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The effect of the sowing time on the yield and oil content of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) in different crop protection models
Published March 5, 2015
57-61

The field research was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Debrecen at Látókép on calcareous chernozem soil in Hungary. We examined the effects of the sowing time and the fungicide treatment on the yield, oil yield and oil content of two different genotypes of sunflower hybrids (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We a...pplied three different sowing times (early, average, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control =no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).

During our research, we received better results in 2013 than in 2012. The application of different planting times affected the yield and oil yield production and the oil content as well. The optimal circumstances for yield and oil yield production were provided by late planting in 2012, while by average planting time in 2013. The highest oil yield results were reached by late plating in both years (except for hybrid PR64H42 in the double treated parcels where average plating time turned out to be more effective). The correlation between the plating time, the yield and oil yield production and the oil content was strong in 2012 (r=0.600**, r=0.639**, r=0.590**). On the other side, in 2013, the correlation was medium between the planting time, the yield production and the oil content.

We applied Pearson’s correlation to analyze the effect of the double fungicide treatment on the yield and oil yield production (2012: r=0.498**, r=0.407**). These results were better in 2013 (r=0.603**, r=0.623**), besides, the double fungicide treatment also increased the oil content (r=0.315**).

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Effect of fish feeds with high vegetable oil and low fish oil content on the growth performance and innate immune system of common carp (preliminary results)
Published December 21, 2009
7-12

Fish meal and fish oil are very important components of fish feeds used by aquaculture. They contain poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential nutrients both for fish and human nutrition. However, sources of fish meal and fish oil are limited, there is a need for new feed components to supply the increasing fish production and the incre...asing demand for fish feed. The aim of AQUAMAX project, supported by the European Union is to replace the fish meal and fish oil with vegetable oils. As a participant of this project, group of immunology in Research
Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI) examined the effect of three different fish feeds on the growth performance, innate immune response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection of common carp in an in vivo experiment. Fish feed supplemented with Camelina oil, but still containing fish oil significantly increased growth performance of experimental fish and their resistance against the infection. Fish feed containing linseed oil only did not enhance the growth performance, and it had a negative effect on resistance against infection. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that fish oil used in fish feeds cannot be replaced effectively with vegetable oils, but can be supplemented with them. 

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Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010
126-131

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

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Testing of paraffin oil efficiency against grape powdery mildew in Eger wine region
Published February 18, 2016
73-80

The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of paraffin oil against powdery mildew in Eger wine region. The experiment has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 with Chardonnay and Kékfrankos grape varieties, which have different resistance against powdery mildew. The effectiveness of the oil was examined on leaves and clusters (fre...quency and intensity). This oil was effective against Erysiphe necator infection on field trials in Chile and Brazil. The spread of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was also inhibited by this material in some experiments conducted in Spain and France.

The differences between oil treatments represented the sensitivity of the grape varieties in accordance with the applied dosages. The oil was effective against powdery mildew with different extent as a result of the so called ”vintage effect”. In 2013, the treatment of the highest dosage (D3) didn’t differed significantly in frequency and intensity of infection from the regular treatment (clusters of Kékfrankos, leaves of Chardonnay). In 2014, the oil was not so effective against powdery mildew compared to 2013. No remarkable differences were detected between the treatments due to the strong pressure of powdery mildew. Furthermore, no any effect of the lowest dosage (D1) was detected in the case of the sensitive clusters of Chardonnay and leaves of Kékfrankos in both experimental years.

In summary, the oil treatment has an effect against powdery mildew, however this efficiency largely depends on the vintage characteristics and the pressure of powdery mildew. Further investigations are neccessary, for example field trials with combinations of other sprays. The oil can be useable as fungicide with proper care in eco-friendly integrated and bio (ecological) viticulture.

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Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
Published September 5, 2018
59-74

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

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Effects of paraffine oil on leaf and berry mycobiota on two grape varieties
Published October 24, 2016
61-66

Application of fungicides have advantages and also some direct or indirect disadvantages, such as imbalance and/or fungicide resistance in microbe population. To avoid these problems the development of alternative, eco-friendly methods like mostly spraying with oils are in the focus nowadays. The investigations of the effects of fungicides on m...icrobiota in some cultivations can give a more complex view to this topic and developmental possibilities. In the present study, our aim was testing of the effects of paraffine oil (as alternative fungicide) on microbial properties (CFU and rate of filamentous fungi and yeasts) of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos leaves and berries.

Our results from 2014 showed that the application of paraffine oil as sole spray agent can decrease the presence of saprophytic filamentous fungi on the berries of Chardonnay (susceptible for fungal infections). In the case of Kékfrankos berries opposite properties were observed, which may be the result of the absorption of oil by the thick wax layer of this variety. The oil treatment did not affect the yeast population of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos berries contrary to negative effect of the regular pesticide treatment. The selective fungicide effect of paraffine oil against filamentous fungal population caused the accumulation of yeast cells in the mycobiota of grape berries. The careful use of this yeasts in spontaneous fermentation can improve the aroma profile of wines. The year of 2015 did no prefer the growth of fungi, therefore no interesting properties were detected in the mycobiota of grape varieties. The occurence of the harmful saprophytic filamentous fungi predicted to be increased in mild climate agricultures as the result of the climate change.

In summary, the paraffine oils are seem to be promising tools for the eco-friendly control of harmful fungi of grapes.

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Feeding Possibilities for Influencing the Fatty Acid Composition of Broiler Body
Published December 6, 2005
29-34

The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of feeding lard, linseed oil, sunflower oil and soya oil on performance, chemical and fatty acid composition of broilers. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 male broilers. They were fed 3 phase diets. These diets were isonitrogenous, isoenergetic and contained 6% oil. The result o...f the experiment shows no effect of different oil sources on growth performance in male broilers, however the fatty acid composition differed (p<0,05).

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Changes in fatty acid composition of pork rich in conjugated linoleic acid frying in different kind of fats
Published December 21, 2009
31-35

In 1990ys antiatherogen, antioxidant and anticarcinogen effect of conjugated linolacids (CLA) was detected. From this reasons, our aims in this study were producing pork rich in CLA and studying the change of fatty acid composition of the produced pork cooked different kind of fats. For frying palm and sunflower oil and swine fat were used. Thi...gh was cutted for 100 g pieces. Meat pieces were fried at 160 °C for 1 and 8 minutes. Estimation of frying data it was determined that higher (0.13%) CLA content of pork was spoiled (60-70%) except in case of swine fat cooking,
because it is extremly sensitive for oxidation and heating. Swine fat has higher (0.09%) CLA content than plant oil, protecting the meat’s original CLA content. Cooking in swine fat did not have significant effect on fatty acid composition of meat. Low level of palmitic acid contect of sunflower oil (6.40%) decreased for half part of palmitic acid content of pork (24.13%) and it produced cooked meat with decreased oil acid content. Contrary of above, linoleic acid content of fried meat was increased in different folds as compared to crude pork. If it was fried in sunflower oil with high level linoleic acid increased (51.52%) the linoleic acid content in fried pork. The linoleic acid content of the high level CLA pork increased four times (48.59%) to the crude meat (16.59% and 12.32%). The high palmitic acid content of palm fat (41.54%) increased by 60% the palmitic acid content in fried pork, low stearic acid (4.44%) and linoleic acid content (10.56%) decreased the stearic and linoleic acid content of crude meat.

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Effect of raised level α-linolenic fatty acid diet on broiler meat quality
Published July 16, 2007
29-33

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased α-linolenic content in food on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Birds were fed three-phase diets, contained four different fat sources:... lard, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and soybean oil. According to the experiment, the different oil sources had no effect on growth performance, but the fatty acid composition of diets was reflected in the meat fatty acid profile. We could detect just slight change in colour in the treated meat, which was not caused by the decreased pigment content. The detected change in colour during the storage was not in relation to initial PUFA content. TBA level did not prove the accelerated lipid peroxidation which was expected in case of higher α-linolenic containing the meat. The data obtained in meat storage trial, could not prove clearly the negative effect of the higher α-linolenic content of the meat.

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The effect of dried herbs on the souring of sunflower oil
Published July 31, 2012
87-89

Many herbs have antioxidant activity, which can replace the use of potencionally harmful synthetic antioxidants. Sunflower oil fortified with eight different plants and stored at room temperatur in my experiment. Specified intervals with determination of peroxide value, FFA, iodine value, anisidine value and TOTOX value followed the quality of ...the sunflower oil.

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The marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) drug essential oil agents change under different fertilization settings in small plot trial
Published October 24, 2016
57-60

During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization setting in small-plot trial. We measured SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) we examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active in...gredients of essential oil's percentage.

Based on the results, it was concluded, the essential oil agents' percentage breakdowns significantly depending on the cropping technologies. Besides that it is possible, based on Pearson's correlation test the marigold essential oil agents relationship can also be a major factor.

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Analysis of different fertilization settings’ effect in the case of the summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) yield and active agents
Published June 30, 2018
101-105
During our research we investigated the Mediterranean summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) nutrient requirement with different fertilization settings in a small plot trial. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry drug mass, and the presence of the main essential oil active agents under the different f...ertilization settings using SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph mass spectrometer).
From the drug’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the obtained results, in our opinion, the N30P40K60 nutrient requirements were ideal in 2015, while the N60P80K120 nutrient requirement showed the best values in 2016. A significant relationship is assumed between the different fertilization settings and the essential oil active agents’ distribution. During the analysis of data, we compared three of the savory’s essential oil active agents’ percentage of presence in the nutrient requirement samples.
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Comparative study of different soybean genotypes in irrigation technology
Published May 23, 2019
91-95

In many places in Hungary, early maturity soybean can be successfully grown. The earlier maturity group of soy which ripened in 110–125 days in most crop areas in Hungary. However, to achieve excellent results, the selection of proper varieties is important too. Successful cultivation is largely dependent on the macro and microclimate of the ...production area, the nutrient supply of the soil and the cultivation technology. Soybean can be produced in places where the amount of precipitation is right, as the lack of water results in lower yields and deteriorated oil and protein concentrations. In the following study, 2 years (2016 and 2017) are compared to the yield, protein and oil content of the soybeans of the early maturation group in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. Based on our experiment, it can be stated that, during the irrigation of soybean, oil and protein content and yields did not always change.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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The significance of biological bases in maize production
Published March 20, 2013
61-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.

The weather of the trial year was quite droughty; the monthly average temperature was 3–4 oC higher than the average of 30 years. High temperature, together with lack of precipitation occurred during the most sensitive phenophases of maize (flowering; fecundation, grain saturation).

The following characteristics have been observed: starting vigour, date of male and female flowering, plant and cob height, dry-down dynamics during maturation and the change of yield composing elements has also been quantified. The yield was recalculated to 14% moisture content grain yield after harvesting.

The beginning of the growing period was advantageous, therefore the analysed hybrids could grow a high (above 300 cm) and strong stem. The yield of the hybrids changed between 10.33 and 11.87 t ha-1, but as a result of the unfavourable climatic extremes, their genetic yield potential prevailed only at a rate of 30–40%. However, moisture content by the time of harvesting was good despite its early date (12th September); it remained under below 14% in most cases. Dry-down was measured on a weekly basis between 14th August and 5th September.

The analysis of the qualitative parameters of the maize hybrids (protein %, oil % and starch %) resulted in significant differences. The most significant difference has been observed in the case of protein content (LSD5%=2.01). Oil content was the most advantageous in the case of hybrids belonging to the mid-late growing group (FAO 400). The X9N655 and 36V74 hybrids had the highest oil content (around 4%), while hybrids P9915 and 37F73 had significantly lower oil content. Starch content was above 70% in the case of every hybrid.

Hybrid selection is highly important in terms of yield and yield security of maize, as well as the application of modern biological fundamentals and hybrid specific technology for the improvement of the level of cultivation technology.

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Sour cherry seed as an industrial gamma tocopherol source
Published February 17, 2015
27-33

In our experiments sour cherry kernels were investigated. The kernels of different sour cherry cultivars were originated from Újfehértói Gyümölcstermesztési Kutató és Szaktanácsadó Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. Tocopherol profile, oil yields and nutritional value were stood in focus of examinations.

We started processes preparing... of sour cherry kernels. After the preparation recovered non-polar fraction was investigated. We worked with formerly developed chromathographic system, which is capable to separate different tocopherol isomers efficiently. We measured concentration of each tocopherol isomers and registered those and their relation in different oil samples.

According to received data, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol appeared in samples, but beta-tocopherol could not be detected. It became clear that level of gamma-tocopherol is far higher than alfa- or gamma-isomer, it is concentration exceeded 1–1.5 mg ml-1.

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Effect of dietary fatty acids on the oxidative stability and the colour of broiler meat
Published May 23, 2006
25-30

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) content on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Animals were fed with a 3 phase diet, and in each phase, ...additional fat was added to the feed. The isocaloric and isonitrogenic feed was produced as the breeder organization suggested; only the fat content differed (4 treatments: pig fat (lard), sunflower oil, soy oil, flax-seed oil).
The different fat complements did not influence broiler production. However, the fatty acid composition of meat was similar to the fatty acid composition of feed (additional fats). The analyses of meat samples, after a storage period, did not significantly prove the possible negative effects of higher PUFA content.

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Economic Assessment of Biodiesel Production for Hungarian Farmers
Published May 12, 2002
72-76

Utilisation of oil of plant origin as a fuel is gaining acceptance in the European Union and elsewhere. Besides environmental protection, energy saving, and decreasing over-production of food. Additionally, the subsidisation of farmers and the development of rural sub-regions also contribute to its spread. This study specifically focuses on the... direct effects biodiesel's raw materials and final products are now having on farmers, while reviewing and quantifying these effects. I have purposely restricted my analysis to these two elements of the biodiesel chain.
The biodiesel chain seems to be a great method for improving the economic and social position of participant farmers in many ways. Presently, the profitability of raw materials’ production looks to be the crucal point in the chain, and could be strengthened best with intensive, habitat-specific agrotechnic. It would only be possible to reach a favourable profit margin for farmers if yields reach unrealistic averages or if there is a significant hike of the 2000 producer’s price in the oil plant branch.
The main attraction of sunflower- and oilseed rape production lies in the stabilization of market conditions, which is not only gong to appear in oil plant branch but – thanks to the reduction of outputs – also in the cereal branches. Better economic safety for farmers may play a role at least on the same level as in plant production, which involves more risks than profit maximalization.
The reduction of the prime cost of biodiesel could be possible through the direct combustion of the whole oilseed plant or its residues or electricity production using them. Whereas energy demand for biodiesel production is low (appr. 5%) but it needs subsidization and the prices of natural gas and electrical energy presently look favourable in Hungary. Additionally harvesting and baling of the residues is technically problematic, which is why their use may seem to be reasonable just over the middle or long term. Another possible factor of cost reduction could be the centralization of some partial operations, which needs serious financial resources to reduce amortization cost per product, provided there be several biodiesel projects near each other during establishment. Creation and operation of a logistical system could also be a good method for improving the viability of the biodiesel chain, in order to optimize transport schedule and distances. However there are also some organizational difficulties in this case.

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Effect of different n-6/n-3 fatty acid proportion oil sources on reproduction performance and fatty acid profile of milk in modern genotype sows - Pleminary results: Preliminary results
Published May 20, 2020
121-128

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of... 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

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Optimalization of nutrient supply and row space in the growing of annual caraway
Published November 15, 2007
135-138

Concerning the nutrient supply, it was found that the highest crop was produced with the N80K0 treatment (81.38 g m-2). The K application resulted in a decrease in crop yield. The highest crop yield per plant was found in plots with 48 cm row space. The best germination was reached in the plots with 48 cm row space (73%).
If the l...evel of K was elevated, the essential oil content increased. The maximum essential oil content was reached by treatment N0K80 (2.6284 ml 100 g sza.-1). The composition of essential oil was influenced both by the nutrient supply and by the growing area. Increasing the row space the ratio of d-carvone decreased. The amount of d-carvone was uniquely increased by use of K. The highest carvone level (66.25%) was identified at the N80+70K80 treatment as an average of row spaces.

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Untersuchungen zur Phosphataufnahme von Zwischenfrüchten bei unterschiedlicher P-Versorgung des Bodens (Investigation of P Uptake of Catch Crops under Different P Supply)
Published September 15, 2003
7-14

The P uptakes of 11 different catch crops on four soils were estimated and compared with changes of double lactate soluble Phosphorus (P(DL)) in soil within a vessel trial. Additionally a model trial with quartz sand was carried out for investigations of the influence of P supply on root parameters. The differences of P uptake in dependence of ...the proofed variants were significant. Under a sufficient P supply Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish had the highest P uptake on sandy soils, on loamy soil also Buckwheat and Maize but Serradella too. Under P deficiency the withdrawals of Phosphorus for Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish were found to be the highest. In contrast to the sandy soils for the loamy soils no significant relation between the P uptake by plants and changes in the P-DL amount in soil could be found. For all variants the P uptake by plants were higher than the reduction of the P-DL amount in soil. The rate of P-DL content on the total P content in soil reduced while the two trial years only in sandy but not in loamy soils. The P uptake, the root length and the root/shoot relationship depends significantly on the cultivated crop and the added P compound. The added water soluble KH2PO4 caused a higher P uptake but a lower root/shoot-relationship than the water insoluble P compounds.

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Biofuel regulations in the USA and the EU
Published September 18, 2014
25-31

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Climate change, the increasing dependency on crude oil and other fossile fuels, the expanding import and the increasing energy costs make the world’s societies and its economies vulnerable.

 The development of effective renewable energy resources has been a priority for the US since the first oil embargo. While there was only little progress for around two decades, biofuel use and production has been showing a rapidly increasing tendency since the mid 90’s.

 The EU’s objective of renewable energy resources is one of the main priorities of the Europe 2020 strategy. The European Union aims to increase the share of energy produced from renewable resources in the whole energy supply and by 10% in the transport-related energy supply by 20% until 2020.

 The renewable energy sector is the only one which is able to reduce GHG emission and pollution while utilising local energy resources and stimulating cutting edge industrial sectors; therefore, it is indispensable to develop a proper framework and regulation for supporting renewable energies.

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Does drought stress always negatively affect the yield and quality of soybean in Hungary?
Published December 15, 2019
37-40

Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment..., especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.

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The influence of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residues biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted
Published October 5, 2010
251-254

The paper presents the partial results of researches regarding the agrochemical melioration of soils under control polluted by petroleum residues that took place at the Agricultural and Research and Development Station in Oradea, Bihor County.
The experimental device was made out of 1 m2 microparcels, spread out in subdivided parcels, in fou...r repetitions, having tree factors: A - the pollution by crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, B – the mineral fertilization, and C – the organic fertilization.
The experience was set out on a preluvosoil în the year 1993 and the soil was cultivated with millet in the first 3 years and with spring wheat in the last 7 years of research.
The researches carried out in Oradea had the objective of establishing the effects of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residue biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted with crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, Bihor County.

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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