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  • Potential Impact of Innovation on the Competitiveness of Sports

    Innovation and development activities related to sports and the tools created during the processes facilitate performance sports players (athlete, coach, sports manager) to achieve outstanding results in their field.

    The success of sport can have a major impact on the social image of sport and its economic potential, and thus on the future of the sport. In my paper, I undertake to introduce the innovation processes associated with competitive sport and the products that result from these innovative activities, and then examine how and to what extent these supplies influence the economic and professional performance of the sports under investigation.

  • Roguelike Games: The Way We Play

    The spread of the gameable personal computers and game consoles resulted in the diversification of the video game genre, and from the 7th generation of the gaming consoles, the experience support of the games became largely enhanced. These games are now consumable owing to their resolution, the content, the plots are so fascinating so that they tie the gamer to the seat. Gamers seek experiences in the games. Still, such a special genre called roguelike was established, which is characterized by the constant termination of this world of experience in such a way that the gamer, as a results of the high level of difficulty, is obliged to start the game again and again. These new genre games are now leading titles of the new generation consoles, such as Demon’s Souls or the Returnal, gaining huge role in the introduction and sale of the new gaming console PS5. This study aims to reveal specifications of this genre, moreover, aims to describe through empirical research how gamers relate to it, and whether features of these games contribute to the devotion to them or lead to the disappointment from this world of experience. 

  • Healthcare Management Education - Forms and Contents

    Gaining autonomy of a subfield of a private discipline has become plural up to the XXI. century. The appearance of the management discipline at the beginning of the XX. century mostly dealt with the industrial sector, and it was in relationship with the maximalization of efficiency. For now management became on his own in the healthcare sector, certainly regarding the education forms, which is emphasized the numerous educational ways on international level. Educational forms have a binary feature on national level, offering one BA and one MA possibility to learn. The objective of this study is to reveal diversity of the international education forms, illustrating their more important specifications, comparing them with the domestic relationship, all of which may highlight the need for new or novel education forms.

  • The Governance of Sports Organizations in Morocco: the Case of the Royal Moroccan Federation of Judo and Related Martial Arts

    Governance is crucial for effective sports organization management, particularly as sports organizations increasingly adopt business models. Research inquiries into suitable governance practices in sports have grown, reflecting the evolving landscape of sports management. This qualitative research examined the governance of the Moroccan Judo Federation through semi-structured interviews and analysis using Voyant Tools. Stakeholders, including the vice president, board members, coaches, athletes, referees, technical committee members, and financial manager, provided insights on key aspects of governance. The findings emphasized the importance of strong leadership, effective decision-making processes, transparent governance structures, stakeholder engagement, and ethical conduct. However, challenges were identified in decision-making, stakeholder engagement, conflict resolution, and financial management. Stakeholders highlighted the need for inclusive decision-making processes and transparent and accountable governance practices. By addressing these challenges, the federation can strengthen its governance, support judo's growth, and foster fairness and inclusivity.

  • Survey of the Service Offer of Fitness Clubs for Group Classes in Debrecen

    The economic and social importance of the fitness sector is steadily increasing. The range of services provided by fitness centers is expanding and the popularity of fitness clubs is constantly growing. Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The questionnaire included questions about consumer preferences, fitness facilities, trainers qualifications, and activities. Our study was made among eleven fitness clubs in Debrecen. The number of fitness clubs is constantly changing, with each year closing, opening or rebuilding fitness centers, which vary widely in size and number of services offered. The majority of respondent trainers are women as are the participants women in group lessons. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Fitness professionals play an extremely important role in leisure sports, contributing in maintainance and development of the fitness consumers’s health. Their work has a particular responsibility, as they can influence the physical and mental health of others in both positive and negative ways. Not only to avoid the risk of injuries, but also to prevent long-term health damage, fitness professionals play an important role. Controlling the qualifications also be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

  • Investigation of Parental Roles in Relation to Youth Football

    My research is based on the fact that, thanks to the development of sports and the capital flowing into the sector, youth sports are no longer just a useful way of spending free time for children and a mean for educating them for a healthy lifestyle, but also an opportunity to lay the foundation for an adult sports career and, with it, secure future existence. In order for the training to be effective and productive, one of the many components is the existence of parental support. Youth competitive sports pose many challenges for a family and influence their lives from several aspects. In my research, I examined how youth sports affects parents in terms of certain demographic variables, what changes it generates in their family life, and I also paid attention to what expectations the family has about sports. The basis of the study is an online questionnaire survey, which was filled out by more than 700 parents of youth football associations. My research revealed that, in accordance with the previous literature related to the topic, their children's sports have a significant impact on the lives of the parents and they set different expectations regarding it, which are also influenced by various social and demographic factors.

  • Why Public Sector Projects Fail or Succeed in Pakistan- A Model for Evaluating Impact of HR Management Practices on Project Success

    Employees are the most important assets of an organization. As quality human resources become scarce, companies need to pay more heed to the satisfaction and motivation of their employees. If employees are motivated towards work, then it is likely to yield better results. This study will examine the role of Human resource management (HRM) practices upon New product development (NPD). NPD involves technical, marketing, and financial risks organizations undertake for developing new products and services. Effective project planning and control are valuable for decision-making. The analysis of the impact of HRM practices on NPD, project success, and organizational benefit is based on data collected using a cross-sectional design via a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of items related to HR practices, New product development, Project Success, and Organizational benefits adapted from previous studies. Respondents working in 10 large-scale public sector projects executed by National Database & Registration Authority, Pakistan were selected for the study. Therefore, the results of the study can be generalized to similar projects executed by the public sector in Pakistan. From the findings of data analysis, it has been concluded that there is a significant association between HR practices and project success, but no significant relationship has been established between new product development and organizational benefit. Therefore, it can be concluded that HR management practices have a significant impact on public sector project success in the case of Pakistan.

  • A Case Study on Human Resource Management Practice of a Sport Organization

    Human resource with the adequate ability and skills is of decisive importance in all organizations, irrespective of the field of activity in which they operate. It is no different with the life of sports organizations. The human resource management of sports organizations is peculiar which is influenced by, on the one hand, the operating form of an organization, on the other hand, the nature of employment. Those well-known jobs can be also found in the sport organizations which are necessary to operate an organization and carry out the general tasks, at the same time, the amateur or professional athletes turn up as specific human resources. Aim of the study is to explore the specific characteristics of the human resource management of a particular organization, namely Debreceni Egyetem Atlétikai Club Sport Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. (University of Debrecen Athletic Sport Non-profit Public Benefit Purpose Ltd., hereinafter: DEAC Ltd.), primarily focusing on the traditional HR functions. After reviewing the domestic and international specialized literatures, the practice of the examined sport organization will be described by means of case study, document analysis and managerial interview methods. Based on the results, it can be determined that there is no separate HR manager in case of the examined sport organization, due to its size, but the managing director carries out the tasks as an economic and HR manager in one person. From the aspect of organizational operation, the practice of HR functions is similar to the practice of other SME business organizations, at the same time, the management of athletics as human resources means its specific characteristic where the managements of labour supply, career and talent has other interpretation.

  • An Analysis of the Leisure Preference System of Students with Disabilities in the Light of a Study

    With the increase in the number of disabled people and people with disabilities, research on the target group of people with disabilities has gained momentum in recent decades. Research is very diverse, looking at the labor market situation of people with disabilities, their leisure-time habits, or the factors that support and inhibit their sport.

    In our questionnaire research, the leisure and sporting habits of children with disabilities aged 8-18 are described and analyzed (N = 639). Data were processed with spss software, where basic statistics and contextual analysis were performed. The results confirm that passive activities (TV, listening to music) dominate the leisure activities of children with disabilities. Sports consumption (active and passive) was more prevalent among male respondents and less prominent among girls. In the motivation of sports, besides improving the state of health, entertainment and company appeared.

  • Sport Civic Society – Approaches and Facts

    After the change of regime in Hungary in 1989, the domestic civic sphere started to improve, and after numerous change in the legal regulation, currently the Act on Civic Organizations (Act 174/2011.) rules the operation of the sector before all, supplemented by additional legal background. The vital component of the new regulation is possibility of the appearance of the novel organizational form, the civic society, which is quite odd even considering the past and even on international level. The database enabling the statistical overview of the domestic nonprofits publish the end of 2019 provides no information on the data and operational features for this organizational form, which provides a thorough reason for the researcher to be interested in the topic and the organizations. Through the possible secondary data, a primary database of a lately done sports civic organization related research includes such basic data (even its sample height is small), which may be considered as a starting point at the examination of the specifications of the sports related civic societies.

  • The characteristics of civil organisations for sports with special regards to employment

    The aim of our article to compare the characteristics of the civil organisations operating in Hugary and in Romaina with special regards to the employment characteristics of the sport civil associations. We ascertained during our research work that the civil sector of the two investigated countries show several similarities. One of these similarities is the lag from the same sectors operating is Western-European countries. The use of volunteer working is a main characteristic of the employment in the civil sector however the paid work plays an important role too.

  • Crisis of the 9th Generation Game Consoles-Focus on Playstation 5 and Xbox Series X

    By the end of the past centrury, specific computers optimized for gaming, that is meeting the needs of the computer gamers, the so-called game consoles were introduced to the market. At the end of the last year, after waiting for so long, new types of the 9th generation consoles came into the market, produced by the Microsoft and the Sony. Ovation of this appearance is familiar and usual in the profession, which soon became exchanged by the space of dissatisfaction, since now, after  the events of the past months we can declare that gaming on both platforms suffers from serious difficulties. This study, the methodological base of which is composed by case study, secondary analysis of available data, intends to highlight the facts which led to this situation, whether it is a temporary or a permanent situation, and  how the market and the gaming society react to it. Results show that it does not seems to be a temporary phenomenon, and as a result of complex problems market anomalies have appeared, which considerably influences our relationship to the market of the consoles.

  • Floorball position and passive sports consumption in the light of a study

    Research and studies done on floorbal is usually associated with medical studies, however the research and analisys of other fields peakd little interest.Thus, the aim of the study was to present the situation of floorball in Hungary and to examine the opinion of passive sports consumers about the sport. Within this we deal with the competition system of our country and the organizational structure of the federation. In our primary research, from a viewer perspective, we were interviewed as passive consumers in a questionnaire survey about their relationship to floorball. In the questionnaire we discussed whether they had ever met this sport and whether they had seen it or what attracted them to the match. We also tested their willingness to pay. The results were compared with the opinion of one of the domestic leaders of the sport, which in many cases agreed with the results. The questionnaire was completed by 153 people, more than 95% of whom had heard of the sport and most had the opportunity to become familiar with floorball at primary school. 65% of those surveyed have already seen a live floorball match that they have mostly played with friends / acquaintances. This young sport can become more and more popular among young people, not only as a complementary sport.

  • Examining the Social Involvement of Sports Civic Organizations

    Analyzing the information available in the Hungarian database of the CSO, we can see that a significant part of the income of classical non-governmental organizations, especially non-governmental organizations with a sports profile, comes mainly from state or private support. In addition, it can be said that these organizations are essentially non-profit-oriented and play a significant role in social integration and the performance of essential social tasks. Therefore, the relevant question is to what extent and in what way their social embeddedness is realized, in what way do NGOs influence people in the course of their operation? Within this, the study of the social usefulness of sports non-governmental organizations and the sphere of support conditions in the sphere emerges as a priority area. In our study, we undertake to examine the activity of the organizations included in the survey, their social impact and to compare the results with their role in local society. Nearly 50% of the NGOs surveyed in the study have a local scope, and more than 50% typically engage in grassroots and leisure-related activities.

  • Civic Organizations, Sports Civic Organizations and the Control

    Control, az a managerial function cannot be considered as one of the most frequently preferred examinational topics, and it is also valid for the matter of civic organization. Nevertheless, we must not forget about the increasing number and intensive non-profit sphere after the change of the regime, where the civic sphere inside has become determinant. In 2017, 15,2% of the 61 151 nonprofit organizations had a sport profile, and this ratio is higher, 16,2% regarding the 53 613 classic civic organizations (including only associations and foundations).  The specialty of these organizations is the strong relationship with subsidies, and it seems that it has turned into subsidy dependence by now (2/3 of the incomes are subsidies), as a conclusion from the data of the Hungarian Statistical Office. This topic may also become sensible in a way, when an organization cannot account the received subsidies or cannot meet expectations of the judicial expectations, which all raises managerial control related concerns. It also highlights the relationship between civic organizations and control. In this study, we aim to cover some relevant specifications of the topic through the control, as a managerial function, and based on the results we may conclude that a higher ratio of organizations cannot really perform by the expectations.   

  • Sport Consumption, Fan Engagement, Sport Statistics – Post-specific Passing Characteristics in Football

    Digitalization and the explosive development of technology have led to significant changes in football. Due to the increasing amount of data available through various sensors and other data collections, we can observe the rise of data-centric, analytical and statistically oriented thinking in football, which is also of interest to fans. Digitalisation is also closely linked to sports consumption, which is why we have seen significant changes in this area in recent years. The pandemic has further amplified the speed of digital transformation in the sports industry. One of the most important contents for sports organizations and their fans is the in-depth sports statistics and analysis that enhances the consumer experience. In our study, we examined the most common performance indicator in football, passing. Our goal was to examine the position-specific pass characteristics in detail, therefore we also examined different pass properties in our research. As a model for our analysis, I chose the premier league, which has the highest UEFA coefficient. The three rounds (rounds 30-32) of the championship season 2019/2020 have been recorded and analyzed in terms of passes. there was a significant difference between the average number of passes per game between defensive and offensive players (t=7,988, p<0.05). There is also a gradual decrease in the number of passes attempted per match and the accuracy of the pass in the examination of the middle positions when examining the positions in the depth of the pitch. For both pass accuracy and average pass count, the decreasing ranking corresponds to the position of positions on the pitch (order: 1, central defender 2, defensive midfielder 3, inside midfielder 4, attacking midfielder 5, striker). In the value indicator of the position for passes, offensive positions performed more effectively than defensive positions. The extreme positions also stand out among the attacking positions, where in the case of the position value per pass number, 23.3% of the total test was completed and 14% of the amount of the established position value indicators was provided by these posts. Overall, our study points to post-specific pass characteristics and, knowing this, we can state that the comparison of players' passing performance is relevant if the players are in the same or related positions.

  • Green Sports Products – Environmentally Friendly Efforts of some Sports Equipment and Sportswear Manufacturers.

     In today's world, the issue of sustainability has become a cardinal problem on a global scale. The question of sustainability affects society, health, the economy, and the environment to a large extent. The examination of the environmental aspects of sustainability at the points where the sports sector interacts with the environment is considered a basis for research, and an increasing number of international studies and literature deal with this topic. Sports equipment and sportswear manufacturers operate through high numbers of multi-level global supply chains. They constantly strive to meet sudden changes in consumer demand, which results in high demand for raw materials and resources, waste and greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption, all of which contribute to the most harmful environmental effects.

    The aim of this study is to present the environmental protection measures of Nike, Adidas, and Under Armour, multinational manufacturers of sports equipment and sportswear, aimed at raw material usage, waste management, minimizing water consumption, and reducing their carbon footprint, which they are increasingly applying as part of their business strategy.

  • Justification for the Olympic Reform Package Based on Good Practice

    The Olympic Games have always been the pinnacle of sport and achievement. The modern Olympics are held every four years, and the venue is chosen from among the cities that apply. In my research, I wanted to find out the reasons for the decline in the popularity of the Games. To answer this question, I looked at 2 successful Olympics (2000 Sydney, 2012 London) in the hope of identifying success factors that could be adapted to other host countries. I conducted secondary research, reviewed related international and national research, and the available economic data. During the document analysis, I found that the expected costs of organising the Olympic have increased significantly over the last two to three decades, and under-planning is a common feature. As a result of the research, I have found that the most important pillars of successful organisation are a proper organising committee, comprehensive opportunity and risk analysis, accurate planning, sustainability in planning, continuous cost control, private sector support, and the work of volunteers.

  • Wearable technology usage among students of the University of Debrecen

    The lack of physical activity and the growing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle are urgent public health problem worldwide. The problem is also typical of the young population, especially university students, who spend most of the day in a sitting position. Technological development is one of the catalysts for the rise of a sedentary lifestyle, nevertheless, thanks to this, many devices have appeared on the market that can be used to encourage physical activity. The widespread of wearable activity tracker devices – wristwatches, wristbands – among the population shows a constantly increasing trend, with a parallel increase in the amount of data collected about ourselves (step count, calories burned, heart rate). The main goal of the present study derives from the recognition of the gap in this field in the domestic sports science literature therefore our focus is on modern information technology tools in the dimension of physical activity. The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of the university student population towards activity-tracking devices. We conducted a cross-sectional online quantitative survey (questionnaire) among DE GTK students. 340 people filled out the questionnaire correctly. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests (Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test) were used to examine the relationships. The results of the statistical tests were considered significant if p<0.05. We performed the distribution of the variables using the Kolgomorov-Smirnov test. The majority of respondents (55%) have already tried some kind of wearable device that measures physical activity. Every third student (34%) are currently using their device. Those who have not tried these devices so far indicated the price as the primary deterrent. 32% of the students plan to invest in such a device in the future. 39% of device users use an activity tracker bracelet, while 61% use or used a smartwatch. In terms of sex, we did not find any differences in asset ownership. The primary goal of the students (66.8%) was to track their physical activity. The most frequently used function was tracking the number of steps, indicated by 81% of the respondents, followed by heart rate measurement (67%). Most of them (69%) set some kind of goal regarding their number of steps. According to every third student, they moved more as a result of the device and managed to maintain the increased level of physical activity. 44% of the students claimed that their physical activity did not change despite using the device. Students tend to disagree with the positive statements related to the devices in connection with a healthy lifestyle. Although the present study suggests that wearable devices have an impact on students and they track their measured data, it is questionable whether the devices themselves are enough of an incentive for students to develop a healthier lifestyle.

  • Analysis of the Supply of Sport Services by Organizational Aspects

    The spread of consumer societies has led to the commercialization, and the emergence of profit-oriented operating frameworks in the fields of sport. The sports enterprises, involved in the operation of competing groups on professional, spectator fields of sport have already been examined from legal, economic, organizational points of view by a number of international and Hungarian researchers. In this article, we attempt to cover and summarize the Hungarian research approaches on this subject. The motive behind our investigation is that we should launch an organizational examination of the Hungarian profit-oriented sports suppliers in the near future. We plan to analyse the property, financial, income, organizational, management and labor management related situation of these sports enterprises. In order to ground the research, the review nature summary of domestic economic, organization science related secondary examinations is essential, which allows the development of the appropriate research methodology and the comparison of our results with the antecedents.

  • Analysis of Social Media Activities - Through the Examination of Handball Clubs Competing at Different Levels

    In Hungary, handball enjoys special attention and support, this is true not only for our country, but also for Europe, and the sport is gaining more and more space worldwide. One of the biggest innovations of the last two decades is certainly social media, which has reformed the basic strategies related to information transfer and traditional marketing activities. The processes of content production on these platforms have radically changed, which every sports club should pay attention to, as they can gain significant advantages in terms of economics, marketing and community building if they are able to communicate well. Three sports clubs competing at different levels were compared during a qualitative study in terms of their social media marketing strategy activities, namely PICK Szeged, Balatonfüredi KSE – BFKA Balatonfüred and DEAC handball team. The basic concept of this research model was built on how the online marketing communication activities of club teams fighting for different professional goals at different levels differ from each other, as well as what are the development opportunities and aspects that can be used as effectively as possible on social media platforms. The handball club teams agreed on several research questions, but a significant difference could also be discovered in one area, in which the professionals responsible for social media disagreed or represented a different point of view. Looking at my results, it can be concluded that behind a successful online marketing strategy there is always serious preparation and planning work, as well as the diversification of content production on different platforms, because the consumer communities of the platforms are also different from each other.

  • Why do not people attend football matches in Hungary?

    Both international and domestic research on passive sport consumption focuses on the motivations of fans. However in Hungary, unlike the examples of North America and Western Europe, we have to look for answers to the question of why people do not go to football matches. In order to find an answer to this question, we conducted an online survey with a number of items of 347 people. For the latter a scale measuring absence from sport consumption was used and the reliability of the scales was tested by Cronbach's alpha calculation. After our principal component analysis, we developed 5 internal and 5 external factors, on which we conduct hypothesis test along demographic and sports consumption variables. Based on our results, we have established that, contrary to public opinion, the low number of spectators in Hungarian football matches is not only and primarily due to unsucces and the low quality of matches. Our respondents are mostly kept away from stadiums by football-related government measures, as well as by preferring to participate in other recreational program opportunities.

  • Examination of Sports-Related Expenditure by Competitive Sportsmen and Women

    The economic role of sport has grown worldwide in recent decades, and Hungary is no exception. Sport is one of the most important industries, offering significant economic benefits to the country. Accordingly, the sports economy is attracting increasing attention and playing an increasingly important role in both the international and domestic economy In the study, we looked at how much people spend on sport activity. A questionnaire survey was conducted. In addition to demographic data, we asked about their sporting habits and their willingness to spend on sport. The majority of respondents are competitive athletes, mostly competing in team sports. The results show that respondents who compete in team sports have a much higher expenditure, on a monthly basis, than people who compete in individual sports.

  • Studies on Consumer Motivation Among Users Of Fitness Services

    The rate of inactivity experienced world-wide is the cause of numerous health problems. The sedentary lifestyle of the population represents a great burden to a nation’s economy. The health indicators of Hungary are below the European average, not only those concerning physical activity, but also with respect to  smoking, nutrition, and alcohol consumption [1]. In 2013, only 38% of the Hungarian population exercised regularly, while 62% rarely or never [2]. The diseases associated with inactivity represent a higher burden to the economy than the costs of raising the level of activity would be [3]. Based on previous studies, the motivating factors for leisure athletes in Hungary are the preservation of health, to increase physical strength, relaxation, recreation, the love of exercising, and stress management [4; 5]. The sports facilities available to a wide range of people, the fitness clubs offer the possibility to join regular sports activities, which is why it is necessary to examine the motivation behind the participation of athletes taking part in the trainings provided by fitness facilities. Many previous studies examined the goals of athletes and the motivational factors behind exercising, and came to the conclusion that trainings held in fitness rooms and at home are related to intrinsic motivational factors, while taking part in other sports activities are related to intrinsic motivational factors [6; 7]. The focus of my study are leisure athletes using the services provided by fitness clubs (753 people), of whom I evaluated the motivational factors behind taking part in trainings. The results show that the motivational factors driving consumers of fitness services show a ranking that is identical to those of other leisure athletes, with most of them taking part in fitness trainings in order to preserve their health, to improve physical strength, and for recreational purposes, while the improvement of physical appearance also plays an important role.

  • Sports Civic Organizations-Subsidies and the Subsidy Exposure

    When we discuss the topic of civic organizations, especially sports profile civic organizations we need to note and comment that issue how these organizational forms are able and capable to accept subsidies. The related data of the Central Statistical Office (KSH) highlight the phenomenon that incomes of the classic civic organizations are mainly composed of state or private source donations. Although there is a really and pretty predictable subsidy system in the field of civic sphere currently, from one hand the distribution of the single subsidy forms considerably vary, on the other hand it result in the considerable amount of available financial resources. The fact whether subsidy forms and subsidy incomes have relationship with the addition alvariables of the organizational operation, such as subsidies provided, employment relationship, and expenditures may acquire special attention at the management of organizational operation together with the planned strategic interventions in the field of the civic sphere. 

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