectively. These transgenic clones were multiplied further in vitro in the presence of the selection agent ‘PPT’ and rooted in vitro. Rooted transgenic plantlets were successfully acclimatized and are being kept under-containment conditions according to the biosafety by-law in Syria to evaluate their performance for fungal resistance .

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Study of different factors of grapevine regeneration systems and genetic transformation
Published December 8, 2008

The most limitating factor for successful transformation is the absence of high-yielding regeneration protocols. However, the anther-derived embryogenic culture is an optimal technique for genetic transformation and it has been widely applied in many important cultivars, but the necessity of further development of regeneration systems has been ...proved. We attempted to produce somatic embryos on a wide range of genotypes from various tissues; leaves, petioles, stem segments. We started the examination of grapevine regeneration via organogenesis, succeeded in inducing shoot from the meristematic tissue of the base of bud by testing induction medium contained different concentrations of two types of hormones. To optimize the conditions of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we studied the effectiveness of different Agrobacterium-treatments, the use of antioxidants and the sufficient quantity of kanamycin for selection of transformed cells.

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Resistance gene Sw-5 of tomato confers resistance to TCSV in Solanum melongena
Published September 26, 2006

Eggplants transformed with Sw-5 gene, regenerated by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, were resistant to the Tomato chlorotic spot virus, while wild plants did present systemic infection. TO plants were selfed and the segregation analysis of T1 and T2 generation indicated the existence of one or more i...nsertion sites. Southern blot analysis confirmed one or two independent insertions in T2 plants. Different lesions associated with the insertion number were observed in TI and T2 plants. T2 plants with two copies displayed faster hypersensitive reactions and characteristic necrotic lesions that contrasted with slower responses and necrotic ring lesions in plants with one copy. These results suggest that the Sw-5 confers resistance to tospovirus in transgenic eggplants and that the resistant phenotype depends on the number of transgene copies.

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Effects of different cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from apple leaves of 'Royal Gala' and 'M.26'
Published March 16, 2004

The effects of different types of cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from leaf explants of apple scion 'Royal Gala' and apple rootstock 'M.26' were evaluated. Regeneration media contained either thidiazuron, or 6-benzylaminopurine, or meta-topolin, or zeatin, or kinetin, or their N9-ribosides, respectively, in the concentration 0.5 to 8.0 mg 1-1. Effects of 'these cytokinins were evaluated on the percentage of regeneration (R%) and that of vitrification (V%) and on the number of regenerated shoots per explant (SN). Organogenetic index (0I) calculated from these data was used for the evaluation of efficacy of cytokinins. The course of shoot organogenesis also was followed using stereomicroscope. Types and concentrations of cytokinins applied in the regeneration media influenced each parameter significantly and the regeneration answer was strongly genotype-dependent. The best regeneration (SN: 11.08, 01: 7.5) was achieved in `Royal Gala' by using TDZ in concentration of 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.271,1M). There was a clear relationship between the effect on the regeneration efficacy and the chemical structure of cytokinins considering classical cytokinins, namely N9-ribosides applied in less concentration than non­ribosides have the same or best regeneration effects except for 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. However, similar relationship could not be detected in the case of 'M.26'. SN was the highest (3.22) using 6.5 mg 1-1 (18.2011M) 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or 8.0 mg 1-1 (21.44 µM) meta-topolin riboside (3.18). SN was not significantly lower (3.12) by using 2.0 mg 1-1 (9.08 1M) TDZ, however, OI was about half as big (0.63 compared to 1.29 or 1.74 with 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or meta-topolin riboside, respectively). 'Royal Gala' had higher organogenetic ability, than `M.26': 3.5-fold higher shoot number per explant and more than 4-fold higher organogenetic index was reached with this cultivar than with 'M.26'. Moreover, the similar developmental stage of shoots could be observed 3-5 days earlier than in 'M.26' and if explants of 'Royal Gala' were further cultured with 3 weeks, SN increased from 11.08 to 24.42 on TDZ-containing regeneration medium, which might suggest higher organogenetic ability, too.

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