One of the most important conditions of high quality fruit production is the early detection of hytopathologycal infections. The most dangerous disease of peach (Prunus persica) is the Taphrina deformans, which causes serious damages mainly in the years where the weather condition is cool and wet. In this study, healthy and naturally diseased l...eaves by peach leaf curl were investigated in the laboratory of University of Debrecen, CAAES, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. Both of hyperspectral measurement and the values of spectrophotometer shown the chlorophyll content of diseased leaves were lower than the healthy samples. Based on the experiments the water status of investigated leaves established the infected leaves contained more water in their tissues.
A study was conducted to analyse the carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase cross linked end-capping and to study the pigment content and composition in sea buckthorn products as well as in freshly harvested fruits from peach thees grown under organic and integrated farming conditions. It was found tha...t carotenoids in fruits of both crops occur mainly esterified with fatty acids in form of mono- and di-esters. The major carotenoids were esters of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The major carotenoids showed different response to processing of sea buckthorn being highly sensitive to thermal treatments such as blanching, cooking and drying. Significant differences were found between peach varieties in their carotenoid content, whereas the impact of organic farming on carotenoids formation was found to be variety-dependent. Two of the three varieties examined in this work, when cultivated under organic farming conditions contained lower carotenoid level as compared to that found in the fruits of the same varieties but produced in integrated farms.
It was stated as a summary that a system of testing pear varieties on scale of 100 degrees, weighing 11 properties, gives a comprehensive information on qualities of pear varieties. The points of the form to be filled out, distinguishes the appreciation of accessory flavours and tastes from the main properties. Under the title of taste, sweet a...nd acid taste are evaluated separately. The presently used system is a step forward as the composed characters do not influence the judgement of each other. In the representation of results, the 100 degree system was more efficacious than the usual 5-point system because there was no need of using fractions, and the graphic profile is more expressive, so the commodity is better visualised. The assembly of the jury was divided into two groups as below and above 35 year old persons. The two groups judged differently the acidity, sweetness and the thickness of the fruit peel. It was suggested that the choice of the produce should consider the differences in taste and give up the idea of being equally favourable for both groups. The samples of different growing sites revealed that the best quality is produced at Nagykanizsa, and this capacity would be able to supply the market also in the large super-markets and chain of department stores in Hungary.
: Our study was carried out on 23 apricot and 9 sweet cherry cultivars in February 2005. Fruiting laterals were classified into four groups (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm and >40 cm) and then the density and setting of flower buds were evaluated and expressed as bud/cm. The flower bud density of four types of fruit bearing shoots and...the changes in the frost resistance were studied. Shoots were collected from a young orchard in Gone (apricot), Siófok (sweet cherry) and Nagykutas (sweet cherry). There were significant differences among the cultivars in the density of flower buds. The number of flower buds/cm shoot length ranged between 0.91 and 2.20 in the average of the different fruit bearing shoot types on apricot. Based on the results, the bud density of shorter shoots is generally higher on apricot, but this is not valid for all cultivars. For cvs. Magyarkajszi and Ceglédi bíborkajszi, the highest flower bud density was detected on shoots of medium length (10-40 cm). There were fivefold and almost twofold (1.85) differences in bud density among cultivars on shoots shorter than 10 cm length and longer than 40 cm length, respectively. The ratio of the bud densities of the different types of shoots also ranged between wide boundaries. For cvs. Bayoto, Toyesi and Toyiba this ratio was 2.5-3.5, while for cv. Magyarkajszi it was 1.3.
In the average of fruit bearing shoots on sweet cherry, cv. Bigarreau Burlat (1.10 bud/cm) and cv. Germersdorfi 45 (0.61 bud/cm) had the largest and the lowest flower bud density, respectively. Among the fruit bearing shoots, the largest flower bud density was in the group of 0-10 cm fruiting laterals. Among cultivars, cv. Bigarreau Burlat had the largest bud density. In the groups of n- i 0 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm fruiting laterals, the lowest flower bud density was for cv. Linda, cv. Germersdorfi 45, cv. Ferrovia and cv. Sunburst, respectively. On cvs. Van and Bigarreau Burlat, large numbers of double-set flower buds were observed on the fruit bearing shoots longer than 20 cm. Fruit setting differed on the different types of fruit bearing shoots, with the lowest value measured on above 40 cm shoots. The highest fruit setting was observed on cv. Katalin, while the lowest value was measured on cv. Germersdorfi 3.
Studies were made on the bee visitation of 6 quince cultivars and on the foraging behaviour of honeybees at quince flowers for 3 consecutive years. The bee visitation was highly intense because both the plantation and its surrounding was overpopulated by honeybee colonies. Some 5.5 bee visits were counted in average at 50 opening quince flowers... in 10 minutes and some 9.7 flowers were visited of the 50 ones observed meanwhile. This equals some 7 bee visits per flower per day per in good weather. Bee visitation, however, was variable and it was greatly different in the three consecutive years with fairly favourable weather. Some cultivars tended to be more and others less visited by honeybees than the others but these differences were not consequent at each occasion. No consequent relationship between the weather and the bee visitation of quince trees could be recognised. It was concluded that .other factors were responsible for the variable nature of the bee activity at quince. Most honeybees tended to collect pollen (51.6% in average for the 3 years) and usually much less gathered for nectar only (19.9%), and the rest of them were mixed behaviour foragers gathering for both (28.5%). There were some slight differences in the foraging behaviour of honeybees at some cultivars but these differences were not always consequent in consecutive years. Also the nectar production of flowers failed to affect the bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees definitely. For the variable nature of bee visitation and bee behaviour at quince flowers, supplementary pollination is needed to achieve as high set of fruits as high is required to a good crop at quince (at least 20-25% because the flower density is low of this fruit tree species). Since the intensity of bee visitation at the flowers is the only reliable estimate of the necessity of supplementary bee pollination further research is needed to explore the relationship between the number of honeybee visits and the consequent fruit set at quince.
One of the most difficult challenge in the everyday practice to describe the canopy growing of fruit trees in an orchard. The photosynthetic activity is the basic of the primer production of plants. The measurement of leaf area and determination of the photosynthetic activity could be occurred with some elaborated methods between experimental c...onditions. In this article we present such an integrated methodology, which is ideal to determine the geometric and spectral characteristic of fruit trees between field conditions.We have carried out laser scanning technology to investigate the geometric-topological characteristics and parallel the active infra-red sensor to collect spectral data about an apple orchard. The surveys were worked out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net in Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. This study shows the filtering and interpretation methods of created data. The produced high accuracy data can be directly used in the precision horticulture. It could serve as a guiding data to implementation a future “virtual horticulture”. Higher spatial and temporal resolution could help for a better recognition of water balance of orchards.
The heavy metals pollution is one of the problems that arise due to the increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals to meet the higher demands of food production for human consumption. In order to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) consumption, levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead were determined in fresh... and dried samples of "Jumbo cot", "Tom cot", "Gold strike", "Gold bar", "Bergeron", "Bergarouge", "Sweet cot", "Yellow cot" and "Zebra" apricot cultivars. Wet digestion of samples with concentrate HNO3 – H2O2 digester mixture and inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy was used. Highest content of As, Cd, Hg and Pb among all cultivars, were 0.5, 0.04, 1.5 and 0.5mg/kg of dried apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples also contain 0.2, 0.016, 0.6 and 0.2 mg/kg of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead respectively. Daily intake of metals, hazard quotient and health risk index to reveal health risk possibility of dried and fresh fruits consumption were calculate and compared.
Twenty-four sour cherry cultivars (genotypes), belonging to four cultivar groups were fingerprinted using microsatellite markers. All genotypes have been arisen from the Carpathian basin, which could be secondary gene centre of sour cherry, since its progenitor species, ground cherry and sweet cherry overlap here. Five SSR primer pairs, earlier... used for fingerprinting Turkish sour cherry germplasm were tested. None of the five primer pairs showed any polymorphism within the cultivar groups. The primer pairs were able to distinguish between the cultivar groups. The Oblacsinszka and the Cigánymeggy cultivar groups were the most difficult to separate, while the Pándy cultivar group was the most distinguishable.
The aim of the first Hungarian apple breeding program for multiple resistance started in the beginning of the nineties is to widen Hungarian apple assortment by good quality, resistant apple cultivars with excellent productivity and ecological capability to the most important fruit growing areas in Hungary. In the first years of seedling produc...tion we made early selection for susceptibility to apple scab in greenhouse. Alter this, field observation of susceptibility to powdery mildew, scab and canker and a yearly negative selection was carried on. From 1997, fruit quality was evaluated as well, and from 2001 the resistance of shoots to Erwinia ainylovora (Burrill/Winslow et al.) was examined using inoculations in greenhouse conditions. From the progenies of crosses in 1992 and 1993, six candidates were announced to national recognition out of hybrids examined for more than a decade. Descriptions of these selections from 'Prima' progenies and the most important data of their resistance, growing habit, morphological characteristics and fruit quality are shown in this article.
The aim of the study was to fi nd out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. Three technologies have been tested in the regions of Siófok and Debrecen-Pallag. The antifrost irrigation proved to be the most advantageous. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, w...hich are thrifty and do not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be suffi cient. By means of a detailed analysis served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0°C near the fl owers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to –8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used anti-frost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. The Frostbuster represents a new technology developed for the same purpose of frost defence. It uses butane burning and produces high (80-90°C) temperature with a strong blast of air. On the protected area sensors have been distributed for measuring temperature and relative humidity. The means of the measurements proved a rise of temperature, which was suffi cient to save the fruit trees until the difference is less than –3–3.5 °C. Our analyses stated that paraffi n candles avert the frost until –4 °C. Its success depends largely on the intensity of air movements. A small wind would be enough to frustrate the effect. The results show clearly the utility of Frostbuster and paraffi n candle combined is approved.
Summary: On the Experimental Farm of the Debrecen University at Pallag, a factorial experiment has been started at springtime of 2008 on an orchard of 12 year old apple trees ’Idared’ grafts on M 26 understocks. The first factor was the growing system (integrated versus ecological), the second was the intensity of pruning (strong versus mod...erate thinning of the crown), whereas the third was the method of pruning (shortening versus thinning of individual shoots). Measurements have been concentrated on shoot growth, flower initiation, fruit set and accumulated yield of two successive seasons. The following conclusions are made.
– In the ecological growing system, strong thinning proved to be beneficial for growth as well as for fruit bearing. – Strong thinning combined with shortening of shoots diminished yield in the first year, whereas
moderate thinning combined with shortening of shoots caused favourable growth and fruit bearing.
– In the ecological growing system, the moderate shoot growth was associated with better flower initiation, which increases the chances of alternate yielding.
– According to our results, the flower initiation of the ‘Idared’ was stimulated univocally by the thinning of shoots regardless of the intensity of pruning.
The right choice of the intensity and method of pruning is a decisive moment of a successful yield in the ecological apple growing system
Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of... pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.
In continuous studies regarding the conservation of the advantageous condition of the soil structure, the highland plantations that are surrounded by living waters have major importance where the erosion of the soil, nutrients and chemicals endangers the quality of the water and the living world of the waters. At the same time the extreme weath...er and dry summers of the past years have made it important to look for soil cultivation solutions and technologies that are capable of decreasing the evaporation of the soil, for enhanced conservation of soil moisture and to improve the soil structure that is required for the growth of healthy roots. In our experiment we have studied soil mulching with organic plant residue, by sods and the effect of the mechanical cultivation on the soil and on the grape through two growing seasons. From the studied treatments, the mulching with organic plant wastage showed the most efficient results from the point of view of the nutrient distribution in the grape and yield. It also had a positive effect on the soil structure and humidity.
Experiments were conducted with four sour cherry cultivars three of that were self-fertile and one was self-sterile. Different levels of fruit set were obtained by limiting, the bee pollination period. The limitation of the duration of the effective bee pollination period definitely affected the fruit set of all the four cvs. The mass of indivi...dual fruits seemed to be related to the final set but this relationship has not find to be definitely expressed statistically at that moderate level of maximum fruit sets (10-14 per cent at the maximum) we obtained in the experiments. For this reason, further research is needed to explore that level of fruit set that can notably reduce the fruit size (mass) to an undesirable extent.
Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer on soil water regime by tensiometers and supporting the water management of the orchard. The results suggest that the physical characteristic of the examined soil is sa...ndy soil with low capillarity and total available water content. The soil water tensions were varied between pF 0 and 2.5 due to the extreme precipitation circumstances in 2010. Tensiometers in 40 cm depth resulted fast (few hours) and significant respond to precipitation than in the 70 cm soil layer. Based on daily measurements, the soils possess a daily fluctuation of soil moisture, however the changes become more moderate in deeper layers. In accordance with all of the results, the amount of drainable water regime was about 20.6 V/V% at 40 cm depth and 18.6 V/V% at 70 cm mainly. The harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by loosening of the compacted soil layer in 50–70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage.
Based on the experiments, an assessment was made to determine for green pepper the amount of nutrients extracted by unit weight of fruit and plant parts not meant to be consumed (foliage, stem, root), i.e. the specific nutrient requirements of pepper. A further objective was to find out to what extent nutrient accumulation in individual plant o...rgans was influenced by differences in production technology and soil conditions.
In the development plan of fruit branch related to 2005, resp. 2010, the authors anticipate a 27, resp. 53% increase. They presage in the apple production a 40, resp. 61 % increase as attainable. As far as stone-fruits are concerned, the prognose amounts to 10, resp. 61% increment. (Except the sour cherry with 25 to 61% increase.) To hit the ta...rget they are planning until 2002' 4000 ha new plantations yearly. In their opinion there is a need of state subsidy (during the 3 years altogether) Ft 21 billion.
Frostbuster is a new system, engine and technology, developed to protect fruit plantations from the frost damage. In order to raise domestic experiences and measurements, experimental approach has been initiated to prove the utility of the system under excessively low temperature in the plantation of the Siófoki Gyümölcstermesztési Zrt (Fru...it Growing Co. Siófok). The first opportunity ensued in the night of February 23-24, 2011, when the temperature sank to 12°C below zero. The question was to see whether we could prevent the drop of temperature by the frostbuster technique. The margin of an anticyclone staying on East Europe secured a stable condition to make tests. The only difference from the imaginable conditions of dangerous frosts was the heat keeping capacity of trees was weak, much inferior than compared with trees in full boom. As a consequence, the tree rows represented much lower heat-capacity and cooled down much quicker than blooming trees in springtime, i.e. their temperature was more variable. The other difference was, compared with an episode in spring that the hard frost lasted much longer than usually in spring. For testing the system, those conditions had even more advantage. Six meteorological stations helped us in measurement. Data-collectors were timed to 1 minute distances and the bulk of data proved to be beneficial for testing the Frostbuster. The results prove that the system is adequate to keep the temperature continuously higher than the surrounding field under excessively low temperatures. Further measurements are still needed to find the optimal solutions fitting to the growing site and its microclimate. Results presented offer a basis of further proofs.
The specific conditions of the formation of three different types of sunburn (sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis, and photooxidative sunburn) have been recently characterized on apple fruit. However, no information is still available on leaf damage. Therefore, the aims of this study were i) to extend the knowledge on fruit damage, ii) character...ize leaf damage and iii) find relationship between fruit and leaf damage. The observations were made on 586 apple accessions in a gene bank orchard located in Hungary. The incidence of the three different types of fruit symptoms were recorded and based on the visual symptoms, two different types of leaf sunburn (sunburn yellowing and sunburn necrosis) were characterized. The most frequent type of fruit sunburn observed was sunburn browning. Photooxidative sunburn was found for less number of accessions, and only some accessions were affected by sunburn necrosis. Fruit were far more susceptible than leaves; (>60%) of the examined accessions were affected by fruit damage and (<3%) by leaf damage. Although a large number of accessions were affected, the percentage of fruit damaged within accessions was not that excessive; ~6% of the fruit assessed showed the symptoms of sunburn browning. Significantly fewer fruit were damaged by sunburn necrosis (~1%) or photooxidative sunburn (~1.4%) than sunburn browning. The percentage of leaves damaged within accessions were simlarly very low (~1%). Close relationship between fruit and leaf damage was found. Accesions with relatively heavily sunburned leaves usually had severe fruit damage as well. Leaves showing sunburn symptoms were usually closely located around those fruit which were sunburned severely. Leaf damage of sunburn was found on spur leaves in a great majority of the accessions damaged, shoot leaves did not seem to be susceptible to sunburn.
Still a large amount of pesticides and spary applications are used in environmentally friendly fruit production systems; therefore, the aim of our study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against a key apple disease (apple scab), and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against apple s...cab, powdery mildew and coding moth in integrated and organic apple orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against apple scab. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly scab incidence in the integrated field. However, scab incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.Mildew incidence was low (below 5%) in both integrated and organic spray programmes. Mildew incidence on both shoots and fruits increased significanly in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard. Incidence of codling moth damage was affected the most by standard vs. reduced spray programmes. Though incidence remained below 10% in the integrated plots, the incidence was significantly higher in the reduced spray programme compared to the standard programme. Similar results were obtained for organic spary programmes, but the incidence was 10 times higher and the differences among the two programmes were larger.,
In this study, the pollen of 14 sweet cherry cultivars (‘Anella’, ‘Duroni 3', 'Badacsony', 'Cristalina', 'Ferbolus', 'Ferrovia',
'Georgia', 'Hudson', 'Kordia', 'Sam', 'Schneiders’, ‘Spate’, ‘Knorpelkirsche', 'Skeena', 'Summit', 'Sylvia') was used to fertilize the emasculated flowers of sweet cherry cv. 'Regina'. Fruit set...was assessed three times during fruit development: 14 May, 30 May and 27 May 2007. We observed full incompatibility among the 14 cultivars for cv. 'Cristalina', which is in the same S-allele group as cv. 'Regina'. After analysis of our data, we have results about fertilization efficiency of the cultivars. Most of the evaluated cultivars are inadequate to fertilize cv. 'Regina' to a sufficient degree. There were two exceptions, cv. 'Sam' and cv. 'Skeena', where percentage of ripened fruits was above 20%. These two cultivars can guarantee such a pollination, which ensures ample quantity of ripened fruits. Results of this study have proved three other cultivars to be quite good pollinators for cv. 'Regina'. In conclusion, ideal pollinators for cv. 'Regina' could be — apart from above-mentioned two cultivars, 'Sam' and 'Skeena' — cvs. 'Sylvia' and 'Bianca', which was suggested by more literature sources.
Self-fertility and fertility at conditions of open pollination in plum varieties is strictly determined by genetic factors. However, rates of fruit set are highly variable according to growing sites as well as to seasons, which may result from a couple of inner and outer conditions, but mainly from the method applied in seizing the facts of fer...tility in the experiments planned including the number of replications of treatments. During three successive years, 4-16 trees of each of the four plum varieties have been selected and 16-64 branches were tagged either for checking their fertility as pollinated freely or isolated excluding the access of foreign pollen. The data of fruit set have been processed in order to determine the variability of the data, subsequently, the number of replications necessary to make reliable decisions. Both autogamy and open pollination displayed multiple differences between branches and trees studied.
A number of 20 branches are needed yearly for each variety, the branches should be distributed on 5 trees at least for checking the autogamy, whereas on 10 trees for the results of open pollination. Each variety and treatment should be represented in three seasons, at least because of the different weather conditions.
The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.
According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishabl...e phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.
An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.
The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.
The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.
The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).