20% of the cucumber crop of the world belongs to the parthenocarp type. Parthenocarp cucumber forcing has a great importance in Hungary, too. In our country the whole area of parthenocarp cucumber forcing was approximately 500 ha of the last years (2000-2002) and 75-85000 tons of yield has been harvested (MGYSZT, 2003). It means 15 — 17 kg/m<...sup>2 as an average yield. In European forcing systems, parthenocarp cucumber is usually planted in January or February and it is harvested in spring or early summer. In Hungary cucumber forcing is the most profitable in two separate periods: spring and autumn, the reason for it is the changes of the average prices of fresh market cucumber, but spring forcing is still the most profitable. Forced cucumber cultivars are mostly parthenocarp; non-parthenocarp cultivars are grown in summer preferably. Cucumber cultivars, forced in our country, are hybrids, and 90% of them are offered by foreign seed companies (KristOfne, 1998.). The productivity of these hybrids is high and the productive period is quite short. All the mentioned details give the reason why it is important to know everything about the productivity, the dynamics of growth, and the possibilities of timing of parthenocarp cultivars, and it is also important to learn how to control all these parameters. Our spring cucumber-forcing experiment aimed to characterize of those parameters mentioned.
Experiments are going on all over the world assisting the joint effort of researchers and practicing specialists to identify the methods which can help either in the reduction of production costs or in the increase of yields.
The task of the growers is to make profitable use of the forcing facilities and to satisfy market demands at an...acceptable price by means of improving production technology and applying new scientific, technological and technical information.
For the last few years, rockwool based forcing has been gaining in importance. The subject of our scientific work was the analysis of an important question of this technological variant, the selection of the variety. Besides, we also tried to identify the most suitable pruning technology for the varieties studied.
In Hungary, the highest demand is commonly known to be for the light yellow fleshed varieties which are suitable for stuffed dishes. In the future, due to their special quality and appearance, as well as to the Hungaricum character, they could become important export goods on the European Union market. It was within this variety type that comparison between varieties already common in production (HO F1, HRF F1, Danubia F1) was carried out, trying to get an answer to the question which of the three varieties could be produced with the greatest success. Considering the quantitative and qualitative indicators, it was H6 F1 that proved the best out of the three varieties tested under unheated forcing on rockwool. It excelled the other two varieties both in quality and in average fruit weight, preserving this advantage until the end of the growing period.
On the basis of a six-year experiment a method was elaborated for forcing and off-seasons growing of tulips, narcissus and gladioli under frameless plastic cover. The advantages of this cheap energy-saving method are manifested in an improved quality of flowers and essentially in the earlier flowering. With this method mostly first-class flower...s can be obtained immediately after the season of forcing in heated constructions with plastic cover, and anticipated outdoor flowering.
The possibilities of applying the method are studied on further ornamental plant species (other bulbous plants, Paeonia lactiflora, annual ornamentals).
In the publications available for us, exact levels of physical factors and those of the growing technology determining Ca2+ deficiency are rarely detailed. Although the influencing role of the various environmental factors (humidity, light, temperature) is known, we had only little information about their exact values which could be presented f...or the growing practice. Sweet pepper varieties of the same type grown in various substrates responded to the environmental factors in different ways. Our results revealed that increasing temperature of the root zone had the most significant effect on the incidence of Ca2+ -deficient fruits. Their amount, however, gave different results depending on the growing substrate. In forced sweet pepper grown in soil the proportion of Ca2+ - deficient fruits were significantly lower compared to the plants grown on rockwool. Fruits derived from forcing on perlite, in container were damaged the least by the blossom end rot deficiency symptoms. Our experimental results and technological suggestions are based on measurement results of three years.
The Spent mushroom compost means the remained soil without sporophores after the productive.period. The leftover can't be used for mushroom growing again (Gy6r1i, 2001). Unfortunately spent musnroom compost still has bad judgment, as it would be garbage, but on the contrary it is a significant and valuable material, which is full of organic res...idue, a perfect soil structure improver, nutrition supplement and propagating medium. In our experiment we took the following mediums: control material with 50% flat moor peat and 50% high moor peat (Novobalt) content, 100% spent compost, 50% spent compost and 50% control medium, 25% spent compost and 75% control medium. On the day of plantation and after the forcing experiment we took sample from the control medium and from all mixtures.
By the strengthening of environmental protection and food safety efforts in Hungary, integrated and especially biological pest control methods should increasingly put forward, for which a solid knowledge on the life course and efficiency of natural enemies applied against certain pests is necessary. Pepper has distinguished significance in dome...stic vegetable forcing, and the profitability of production is determined primarily by the efficiency of the control of thrips pests. This is why we attached great importance to study what results may be expected by introducing arthropod predators (Amblyseius cucumeris, Orius laevigatus) to control thrips species under domestic conditions on rock wool in a long vegetation period pepper culture. We also liked to find out what kind of role the cultivars play in the change of phytophagous and zoophagous populations. The A. cucumeris predatory mite introduced in late January proved to be effective in controlling thrips pests until mid-April. Despite repeated introductions, the predatory bug O. laevigatus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) did not proliferate. Among the three pepper cultivars (Hó, Keceli, Titán) grown at Ráckeve, thrips species proliferated in the highest number on cultivar 'Hó', while the population of predatory mites was lowest on the cultivar 'Titan', compared to the other two cultivars.
The European market demands vegetable products of the highest quality and this commercial quality must be maintained till the goods reach the customer. One of these important quality parameters is the fruit firmness of pepper.
The experiments were aimed at to find out the influence of different growing methods (soil or rockwool-based) a...nd pruning technologies (to 1, 2, 3 or 4 shoots) on the yield and fruit firmness of three pepper varieties (HO F1, Karpia Fl and Pritavit F1) which are common in Hungary. Fruit firmness was measured by the non-destructive impact method.
On the basis of the results, in unheated forcing the pruning to 1, 2 or 3 shoots can be suggested for all three varieties, as well as the utilisation of rockwool in their growing.
The non-destructive impact method has been found suitable for testing the fruit firmness of pepper varieties. In the experiments involving different growing mediums pepper stands were found to show significant differences, however the different pruning methods had no significant influence on fruit firmness.
For soilless vegetable production of the Southern Great Plain region in Hungary, there is enough water available, however, the origin and chemical composition of it are decisive from the point of view of practicability. The ground water is everywhere accessible, although its sodium and chloride content is almost always significant, moreover, hu...man pollution may occur (e.g. nitrates and phosphates). A further unfavourable moment is the seasonal variation observed within the area of the same community. The abundant supply of water in the Quaternary strata are located in more than half of the cases within the upper 50 m region. As by the expected changes of the climate, a strategic increment of the importance of subsurface waters is anticipated. Their composition is relatively stable, and the prognoses are reliable for the same settlement. Salt content of the majority of water resources bearing hydrocarbonates is low, however, streaming of the subsurface waters tend to increase their sodium content and to diminish their calcium and magnesium, whereas the pH increases (mainly by ion-exchange). Water quality is decisive not only because of the interaction with the plants but also from the point of view of the distribution of water. Some micro-elements, mainly iron and secondarily manganese may cause problems, therefore, irrigation water ought to be prepared carefully. Production technology should be completed by a technical equipment using aeration for the elimination of ironinfluence of yields on rate of return of investment; (3) the role of increasing of added value content of products. Importance of the utilisation of alternative channels of distribution and the formation of producers' cooperatives are underlined, being based on calculation of return of investment.
In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.
The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).
In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:
- They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
- They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
- They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
- The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.
The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.
The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.
The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary te...sts have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
Peat is the most favourable and usable medium in vegetable and ornamental plant forcing but because of the intensive exploitation peat resources decreased significantly all around the world. As peat-reserves run out the use of pine bark, composts and other organic materials spread in horticultural growing. In this study we compared the suitabil...ity of peat-based media to pine bark and two types of composts. We examined the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-based media and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest in low moor-high moor peat mixture and pine bark. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations.
Hungary is a country with excellent ecological potentials and with rich traditions in vegetable production. The total vegetable production area comprises about 100 000 ha and annual production amounts to 1.4-1.8 million tons, 75-80% comes from fields and the rest from forcing. Approximately 40 species are produced, but only 20 of them play a do...minant role. The most important ones arc: sweet corn, peas, peppers, watermelon, onions, tomatoes, gherkin, carrots, beans, white cabbage.
40-45% of the total production is processed, 20-30% sold on the fresh market and 30% exported.
Vegetable production is based on rural farms of 1-5 ha average acreage. It provides living for about 70-100 000 families. The low number of producers' organisations is a major setback.
Profitability of vegetable production is rather low. Production costs are high, wholesale prices are depressed.
Vegetables are produced for the industry by contract. Fresh vegetables are sold through local markets (15-20%), the wholesale market (decreasing importance) and direct marketing (35-40%).
Against the self-sufficiency of the country there is a seasonal import of vegetables mainly in winter and early springtime.
Hungarian legal regulations are harmonized with the EU directives, EU standards are accepted and applied, traditionally good market connections and cooperation with several EU countries enable the country to be a partner of EU vegetable growers.
In spite of the several good properties of peat, recently, some experiments were carried out with the aim of finding natural materials which can substitute for peat. According to the results, several inorganic and organic materials were proved to be suitable for this purpose. This study examines the effect of different organic materials (exampl...e: pine bark, composts, peats) on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-mixtures and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest at those plants which were planted also in these media. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations in development and in yield, too.
We assessed the cost/income conditions of forced tomato production and return conditions of the growing technologies by investment-profitability analysis. Horticultural sectors generate significant added value and employ a large number of workers per unit area; however, these sectors cover only 4% of agricultural areas. Regarding the use of cap...ital and labour, forced vegetables are the most intensive horticultures with several development potential and reserves to gain better quality and a more efficient farming. One of the most prominent forced cultures is table tomato produced under different types of forcing equipment in Hungary: traditional, low-height plastic tunnel; large-atmospheric, block-based plastic tunnels and various greenhouses. The prime goal of my thesis is to specify the economic efficiency of each type and to choose the most efficient one by the complex economic assessment of plastic tunnels, block-based plastic tunnels and greenhouses with the most advanced technologies. Results of the economic analysis suggest that the most efficient production method is the modern, Dutch greenhouse technology; however, this statement is not backed by every indicator: each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Regarding the future, the installation of such types or even (in the technical sense) more modern growing technology may be considered as a prospect for capital intensive and larger businesses.