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Cracking susceptibility evaluation of some stone fruit species (Sour cherries – Prunus cerasus L.; Sweet cherries – Prunus avium and European plums – Prunus domestica L.) grown in Hungary
Published April 22, 2014
45-54.

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).

Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.

Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.

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The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published May 18, 2005
7-21.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.

The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The respons...e of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.

However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.

The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.

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83
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Review on rain induced fruit cracking of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.), its causes and the possibilities of prevention
Published June 20, 2006
27-35.

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious and costly problem for cherry growers. Cracked fruits lose their value and they are not marketable because of the poor fruit quality. Cracked fruits have different storage diseases and shorter storage and shelf life.

There are many influencing factors of the cherry fruit cracking such as...: water uptake; fruit characteristics (fruit size, fruit firmness; anatomy and strength of the fruit skin, stomata in fruit skin, cuticular properties, osmotic concentration, water capacity of the fruit pulp, growth stage of the fruit,); orchard temperature and other environmental conditions;

The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the cherry growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways against the Lim induced fruit cracking.

Several calcium formulas: calcium chloride (CaC1,), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 ) can be sprayed in appropriate concentration. Spraying with other mineral salts (aluminium and copper salts, borax) and PBRs (Plant Bioregulators) may be also effective to reduce fruit cracking.

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Pollen morphology of fruit species
Published June 6, 2000
49-57.

Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.

The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.

 

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Evaluation of potential of fruit weight and fruit width and their interrelationships in the set of apricot genotypes
Published August 14, 2002
47-53.

Within the period of 1994-1999, variability of fruit weight and width was evaluated in altogether 24 apricot genotypes. It is concluded that the genotype and climatic conditions of individual years are the factors causing variability in these two parameters of apricot fruits. Variability of fruit weight was significantly higher (approximately 3...-times) than that of fruit width. When evaluated on the base of their width, 75.0% and 95.8% of apricots were classified into the groups of extra and first quality, respectively. As genotypes with the maximum fruit width (i. e. above 50 mm) the following cultivars were classified: 'Velkopavlovicka LE-6/2', 'NJA-1', 'M 45', 'M-25' and lednicka (M-90-A)'. The value of fruit width (in mm) corresponded with its weight (in g) only within the range of 40 — 45 mm. With the increasing and/or decreasing size of apricot fruit the changes in fruit weight were more pronounced than in those in fruit width. Within the set of genotypes under study, this relationship may be expressed by the equation y = 0.1234 — 7.6605 + 152.76; the corresponding values of correlation coefficient and coefficient of curve determination are r = 0.95-H- and R2 = 0.959.

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Consumer preference for apples: the role of attributes influencing the choice and consumption
Published March 25, 2009
37-43.

Consumers consider good quality fruits to be those that look good, are firm and offer good flavour and nutritive value. Nowadays, consumers are, however, increasingly  interested  in food qualities which  cannot  be discovered  by  looking, tasting or smelling  the products but their roles are not yet really c...leared up. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore the importance of selected kinds of attributes (taste, size, colour, cultivar, origin and price) in fluencing the choice of apples of customers. In accordance with several authors, fruit qualities (taste, size and colour) seemed to be the major attributics influencing the choice of apple independently of people's age and gender. However, the size of fruit had lower importance with increased age. Generally, females gave higher importance rating for most attributes than did male. The price was getting more important for consumer's choice with age which can be connected with their socioeconomic situation. The origin of fruit and the cultivar did not have important influence on consumer's choice. Authors also investigated the preference of consumers for six selected apple varieties ('Jonagold', 'ldared', 'Royal Gala', 'Golden Reinders', 'Braeburn' and 'Granny Smith'). and pointed out the role of the origin in fruit quality and in choice of apple in the case of 'Granny Smith' cultivar. Apple fruit samples from Austria, Argentina, Chile, Hungary and South Africa were involved in this study. Authors evaluated fruit quality parameters of above cultivars and compared them to consumer preference. Consumer preference usually represented the quality attributes of the fruit well. It is also concluded that degree of liking of apple cultivars varies through gender and age. Children and young consumers preferred 'Royal Gala', 'Granny Smith  and 'Braeburn' mostly. In spite of 'Idared' is one of the cultivars grown on the largest area in Hungary, the lowest preference ratings were given for it in both gender categories. Middle-aged consumers (between 25 and 50 years or age) preferred crispy apples with red or blemished skin color ('Royal Gala' and 'Jonagold'). 'Jonagold' and 'Idared' were the most preferred cultivars for the consumers above the age of 50 likely because of their relatively low price, as price plays a significant influencing role in the purchase of these consumers. The relatively expensive and soury 'Granny Smith' appeared not really preferred by this age group. In spite of the significant differences in instrumentally measured fruit quality parameters among 'Granny Smith' fruit samples from different countries, consumers did not give significantly different preference rating scores for those.

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The effect of rootstock on the tree size of apricot cultivars
Published August 13, 2004
57-58.

The apricot is propagated on several kinds of rootstocks in Hungary. The main aspects of selecting rootstocks are as follows: adaptability to environmental circumstances, primarily soil conditions, ensuring the tree size that complies with the cultivation method, and compatibility with the grafted cultivar. At advanced, intensive orchards roots...tocks ensuring smaller tree size are privileged. For the establishment of the appropriate cultivation system, it is important to be aware of the expected growing vigour and tree size of certain cultivar­rootstock combinations when the orchard is designed. In the course of our experiment the size of 15-year-old trees of 4 apricot cultivars were examined on several rootstocks at an orchard in Siófok. On the basis of the data measured for each cultivar-rootstock combination, it can be stated that trees on wild apricot (P. armeniaca) rootstocks are the largest in size. Trees on prune (P. domestica) rootstock have 10-15% smaller crown volume than the previous combination. Trees on bullace (P. insititia) rootstock have the smallest tree size and their crown volume is 30-50% smaller than that of the trees on P. armeniaca rootstock. Thus, the application of prune and bullace rootstocks is beneficial at intensive apricot orchards as the size of trees can be reduced by their usage. However, their compatibility with the cultivars and their adaptability to the ecological conditions of the production site have to be tested before applying them widely. In the course of our research incompatibility was not experienced for any of the cultivar-rootstock combinations examined. Nevertheless, the drought tolerance of the rootstocks examined showed significant differences. Trees on P. domestica or P. insititia rootstock requires more water than those on P. armeniaca rootstock, therefore, they have to be irrigated.

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The uses of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) as a fruit in an international breadth of view
Published September 7, 2014
7-13.

Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the impo...rt of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.

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A preliminary study on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars in a multi-row planting system
Published December 19, 2019
11-14.

The aim of this work was to report preliminary results on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars (cvs. ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) in multi-row system in the early bearing years of the orchard. Trees were planted in spring of 2015 in double row design (3.5 m+1.4 m x 1.0 m) with planting density of 5357 tree/ha. According to... our results cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented more vigorous growth, than cv. ‘Galiwa’. Trees of cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached 2.7 m in the third year, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could reach only 1.95 meter. Due to late spring frost 100% yield loss was observed in the second year. In 2017 cv. ‘Galiwa’ produced 5.3 kg/tree (25 fruit/tree), while cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented 7.7 kg/tree (50 fruit/tree). Average yield was 28.4 t/ha for cv. ‘Galiwa’, as ‘Story Inored’ reached 41.3 t/ha in the third year. Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ reached the required fruit size (79.1 mm), but its coloration was weaker (43% fruit surface color). Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ can be described with smaller fruit size (69 mm) and higher percentage of surface color (93%).

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Evaluation of generative accomplishment of new apple cultivars in Hungary
Published April 12, 2015
11-15

In a two year study, 14 new apple cultivars (cvs ’Gala Venus Fengal’, ’Gala Decarli-Fendeca’, ’Galaval’, ’Jugala’, ’Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, ’Red Cap Valtod (S)’, ’Early Red One’, ’Jeromine’, ’Crimson Crisp (Co-op 39)’, ’Red Topaz’, ’Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’, ’Red Idared’, ’Fuji September ...Wonder’ and club cultivar) were studied in Eastern Hungary at Nyírbátor. The following parameters were measured: trunk cross sectional area (cm2), harvest time with yield (date, kg/tree, number/tree), fruit size (mm), fruit surface color (%), and color intensity of the fruit surface (1-5). According to our two year assessments regarding, the best generative accomplishment was achieved for the cvs ‘Gala’ sorts trained to slender spindle and the cv ‘Red Jonaprince’ trained to super spindle. According to the trunk cross sectional area the ‘Gala’ sport trained to slender spindle showed the strongest growth among the 4 years old trees, while the cv ‘Fuji SW’ and the cv ‘Jeromine’ presented lower vegetative accomplishment. The ripening time of the cultivars started at the end of August and finished at the beginning of October. ‘Gala’ mutants trained to slender spindle provided the highest yields. Fruit size of all cultivars reached the market required standard, however, cvs ‘Red Jonaprince’ and ‘Red Idared’ produced large fruits over 90 mm. The fruit size of the ‘Gala’ sort was 72–75 mm. Most of the cultivars showed high fruit surface color and color intensity.

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Effects of self and cross pollination on fruit set and fruit quality of sour cherry cultivars
Published January 3, 2010
31-36.

An experiment conducted using factorial based on randomized completely block design during 2005 and 2006. Flowers of Érdi bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány meggy before anthesis and in balloon stages were isolated with paper bags from guest pollens and pollinated in appropriate time. The averages of final fruit set showed the advantage of ...open pollination (14.6% fruit set) in compare with artificial self pollination (13.0% fruit set) and natural self pollination (4.4% fruit set). Siah mashhad sweet cherry cultivar with more than 70% overlap of flowering and 9.8% fruit set in 2005 and 17.9% in 2006 was the best among applied pollinisers for Érdi bôtermô sour cherry cultivar.Also, Siah mashhad sweet cherry with more than 50%overlap of flowering time and 25.8%fruit set was the best polliniser for Cigány megg. Among the pollinisers, Siah mashhad was the best for Érdi jubileum with more than 50% overlap and 15.22% fruit set. Meanwhile, pollens of Siah mashhad caused the increase of fruit size in Cigány meggy cultivar. phenomenon. Pollens of Siah mashhad caused reduction in total soluble solids of Érdi bôtermô fruits, however, it does not have any significant effect on the acid rate of fruits.

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Water relations of apple and influence on fruit quality (minireview)
Published September 19, 2007
59-63.

The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.

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Overwintering capability and spring population size of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) in Hungary
Published June 6, 2000
153-156.

Honeybee races and ecotypes of different genetic background have different population development in spring. Some of them can reach the necessary population size by the beginning of Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) blooming period. There were significant differences in the spring population development between the colonies of differ...ent genetic background. The Italian races (A. m. ligustica) and their cross-breeds over-wintered poorly in Hungary, their spring population was low and they collected small amount of Robinia honey. The Austrian improved Carniolan (A. m. carnica) colonies over-wintered well, they had the largest spring population in both years. There was no significant difference between the size of the spring population of the same colonies of different genetic background in 1995 and 1996. The rate of the population development of the colonies was different in the two examined years. There was strong correlation (r = 0.8) between the spring population size and the Robinia honey yield, and between the mid-April population size and the Robinia honey yield of the colony groups of different genetic background. Spring population size also important in the effective pollination of fruit tree species that bloom earlier than the black locust trees.

 

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Inter-incompatibility of self- incompatible apricots and their varietal properties
Published September 13, 1999
79-81.

There are four apricot varieties grown in Hungary derived from local selections known to bear fruits of giant (60 - 100 g) size: Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás, Szegedi mammut and Ligeti óriás. Being morphologically similar, they seem to be closely related to each other. The detailed study of the morphology (of leave...s and fruits) and phenology (of blooming and ripening dates) as well as the fertility relations was aimed to find out the degree of kinship between the varieties in question.

It was stated that the value of morphological traits is variable from the taxonomic point of view. The most important signs of common origin were the time of blooming and the leaf size. Less valuable are the date of m:iurity and the size of fruit because of their variability. In the literature Satin') & Nyeki (1991) published the first proof of inter-incompatible relation between apricot varieties. This should be considered as an argument of close genetic relation between those "giant" varieties of apricots.

The first three varieties. Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi mammut are closer related in blooming and ripening date, as well as in size of fruit to each other than the variety Ligeti óriás.

 

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Evaluation of fruit quality parameters of Rosa taxa from the Carpathian basin
Published August 13, 2004
81-87.

From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of ...>Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.

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Metaxenic pollen effect of scab resistant apple cultivars on the fruit of apple
Published August 12, 2005
47-52.

As a part of an apple breeding program, we have examined the pollen effect on the fruit appearance and inner quality of different apple cultivars in the Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Fruit Science. Five apple cultivars ('Golden Reinders', 'Regal Prince', 'Rewena', 'Renora', 'Idared') have been crossed by the pollen of some new a...nd some traditional cultivars in our experiment. The measurements were carried out in the analytic and fruit examining laboratory of the Department of Fruit Science. The diameter, height and stem length were measured by digital caliper. We have also examined the squash ratio, soluble solid- and acidic content. Sugar content was calculated by a schedule released by the International Sugar Committee (ISC). From the sugar- and acidic content, we could also count the Pomona-value.

We have observed interesting effects according to some attributes in some crossing combinations with the help of statistical analysis. Crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Freedom', 'Prima', and 'Baujade' have resulted in smaller fruit size than other combinations. No significant differences could be observed on `Golden Reinders' fruits according to metaxenic coloration in the year of the examination. On the other hand the color modifying effect of pollen donating cultivars have manifested on the red fruits of 'Regal Prince' (Gala Must). `Freedom' as a pollen donating cultivar has resulted outstanding value in our consistency measurements. Squash ratio was the highest in combinations pollinated by 'Prima' and `Reglindis'. We have noticed balanced values when measuring inner qualities, only `Reka' has caused lower acidic content. Significant differences have been found in combinations according to the number of frivolous seeds. No frivolous seeds were found in the combinations 'Golden Reinders' x 'Freedom' and 'Idared' x 'Prima'. Almost two frivolous seeds were found in the fruits of the combination 'Renora' x 'Sóvári' in average.

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The effect of the fruit set on the mean mass of sour cherry fruits
Published March 21, 2001
17-19.

Experiments were conducted with four sour cherry cultivars three of that were self-fertile and one was self-sterile. Different levels of fruit set were obtained by limiting, the bee pollination period. The limitation of the duration of the effective bee pollination period definitely affected the fruit set of all the four cvs. The mass of indivi...dual fruits seemed to be related to the final set but this relationship has not find to be definitely expressed statistically at that moderate level of maximum fruit sets (10-14 per cent at the maximum) we obtained in the experiments. For this reason, further research is needed to explore that level of fruit set that can notably reduce the fruit size (mass) to an undesirable extent.

 

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Characteristics of fruit producing enterprises according to the data of farms taking part in the test farm system
Published September 11, 2001
41-45.

Fruit farming plays an important role within the Hungarian agriculture. The climatic conditions of the country make it possible to produce 20 temperate-zone fruit species, 14-15 of which are economically significant. The weight of the sector is high relative to the immobilised land, it is important in the field of employment and holding of rura...l population.

I examined the enterprise form, production size, revenues and profit of farms dealing with fruit production relying on the data of the agricultural test farm system of 1999. The proportion of croppers and entrepreneurs is significant among fruit producers. Their revenue realising ability is low, which depends on the production size too. But the polarisation of these farmers has started and a new level is being formed that is considerable from the viewpoint of value production.

 

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Metaxenia in apples cv. 'Rewena', 'Relinda', 'Baujade' as influenced by scab resistant pollinizers
Published May 19, 2008
11-14.

Fruit quality of cross pollinated apples (Malus x domestica) influenced by the metaxenic pollen effect of the pollinizer was observed in Hungary. Flowers of three resistant cultivars (`Baujade', `Rewena') were hand pollinated with other resistant apple cultivars. Fruits were harvested on 25 September, 2005. Fruit quality was investigat...ed in the laboratory of the Department of Pomology; Corvinus University of Budapest. Not only size and morphological parameters (diameter, height, stem length), but also refraction and acidic content of the fruits were measured.

According to the statistical analysis significant differences were determined on fruits among the groups as an effect of the pollen provider. In consideration of size parameters (diameter, height, weight) of `Rewena' fruits pollination partner 'Freedom' and 'Prima' caused outstanding results but `Florina' caused flatter fruits. Pollen of `Florina' and `Freedor-,' caused a higher percent refraction in the fruits of `Rewena'. In the case of `Baujade' fruits `Reglindis' — among cultivars we used as pollinizer — caused the biggest fruits medium flesh firmness and harmonic inner content values. `Rajka' caused on one hand smaller fruits and on the other hand higher flesh firmness and inner content values in the case of `Relinda' fruits. According to our data measured pollinizers varied the stem length as well.

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Production technology and fruit tree nutrition
Published June 24, 2003
39-42.

Fruit yield quality and quantity are effectively enhanced if healthy vegetative conditions are ensured. These optimal conditions — i.e. the balance between shoot development and yield — can be achieved by the rationalization of the production technologies, such as:

  • reduction of the size of the crown
  • adaptation of th...e severity and method of pruning to the conditions of the actual year
  • removal of the shoot tips
  • timely fruit thinning

By establishing an improved level of plant nutrient uptake, this will ensure a healthy balance between shoot growth and yield.

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Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters
Published September 2, 2009
61-63.

The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%...) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.

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105
103
Acceptance of artificial nesting sites by pollinating mason bees in commercial fruit plantations (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae: mixed Osmia cornuta and O. rufa population)
Published May 10, 2010
43-46.

During a four yeas long experiment a simple bee shelterswas found to be a propermethod to increase the size ofmixed natural populations of the early season Osmia cornuta and O. rufa under practical farm conditions. Instead of the number of pesticide applications the earliness of the flowering of the fruit species in the orchards was found to be... themost important factor in the rate of acceptance of reed as nestingmediumby Osmias in the bee shelter. This relationship was negative and highly significant (r = –0.829, p<0.001). This means that much higher acceptance of artificial nestingmedia in bee shelters and consequentlymuch higher population increase of the two early seasonmason bee species can be expected in orchards with early than with late flowering fruit species. Mixed orchards or early flowering orchards surrounded by other orchards falling in bloom later consecutively may also be much favourable to mason bees because they can find continuous food (pollen) supply there for a much longer time during their period of activity than in orchards planted with a single fruit species and being apart from orchards of other fruit species.

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102
100
Dried fruit quality judging on different sweet cherry varieties grown in Hungary
Published June 20, 2006
41-44.

The modern consumer's habit needs new material to enrich biological complete human foods. The mueslis contain more and more part of dried fruit. The organic nutrition prefers fruit, grown in that area, where they will be consumed. Therefore we thought on cherries, because earlier, almost all kind of fruit, including cherries, were dried. First ...of all we collect all sweet cherry varieties grown in Hungary (by the National List), (Harsányi &. Mády, 2005) than they were dried similar way to the dried plum. After a short storage the samples were judged, by different consumers. The aim was to know, which variety gives the best result, i.e. which variety is the most suitable to gather round for dried fruit. At the judging we used the methods, worked out by the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Hungary. Our work shows orders, which varieties were the best, from different point of view. (e.g. colour, size; firmness of flesh, flavour, and total score). The best varieties by total score will be shown and characterised shortly (Apostol, 1996; Beschreihende Sortenliste Steinobst 1997; Brózik & Kállay, 2000; Tóth, 1997; Harsányi & Mády, 2005; Horváth, 2004; Tomcsányi, 1979).

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103
112
Rootstock evaluation in intensive sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchard
Published May 20, 2009
7-12.

During 2000 and 2007, rootstocks of different vigor have been tested in a high density sweet cherry orchard with 'Vera '® and 'Axel'® cultivars at 4 x 2 meter row and plant distance. Trees are trained to Hungarian Spindle with permanent basal branches; in the alley way naturally grown grass is managed by mowing. The first considerable fruitin...g was in 2004. Every year we measured trunk and canopy parameters of the trees, productivity and fruit size. Our conclusion is that the rootstocks considerably affected the growth, precocity, as well as tree and orchard productivity, fruit weight of sweet cherry cultivars, but these rootstock effects are modified by cultivars, except for growth vigor. According to our results Cema, SL 64, and Bogdany are vigorous rootstocks, moderate vigorous are MaxMa 97, Pi-Ku I , and Tabel® Edabriz, Gisela® 5 and Prob are dwarfing rootstocks. Besides the precocious Gisela® 5 also mahaleb rootstocks CEMA, Bogdany and SL 64 showed considerable precocity, which can be explained by the larger bearing surface to the time of turning to bearing, and a similar or relative large density of burse shoots on fruiting branches. Cumulative yield of 'Axel'® was the highest on Bogdany and on Cerna, contrary to Gisela® 5, which produced only 50% of the previous ones. Cumulative yield of 'Vera'® was the highest on SL 64, and no significant difference was found, compared to trees on rootstocks Cema, Bogdany and Pi-Ku I . Cumulative yield production of trees was smaller on Gisela® 5, Prob, Max Ma 97 and Tabel® Edabriz rootstocks. Corresponding to the literature data of yield efficiency calculated on TCSA basis was highest on Gisela® 5 rootstock. but the efficiency calculated on canopy volume of 'Axel•® trees was similarly high on CEMA and Bogdany, and that of 'Vera'® trees relatively high on CEMA, Bogdany, SL 64 and PiKu I rootstocks. When calculating orchard efficiency al spacing 4 x 2 meters (1250 tree/ha), we received highest yield values on Bogdany, CEMA, SL 64, and PiKu I rootstocks, with large fruit weight. Rootstocks also affect fruit weight. We measured the largest fruit weight on trees on Bogdany.

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102
95
Hungaricum as a quality of fruits and fruit products
Published June 24, 2003
71-81.

The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour ...cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.

The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.

As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.

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