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New simple and efficient method of DNA isolation from pear leaves rich in polyphenolic compounds
21-24.

This study aimed to establish a new protocol for DNA isolation from the Pyrus genus to get high quality DNA that is suitable for the generation of molecular markers, such as RAPD and AFLP. This method is based on modified CTAB extraction procedure (Aldrich & Cullis, 1993). For isolation of high-quality DNA we used copper (II) acetate treatment that enabled fixation and removing of tannins, present in abundance in Pyrus. DNA yield from this procedure is high. DNA is completely digestible with restriction endonucleases and amplifiable in the PCR, indicating freedom from common contaminating polyphenolic compounds.

94
163
Evaluation of cauliflower genotypes by different growing method
11-14.

Cauliflower is currently cultivated on 350-400 thousand hectares in the world and around 1500 ha in Hungary. Its cultivation requires considerable expertise as it is sensitive to environmental factors and adequate nutrient supply. The aim of our experiment was to compare three genotypes (Abeni, SV5777 AC and Telergy F1) by different growing method – under plastic tunnel and on open field. On open field the planting was on 19th of March, 2018, the row and plant distances were 45 and 35 cm. Under plastic tunnel the transplants were set out on the same day with the same genotypes as on open field, with 55x45 cm arrangement. The results have proved that cauliflower curds from plastic tunnel was two times bigger than on open field. The more protected environment had a positive effect not only on the mass of the curd, but also on the biomass production. Among the examined genotypes Abeni showed the highest yield (about 1 kg/plant) under plastic tunnel. The shape of the head is important for the market. According to our data, we measured the width and height of the curd. Open field conditions induced wider curd with longer stem and caused lower product quality and weaker correlation between the parameters than plastic tunnel.

170
213
Conditions of rentability in the apricot industry of Hungary
127-129.

Total investment costs of an up to date apricot plantation requires about 5000 thousand HUF/ha. Modern
plantations yield under normal conditions 15–20 t/ha with 80% quality for fresh consumption. Consequently, taking the life span of a plantation (15 years), the internal rate of return of 15–17% per year (IRR), that means that the costs of investment will be regained in the 9–10th year, which is considered to be satisfactory. However, weather hazards (frost, hail) may occur at a probability of 20–25%, therefore, maintaining the quality (80% for fresh consumption) and yields (15–20 t/ha) are badly needed to speak about rentability. This level of yields maintains the option of feasibility up to 20–25% losses.

140
162
The salt tolerance of vegetable paprika varieties
39-45.

In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26.76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.

The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).

In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:

  • They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
  • They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
  • They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
  • The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.

The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.

The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.

The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.

134
169
Evaluation of morphological parameters and bioactive compounds in different varieties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta GURKE var. rubra L.)
31-35.

Beetroot consumption based on pickled beets generally in Hungary which is due to the higher yield from second crop harvested in autumn and processed by manufacturing industry. Researches of the past years confirmed its favourable nutritional-physiological effects on human body so demands, as for fresh salad, also increased. The trial aimed at testing the interaction of varieties on quality parameters and in the same time suggestions are made how to use different varieties of beetroot according to its quality. Morphological and sensory evaluations were examined on 10 varieties of beetroot harvested in autumn. The regular spherical shape can reduce the refining loss during the processing of beetroot which is beneficial for the manufacturing industry. In our trial the root shape of Libero, Mona Lisa and Rubin varieties approached most the regular spherical shape (diameter/length – 1.0) which is favoured by not only processing industry but also fresh market. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was observed in Mona Lisa, Akela and Cylindra (34.58–47.66 mg/100 g). A similar trend could be observed in yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) which proves the close correlation between the quantities of the two pigments (r=0.898). Highest total polyphenol (77.13–83.37 mg GAE/100g) and flavonoid (21.73–22.73 mg CE/100g) contents were detected in Akela, Mona Lisa and Bonel. These varieties are favourable for fresh salad and they can satisfy processing requirements also. Highest water soluble solids content was found in Akela (7.15%). In our conditions nitrate (NO3-N) values below 900 mg/kg were examined in all of the varieties which is favourable in the case of beetroot.

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250
Colour and water content detection of sweet cherry by portable spectrometer
23-26.

Based on the most recent data, the average amount of sweet cherry produced in Hungary is around 10-12 thousand tons. Therefore fast and effective method is important for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. The aim of the study was to examine the applicability of reflectance measurements for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. In our experiment five cherry species (Vera, Cristalina, Germersdorfi, Noir de Mechet, Canada Giant) were examined in order to measure the spectral differences between species. Further more, spectral alteration was examined between different health and maturity status of the fruits in the case of a specified, the Germesdorfi species. The four new indices are appropriate tools for cherry quality analysis. Thus reflectance measurements can also support more precise and automated fruit selections. The methods for the differentiation of species could also be viable at a concerned habitat; however, the climate, habitat and soil conditions strongly affect the yield quality. Concerning the fast determination of water content, WBI could be a reliable method for the assessment

200
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Effect of different treatments to bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) in tomato, and bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) in pepper
49-53.

In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.

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Self-fertility studies of some sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars and selections
21-26.

Fruit set of two sweet cherry cultivars (Alex' and 'Stella' ) and four Hungarian selections have been studied over two years following open pollination, unassisted self-pollination (autogamy) and artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy). Among accessions 'IV-6/240' proved to be self-sterile, while the other five revealed to be self-fertile. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments but not among self-fertile accessions. Fruit set following unassisted self-pollination was significantly lower than of other pollination treatments. Thus pollen transfer is essential for profitable yield in sweet cherry growing.

There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of open- and self-pollination.

108
165
Some flower characters, variety features and environmental effects affecting bee pollination of pear (Pyrus communis L.): a review of the results of latest research
59-66.

Intensive research has been implemented on different aspects of the bee pollination of pear in Hungary in the past decade, extending to the following topics: the effect of the opening sequence of the flowers within the inflorescence of pear cultivars on the effectiveness of bee pollination; the nectar production of flowers of pear cultivars; intensity of honeybee visitation and their foraging behaviour at the flowers of pear cultivars; flower constancy of honeybees to pear plantations; competition by weeds in bloom for bee pollination in flowering pear orchards; and some aspects to the bee pollination strategies of pear plantations (the effect of the limitation of bee pollination period on the set and the yield, possible compensation of frost damage of flowers by bee pollination in pear orchards, the optimal size of single cultivar block in pear plantations). The results of these studies are reviewed in this paper and some important aspects that need further studies are outlined.

 

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Climatic indicator analysis of blooming time for sour cherries
11-16.

County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry grown in Hungary. Successful production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during the blooming period, being most decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict yields expected, the characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phonological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. Data of 7 indicators have been traced: number of frosty days, the absolute minimum temperatures, means of minimum temperatures, number of days when daily means were above 10°C, means of maximum temperatures, number of days without precipitation, and number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades. The indicators being associated with certain risky events may serve for the prediction of the future recommendations to prevent damages.

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Bud-, flower- and fruit-density in stone fruits
59-69.

In 164 varieties of five stone fruit species, counts of flower buds, flowers and fruits set have been performed, regularly, between 1982 and 2002. The critical number and sample size has been determined for the purpose to estimate the yielding potential of peach plantations. For a rapid test, 10 shoots per variety are recommended. In sour cherry and peach varieties, the number and ratio of leaf and flower buds has been assessed on bearing shoots of different length.

The typical flower bud density of 129 peach varieties varies, as a rule, between 0.13 and 1.10 bud/cm. Three groups of flower-bud-densities could be distinguished: low (0-0.40 bud/cm), intermediate (0.41-0.60 bud/cm), high (more than 0.60 bud/cm). About 62% of varieties belong to the intermediate group. Negative correlation has been found between flower density and relative fruit set, whereas positive correlation between flower density and fruit yield.

The results are utilised in the description and choice of varieties, moreover, in choosing of optimal pruning policies. Varieties of high flower bud densities are recommended to be preferred for growing sites with frequent late frosts. Abundantly yielding varieties of low vegetative vigour are to be pruned more severely than those characterised by low yields, vigorous growth and low flower density. Sour cherry varieties, which are inclined to grow "whips" ought to be stimulated to grow longer shoots (40-50 cm per year), than varieties woid of that tendency (30-40 cm).

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Above-ground dendromass of sprouted black locust energy plantations: a case study
19-21.

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as one of the most suitable tree species for establishing energy plantations due to its favourable growing characteristics such as vigorous growing potential in the juvenile phase, excellent coppicing ability, a relatively high resistance to pests. Based on national and international test results the mean annual increment of oven-dry weight of energy plantations regenerated by coppicing generally exceeds the first cycle plantations established by seedlings.

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Increasing the vitamin D level of oyster mushrooms by UV light
119-123.

Vitamin D is essential for the human body and mushrooms are one of the natural sources of it. Many research works are aimed at enhancing the vitamin D2 content of mushrooms with UV irradiation in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. The subjects of most of these studies are different kind of post-harvest cultivated mushrooms. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest oyster mushrooms were treated in the growing room with UVB and UVC light. UVB and UVC lamps (operating on 312 and 254 nm) and 6 time periods of irradiation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 and ergosterol analysis. Data showed considerable increase (from 0,67 μg/g to 3,68 μg/g, f.w.) in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in case of both wavelengths.

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Selenium enriched vegetables as biofortification alternative for alleviating micronutrient malnutrition
75-81.

There is a very difficult equation for malnutrition and over-consumption. That means malnutrition even of vitamins and/or minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Se and Zn, vitamin A) affects more than two billion people worldwide, largely due to low concentrations or poor bioavailability of the nutrients in the diet. In some developed countries in contrast, over-consumption, particularly of over-refined cerealbased foods, has contributed to the development of an epidemic of metabolic diseases. So, producing nutritious and safe foods sufficiently and sustainably is important target at the same time challenge of modern agriculture. In the past, great efforts have focused only on increasing crop yields, but enhancing the concentrations of mineral micronutrients has become an urgent task. The main daily food source is the staple crops specially in developing countries of the world, i.e., wheat, rice, cassava, beans, sweet potato or maize. These kind of plants are often deficient in some of mineral elements. Thus, the increasing of bioavailable concentration of micronutrients in edible crop tissues (via biofortification) has become a promising strategy in modern agriculture, providing more nutritious foods, to more people, with the use of fewer lands. Biofortification of these trace elements can be achieved application with agronomic process such as soil or foliar fertilization or crop breeding even conventional technic and/or genetic engineering. This review highlight progress to date and identify challenges faced in delivering biofortified vegetable crops as well as the agronomic approaches and tools to improve crop yield and micronutrient content of food crops.

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The effect of cooling irrigation on the blooming dynamic of plum
57-59.

The objective of the present study is to explore the effect of cooling irrigation (aspersion) on the beginning of bloom and on the micro-climate of the plantation. The results show that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jet influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect, The frequent repetition (20 minute intervals) may keep the temperature low also in the buds. The beginning of bloom may delayed for more than ten days. The dynamics of blooming was characterised by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control in spite of equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under our (Hungarian) climatic conditions, the method is successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result is the diminution of the frost damage in the spring and the security of yield. The costs and water requirement should be calculated later.

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176
An investigation of genotype-environment interaction and stability for pea (Pisum sativum L) seed yield
53-55.

Eighteen pea breeding lines and three check cultivars were tested in two years with and without irrigation. The linear regression can explain only a small part of GEI so the use of regression technique was not possible for interpreting the data. In this case the ecovalence, stability variance and superiority measure stability parameters cannot describe properly the genotype's response. With the AMMI method it is possible to group properly the genotypes according to their response.

90
155
Biological performance of grape varieties in Eastern Hungary
31-35.

Eurasian and interspecific grape varieties and candidates were inspected for biological productivity in the variety collection of the University of Debrecen at the Horticultural Experimental Station in Pallag. In this paper, data are reported on yields (kg/stock), cane production (kg/ stock) and use-up index of wood yield of each cultivar in the experimental years 2011-2012. From the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) white wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Ezerfürtû’, ’Generosa’, ’Jubileum 75’, ’Müller Thurgau’, ’Zöld veltelíni’,’B-11’, ’CSFT-92’, ’Pintes’, from the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) red wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Kármin’, ’Pinot noir’, ’Alicante Bouschet’ and ’Rubintos’ were highlighted. Promising data of interspecific ’Aletta’, ’Csillám’, ’Kunleány’, ’Orpheus’, ’Refrén’, ’Taurus’, ’Viktória gyöngye’, ’Alföld 100’, ’Reform’, ’RF38/32’, ’Toldi’ white, and ’Dunagyöngye’ ’Pannon frankos’ red wine-grape cultivars and candidates were emphasized. Published data refer only to the biological performance of the cultivars. The thorough evaluation of varieties needs respect to data on resistance to fungal disease and climatic extremities, and other characteristics concerning production technology and oenological parameters.

177
167
Propagation material borne fungus pathogens causing early stock decay in vineyards
51-57.

A decline, a slow or sudden decay of vine trunks can occur in any phase of trunk life. In senescent or old plantages the increase in trunk decay is quite common but it is unacceptable in young plantage in their best production years.All over the world as well as in Hungary, a drastic decay of young trunks in nurseries and new plantages have caused panic in the past decades. From among the numerous fungal pathogens which are responsible for considerable financial and yield losses and threaten stock vigour Petri disease, esca and Black foot are the most important. In young decaying plants the fungal species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon spp. were the most frequent while other fungi causing different trunk diseases, cancer or decay, like Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeria spp. and Fomitiporia mediterranea were also found. The most important infection source is the infected propagation material. Infection is systematic, the disease process is latent, diseased plants cannot be cured, thus, prevention is the only answer to the challenge.

158
189
Investigation of the cultivation value of old grapevine cultivars in Tokaj in 2004-2006
23-27.

Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmint'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.

142
166
Evaluation of foreign apricot cultivars in Hungary
51-55.

The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.

113
151
Some microbial treatments against the tomato leaf miner; Tuta absoluta (Merick) under natural field conditions
81-84.

In an attempt to find more effective methods and safety to control the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, this research was conducted to study the efficacy of the four bio-treatments ; two bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis. and Pseudomonas Fluorescence), one fungal isolate Trichoderma viride) and Spinosad as a microbial insecticide compared with the most common insecticides used against the dipterous and lepidopterous leaf miners in Egypt; Profenofos and Aphox. In the two successive seasons; 2011 and 2012, the fungal isolate Trichoderma viride achieved the lowest infestation(numbers of infested leaflets, mines, infestation percentages) which were 167, 195, and 21.9% resp.in season 2011 and 198, 222 and 26.2% resp. in season 2012. While the highest infestation was occurred in case of using the insecticides, Aphox (423, 559 and 55.9% resp.& 384, 839 and 72.2%. and Prohpenofos (436, 562 and 57.7% &391, 534 and 51.7% resp.).during 2011 and 2012 respectively. The other treatments occupied the intermediate levels. On the other hand, the yield of tomato fruits was increased by 75% over the check in case of plants treated with Trichoderma viride isolate, but the pesticide treatment given weak or no impact in increasing tomato crop. In season 2012, the infested tomato fruits percentages with T. absoluta larvae and Rhizoctonia soil rot disease(that Frequently observed incidentally) were recorded the minimum levels obtained by spraying Trichoderma viride isolate(21.38 and 10.32% resp.). In contrast, the maximum levels were recorded in Prophenofos (44.87 and22.78% resp.) and Aphox treatments(47.22 and 27.78% resp.).

138
190
Heat waves in Hungarian plant production
113-118.

A momentous inference of heat waves is the economic effect. The main demage after the human problems will caused by theese extreme events in agriculture. For example a long hot peiod without any percipitation can exterminate not only the annual yield, but also it can demage or in extreme situation it can destroy the whole orchard. Especially endangered most of the fruits, because an extreme summer with high temperature which usually goes hand in hand with an arid period can modify growth of the plant. Our investigations show that according to the most widely accepted climate change scenarios heat waves are expected to be essentially longer and hotter than in the past. It might happen that events we now define as heat waves last through entire summer. Although it will not be general, the length and intensity of present heat waves could also multiply. Based on data provided by some global circulation models, we might be face an event that exceeds the hottest heat waves of the 20th century by as much as 12 °C. This study also offers a survey of the methodology of heat wave definition. Besides traditional calculations, we present two unconventional methods by introducing minimum and maximum temperature heat waves. We show in what points this approach is different from those usually adopted and what extra information it may offer.As an extension of the usual studies, with considering the length of events, we analyse the development of two variants – temperature and duration – and, as a result, classify the extreme heat events according to both length and intensity.

154
156
Calculation of climatic probability of winter and spring frost damages in the main peach and apricot growing districts of Hungary
99-106.

The probability of winter and spring frost damages experienced in peach and apricot plantations has been assessed in 5 growing regions of Hungary (Szeged-Szatymaz, around the lake Balaton, Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Mátraalja) and (Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Pest­Godo116, Duna-Tisza Mize, Matra-Bükkalja) during the period between 1951 and 2000.

Frost tolerance of flower buds on a given shoot sample is expressed by the mean value assessed after frost damage (LT50), and the meteorological records of the growing sites raised between 1951 and 2000 are used to calculate the probability of frost damage. In peach, the difference between growing sites and between varieties may become two fold as for the chance of repeated frost damage at a probability of 50 %. In apricot, the probability of frost damage may exhibit differences between growing sites up to 20 % as for susceptible varieties, and 16 % for frost tolerant varieties. Frost damage may vary between 4 and 18 % depending on the genuine frost tolerance of the varieties. Peach is afflicted by low temperature causing substantial losses of yield at the highest probability in the region Szeged-Szatymaz and at the lowest in Mátraalja. Apricot is, on the other hand, most endangered in the Duna-Tisza Mize region, while the lowest probability of frost damage is expected around Mecsek and Buda.

The critical period of frost damage in the mid of January in Szeged-Szatymaz region, in Mecsekalja the mid of February showed the highest probability of frost damage. All growing sites are frequented at high chances by frost damages occurring during and closely after the blooming period. Duna-Tisza köze is mainly afflicted in early March, whereas Mátra-Bükkalja in mid of January and each March.

The probability of temperatures below zero degree has been assessed in all the 5 regions observed. Around April 5-8 the probability of freezing temperatures diminishes steeply at all sites, whereas the risk of frost increases again around April 9— 11. That climatic peculiarity of should be taken into consideration in choosing growing sites or varieties.

Postulating the effects of a global warming up of the climate, the chances of avoiding frost damages at different growing sites by delaying the blooming dates are considered. According to our calculations, the delay of blooming by 5 days may diminish the risk of frost damage by 4-20 % at the growing sites examined, whereas a delay of 10 days reduces the risk by 37-85 % in both fruit species.

Calculations offered an answer on the question of climatic changes, whether the probability of winter and spring frosts damage changed during the 50 years. The long list of data shows the diminishing chances of winter frosts, while the probability of temperatures risking spring frost damages increased after the early 1970-es up to now.

154
172
Determination of (in)compatibility genotypes of Hungarian sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) accessions by PCR based methods
37-42.

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the S-alleles responsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.

139
196
Evaluation of the growing and fruit bearing characteristics of the ‘Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on rootstocks with different vigor
15-18.

Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realization of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.

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