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Experience seeking behaviour of generation X and Y in Hungarian health tourism
Published August 21, 2020
47-56

In tourism there is an increasing demand for those medical and wellness supplies that offer enyojable experience. The appearance of television had huge influence on the formation of leisure time amongst X generation (born between 1965 and 1976). The aim of the present study was to compare generation X and Y according to experience seeking behav...iour. We supposed that Y generation is more involved in wellness tourism and active recreation than the older X
generation. The sample consisted of 275 persons. X (n= 60) and Y (n = 89) was questionned on the internet. X (n = 84) and Y (n = 42) was questionned in Barack Thermal Hotel & Spa****. We used own, non-valid questionnaires. Amongst generation X, there were 33 persons who primarily wanted relaxation and time off. 16 persons chose recreation, 9 had medical purposes and 2 persons wanted to have amusements. Amongst generation Y, there were 55 persons who
primarily wanted relaxation and time off. 16 persons chose recreation, 1 had medical purposes and 17 persons wanted to have amusements. We did not find statistically significant differences between generation X and Y in the aspect of active recreation and wellness tourism. Further research required to differentiate experience seeking behaviour amongst generations.

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Testing monetary exchange rate models with the Westerlund panel cointegration test
Published August 6, 2020
172-179

Time series testing of long-run monetary models of exchange rate determination in most cases fails to support the conjectures of the theory. The empirical literature increasingly uses the panel technique when testing monetary exchange rate models because the power of the panel unit root and panel cointegration tests seems higher than the pure t...ime series tests. In this paper we examine the validity of the monetary exchange rate models over the period 1996Q1-2011Q4 for US dollar exchange rates of 15 OECD countries using Westerlund’s 2007 panel cointegration tests. We found moderate empirical support for monetary exchange rate models.

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The State of the Bulgarian Agricultural Sector in the First Period (2007-2013) of the EU Membership
Published August 21, 2020
65-76

Nowadays it is imperative in the growing competition that the owners and managers of retail shops know the expectations of customers. In our paper we discuss the impact of time, which is a narrow resource, on shopping with the help of secondary bibliography research and a questionnaire based on a small sample.

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The Evaluation of the Procurement of the Grande-Inox Ltd
Published August 21, 2020
77-86

Nowadays in the growing competition every enterprise has to strive to meet all the customer expectations and to serve the customers at a higher level than their competitors, In order to meet these requirements the procurement, the first phase of the trade in goods has to be appropriate from every aspect. To offset the negative aspects of the ec...onomic crisis and to meet the sales targets the sales have to be smooth, so the procurement also has to be adequate from the aspects of quantity, quality, choice and also of time. For this purpose we have analysed and evaluated the procurement at the Grande-Inox Ltd and have made suggestions.

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The Present and Future of e-Language Learning as Reflected in slovake.eu, the multilingual website for the Slovak language
Published August 6, 2020
105-114

Slovake.eu is described as an example for an online, multifunctional, free website teaching a small language. The website is multilingual and includes a forum, a media library, additionally facts about Slovakia and the language. Several terms have been suggested to describe online language tuition and e-learning, which is testimony to the vibra...nt development of the field. The most general term is e-learning, which refers to learning helped by electronic tools, especially via the Internet. Online language tuition consists of lessons designed to help achieve a specific level of competence. Although nowadays many language-learning tools are available on the Internet, according to a survey I conducted only around half of the people asked are using or have used them before. Saving money and time is given as the main reasons for e-learning. Online tuition can be successful and efficient if it is offered for free or low-priced but in good quality.

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The Comparison of Aircrafts’ Maintenance Strategies from the Viewpoint of Change Management
Published August 21, 2020
228-234

A new aircraft has appeared at the flying troops of the Hungarian Defence Forces which also brought about the emergence of a new maintenance strategy. The new strategy meant a switch of the operating technology at the same time, and it also posed a set of management problems, especially in certain stages of the conversion process. The morphosta...tic or morphogenetic nature of the change has been brought up as a fundamental question; the successful realization of this change requires various management procedures. In the present study I make an attempt to compare the two operation strategies that are simultaneously present, from which it may emerge that what processes are affected by the changes and at what level they are affected. In my view the usefulness of the analysis lies in the fact that the efficiency of integrating a new aircraft into the system may considerably increase in the future.

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Foreign trade possibilities of the Fruit – Vegetable sector in the future
Published August 6, 2020
102-112

Hungary can be considered as a small, open economy, therefore the domestic market doesn’t provide enough possibility to sell the grown and produced agricultural products, exportation is vital. In the year of 2010 Hungary had trading activity on the field of agricultural products with 151 countries, which has grown to 164 countries by 2013. Ac...cording to the Strategy of the Fruit- Vegetable Sector the production target is 3,5 million tons for the year of 2020. This target has already been reached in 1990, since then the average production is 2 – 2,5 million tons yearly. We can increase our foreign trade only if the properly classified, carefully packed products can be delivered in the requested quality on the contracted time. Perhaps this is the most sensitive territory where the Hungarian producers are falling back from the international trends. Due to the lack of cash and capital the technological and technical development of the is missing, the trade channels are getting more and more narrow, which will lead to loosing of the market. Nowadays the main problem of the Hungarian Vegetable-Fruit sector is the diminishing quantity of marketable goods, despite of the fact, that the sector could remain a net exporter. The presence of the black market is overwhelming in Hungary which makes the sector vulnerable and hard to regulate. Despite of several good examples and successful enterprises it is still true that the majority of the producers are lacking the needed technological, marketing, management and trade knowledge. They insist on using their obsolete methods, and not willing to learn and change. There is a problem in the forecast of the expected yield. The Vegetable-Fruit sector is the
most export driven part of the Hungarian agricultural sector as it is selling more than the 50% of all production abroad. In order to be sustain this share it would be fruitable to have a more favorable tax policy and the revision, cancellation of the „Primary producer” system. In each case the main problem is that there is no common base and trust between the trader, producer and management. This is why it might happen that a member of the TÉSZ is willing to sell his product outside the system, because this way he thinks to have safe income. As the organization doesn’t have a safe base of products for sale they can not develop the market and if they have no safe market, due to the missing trust there will be no safe base of products for sale, and the circle is closed and the whole problem starts again.

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Communication Strategy Use in English Conversational Discourse
Published August 6, 2020
61-67

The ultimate goal of language learners is to communicate efficiently and fluently in the given second language, which is hard work to reach. They are learning the language for long years, and it may happen that theoretically they are familiar with all the grammar intricacies, but practically they are not able to ask for even a glass of water in... real situations. The question is whether the use of communication strategies could help to cope with the difficulties by their direct teaching. A few years ago I conducted a research to find out what kind of interactive strategies the learners are using and to provide a full list of them. The publications at that time did not deal with strategies specifically in the teaching material. I used my own list. The latest books, however, put a stress on useful phrases. So the question is whether the fact that they draw attention to strategies in separate sections, will bring significant changes in the learners’  communication.

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The Air Transport Capability of the Hungarian Defence Forces up to Now, Future Development Opportunities
Published August 21, 2020
216-227

The accession to the NATO presented new challenges to the Hungarian Defence Forces. In order to meet the requirements of the federal obligations, besides the protection of the state we must take a role also in conflict areas even thousands of miles away from Hungary. One of the basic conditions to achieve this, is that the forces offered need t...o arrive at the right area of application at the right time in a cost-effective way. The purpose of this article is to present an overview on how the Hungarian Defence Forces are able to meet these requirements. An important matter is whether the air transport capacity should be provided by our own capabilities or by other (civil or military) sources. In order to answer this question I am going to analyse the processes which have influenced the development of air transport capacity over the last 10-15 years.

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Controlling Methods for SMEs’ Risk Reduction
Published August 21, 2020
23-30

A substantial proportion of entrepreneurs strive to reduce the risk of their activity, which means they refer to a number of methods known, but rarely applied by them. Risk reduction activities can be totally interconnected with the ‘controlling’ approach and methods that are still not well known to a lot of company executives, but the intr...oduction and application of those methods provide tangible results for business decision-makers within a relatively short period of time. The paper presents the size, activity, financial process characteristics, planning features, suppliers and buyers' evaluation practices of the investigated SMEs using correlation analysis methods. The study is a continuation of a research topic that has been going on for many years and is based on data collection from the years 2015 and 2016. We have evaluated the planning and management features of a total of 53 micro, small and medium-sized enterprises by questionnaire processing.

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Methodological paradigm shift in teaching foreign languages at college
Published August 6, 2020
46-50

It is not easy to bridge the gap between the labour market expectations and our students’ foreign language competence. It is a real challenge for the language teacher, and at the same time, it is a permanent motivation for innovation and perfection. I wish to present how blended learning in its broad sense has been used at English language te...aching at the college. I do believe that both language learning and life-long language practice can be made more effective and more
enjoyable by changing methodological concepts, exploiting ICT, applying tasks that enhance communicative competence.

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The Opportunities for the Profit Producing Ability of Subsistence Farms
Published August 21, 2020
124-128

In order to be able to prepare accurate calculations we had to determine the area and number of plants both in the case when the seeds were sown in the field and when they were in seedling transplants. The time requirements of the treated areas and also material used associated with the different modes of propagation varied. There are significa...nt differences between the field and forcing technologies as for construction-related costs. The expense and cost calculations were based on the operation. The calculation includes the operating natural inputs (labour, material used), and are expressed in monetary value: the costs (wages, cost of materials). Costing does not count with the common charge, since the production process has not been completed yet. In this calculation the cost of labour is recognized. We calculated the area which can give enough profit to support the farmer and his family.

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Analysis and comparison of the asset situtation of the hungarian poultry and pork sector between 2005 and 2015
Published August 21, 2020
67-75

Meat has been playing an important role in the nutrition of humanity from the beginning of time; therefore meat is a fundamental foodstuff. Global population is steadily increasing and people consume more and more foodstuff with high added value including meat and dairy products. In context of meat production and consumption, poultry and pork s...ector are the major predominant sub-sectors not only nationally, but also internationally. Pork sector had a definite leading role until the end of 1990s. However, this trend has undergone changes and poultry sector is predicted to have this leading role, according to current trends. The aim of our research is to reveal and analize what impacts this structural change have on businesses in these sectors including their asset situations.

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The Examination of the Factors Influencing the Tween Segment’s Consumer Behaviour and Attitude towards Advertisements
Published August 21, 2020
31-46

The importance and the relevance of the topic based on consumption psychology and advertising psychology can be approached from several aspects. The actors of business life managed to achieve that young people have become one of the most important target markets. Namely nowadays children and youngsters have been the most preferred target market..., they are the  future (consumers). Apart from this we live in a consumer society where goods are characteristically not only the tools of need fulfilment, but important influencing factors at the same time that form the basis of the formation of social status differences. In our present paper we examine that in 2015 in the web age how members of generation Z approach the subject of advertisements, what type of attitudes they have, and how these formulate their consumer behaviour or what are the motivating factors influencing nowadays’ teens when a customer decision is made. Hence our aim is to examine the consumer and media usage behaviour, the influencing factors, the motives, brand priority and attitudes towards advertisements of the tween segment living in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County.

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International agreements in the area of tourism
Published August 6, 2020
143-148

It is not a secret that tourism plays an important role in the development of not just any specific country but the global economy in general. It also promotes urban development in such sensitive areas as coasts and islands, increased water consumption and waste production, fragmentation of habitats and loss of biological diversity. Tourism ind...ustry is also one of the reasons behind higher demand for transportation, particularly those types that damage the environment most – personal vehicles and aircraft. “In 2005 in Europe, about 59% of the tourists arrived to their destination by car, 34% by airplane”. According to UNWTO International Tourism Barometer, the international tourism was growing at the rate of 5% in the first nine months of 2013. The key driving force behind this growth is Europe (mainly Central and Eastern Europe) and Asia-Pacific region. Thus, tourism, while playing a truly significant role in the global economy, at the same time causes major damage to the environment. Hence the urgent need to eliminate negative consequences of tourism activities. This can be done by promptly regulating the activities of agents in this area. However, due to the global value of tourism, this process requires not just the local regulators getting involved, but joint effort by many countries. Therefore, international agreements between countries as the primary regulators of tourism activities are becoming increasingly important.

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EXPLORING NON-VALUE-CREATING PROCESSES USING THE VSM METHOD THROUGH A CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE’S MANUFACTURING SYSTEM.
Published June 30, 2020

One of the major problems in Hungary is the low level of productivity. This low level is particularly noticeable among small and medium-sized enterprises. In most regional and Western European countries, the average productivity level of enterprises of this size is higher than in Hungary. The current and expected shortage of labor in the near f...uture poses a challenge to businesses. Creating wage growth that contributes to retaining the workforce can only be achieved in the long run by increasing productivity. If an organization is unable to achieve productivity gains, it will fall short of both domestic and international-global competition. The application of modern management and management systems, such as lean management, can be a key element in increasing the productivity and competitiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. Lean management is one of the most common and effective process organization methods and paradigms used in the secondary and tertiary sectors, so much so that the use of lean-based management methods has in many cases become a competitive criterion and fundamental.

In our research, we prepare the value process mapping of a CNC metal cutting SME, including the value process of CNC milling and turning processes. This value process mapping method offers an opportunity to make losses in the industry become known and preventable. Through the preparation of the map, it is possible to illustrate the processes that produce mud and thus reduce the lead time and increase productivity. In the course of our study, we present the practical implementation of the method through the example of a company manufacturing metal parts machined with CNC technology.

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The Typical Features of the Regional Specialization in Poultry-Farming in Hungary Today
Published August 21, 2020
34-42

The territorial location issues of livestock in the European Union and also in our country have got into the focus over the past few years. There are different animal structures in the regions of our country and different animal species have become dominant. The location and the development of certain animal types are affected by a number of so...cio-economic factors (the history of breeding, ownership, labour and capital assets, etc.). In the case of the spatially differentiated species-structure we have to reckon with a variable profitability, human resources, technical standards, different risk factors and market opportunities in the different regions. The topicality of the research theme is enhanced by the fact that nowadays the spatial structure of animal production has become a key issue. That is why more and more research is needed in Hungary, primarily research studying and analysing the structural changes and principals of animal production (poultry production) in order to ensure that each region would have a rational and efficient breed-structure. In addition, it is expected in modern market economies that the various regions should specialize in animal species, for which they have the most favourable breeding conditions. In order to follow the poultry stock changes (spatial and structural) in the last decade, it was important to consider the spatial specialization of different species over time.

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Examination of the Notes to the financial statement through the example of enterprises engaged in sports activities
Published August 21, 2020
61-66

In the globalized and accelerated world of our time, it is essential that enterprises have up-to-date information. Only a company that is in possession of the necessary information is able to meet the challenges of business life. One source of public information might be the annual statement prepared and published in accordance with the stipula...tions of Act C of 2000. The annual statement consists of three parts: the balance sheet, the profit and loss account and the notes to the financial statement. The text-based information of the notes to the financial statement are for the more accurate interpretation of numerical data. The notes to the financial statement of certain market participants (consumers, suppliers, competitors, etc.) might support efficient operation of companies, their proper decision-making and risk assessment. In present study, the notes to the financial statement of companies identifying sports activities (Hungarian NACE 931) as their primary activity were utilized. By means of text mining, it was examined what information these notes to the financial statement include from amongst the mandatory information required by the Accounting Act.

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The Effect of the Economic Crisis on Foreign Currency Loan Holders
Published August 21, 2020
5-12

Since the appearance of the foreign currency denominated loan it has received a lot of good and bad criticism because - due to the crisis of 2008 - the exchange rate movements and the loan instalments increased. While the foreign currency credit was favourable at the time of borrowing, later it became a big problem for the borrowers. The crisis... of 2008 was unexpected for the countries who have foreign currency loans, and who did not have crisis management mechanisms which could help to manage the crisis. Because of the crisis more and more people have got into trouble about their increasing loan instalments. Since 2008 the Hungarian government has been trying to help the Hungarian people with crisis management measures, like exchange rate pegging, home protection action plan, repayment at a fixed exchange rate, converting the loan into Hungarian forint, etc. Since February 2015 the compulsory conversion of loan into HUF has been in force and it has helped a lot of people having a foreign currency loan but there are still people who cannot take advantage of the settlement and need similar state help to decrease their credit burden. So unfortunately the problem of people having a foreign currency loan has not been solved completely but we are on the good track.

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Controlling characteristics of SMEs in the Észak-alföldi Region
Published August 6, 2020
259-263

Since the regime change in Hungary, the main federal task has been to strengthen the small and medium-sized ventures. The size of the category plays an important role in the employment as well as in the GDP production. Those areas that make businesses strong and reduce the risk of their activities are in the center of attention in this hardly p...redictable economic era. One of those areas is the views and methods of controlling which is still hardly adoptable to most of the CEOs in businesses. The introduction and the use of these operations give concrete results within a relatively short period of time, making the decision makers’ job easier at the companies. The study includes the examined SMEs, the design of business characteristics, the valuation of suppliers and customers, the production and the prime costs of the service. The vision of SMEs that characterizes the application of the tools and methods of controlling are also included.

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SOME SPECIFICITIES OF THE CURRENT ASSETS OF HUNGARIAN DISTRICT HEATING SUPPLIERS BASED ON THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF 2009-2017
Published August 21, 2020
34-41

The present study focuses on the asset-structure of the Hungarian district heating suppliers with a special interest in their current ratio and the structure of their current assets. The research is aimed toward the examination of the current ratio and the structure of the assets serving short-term obligations and toward finding the characteris...tics of these companies in terms of their liquidity. The study also aims to find specificities characterizing the sector of district heating supply that can later be used for other research purposes. In terms of its methodology, it is based on report analyses with the reports of 72 Hungarian companies as sample population. Data retrieved from the reports is complemented with certain technical and economic information and analyzed in the time frame of nine years (2009-2017).

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Building Intercultural Competence through Language Education
Published August 6, 2020
148-157

This paper seeks to highlight the importance of intercultural competence in language learning and teaching. All intercultural encounters incorporate communication between individuals who, rather than belonging to only one culture, belong to a diverse array of different cultures at the same time. They share some of these cultures with the people... they are talking to, and some of them they do not. And some of these cultural variations and affinities will influence the way they communicate, and some of them will be totally insignificant.

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The significane of environmental taxes used for mitigating the environment harmful impacts of road transportation
Published August 21, 2020
47-53

Logistics is one of the most important economic sectors of the European Union, with nearly 1.134 million companies engaged in the field of transportation in the EU. The global logistics market is expected to show further expansion in the forthcoming years. On the other side stands global warning which is one of the greatest problems for the tim...e being. The European Commission has announced a cross-sectoral investment programme worth more than 10 billion euros (nearly 3,200 billion Hungarian forints) for the planning, development and implementation of low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies to improve Europe’s global competitiveness. The common data base of OECD and the European Environment Agency (EEA) currently lists 375 environmental taxes and approximately 250 environmental fees or charges in the OECD countries. Among the EU member states, Sweden, for example, introduced a tax system which includes the essential elements of eco-tax more than 10 years ago. Hungary has several of such tax types, such as the excise tax on fuel, the energy tax, the energy suppliers’ income tax or the vehicle tax.

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Studies on the Land-Use History of Kétsoprony Village in the 19th-20th Century with Focus on the Changes of the Biotope Network
Published August 21, 2020
332-340

The biotope network has an important role in the case of intensive agricultural landscapes. Our aim was to examine the history of land-use of an intensively managed area – as Kétsoprony village – in the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) region and to study the changes in the biotope network, especially the tree rows in time. The biotope netw...ork and mainly the tree rows may be importance from the aspect of nature conservation because land use has been dominated by arable lands in the research area for centuries. We have identified the main stages of structural changes by studying historical maps and considering quantitative and qualitative features. We have found that the rate of arable lands was continuously growing while the length of tree rows was decreasing in the 19-20th centuries.

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Application of mathematical and statistical paradoxes in tourism
Published August 6, 2020
230-239

The paradox is a well-founded statement / method, derived from a specific area of science and the application possibilities worth to try a different area of the farm in their respective fields. The world of chances and its mathematics is abound of paradoxes. Mathematics and statistics are separate disciplines and related sciences of many areas ...at the same time. Application of advanced education and research is essential. The study presents analyzing evaluation options in
the field of tourism based on two paradoxes (regression and maximum-likelihood) factor analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis.

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