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The effect of hybrid, nutrient-supply and irrigation on the grain moisture content at harvest and the starch-content of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published October 20, 2009
89-95

Maize is a worldwide dominant plant. According to nowadays plant production principles it is important to investigate and optimize the site-specific nutrient-supply and other production factors, such as hybrid and irrigation, in the case of this plant as well.
At the Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Center of Agricultural Sc...iences and Engineering, at Látókép the effect of nutrient-supply and irrigation on the quantity and quality parameters of different hybrids were investigated in a small plot long-term field experiment. In this paper we introduce the results regarding the corn moisture-content and the starch content of the yield.
We have chosen three maize hybrids – that have been bread in Martonvásár – for our investigations. The effect of macronutrients is investigated in this experiment on five levels. The half of the experimental area can be irrigated during the vegetation period – whenever it is needed – by linear irrigation equipment, but on the other half only the water amount originating from the precipitation can be used by plants.
In the year 2008 the hybrid affected the grain moisture content at P=0.1% level, while nutrient-supply had an effect at P=10% significance level. We haven’t revealed either any effect of irrigation or of interrelationship between production factors. It can be stated that there are differences between the hybrids on each nutrient-supply and on both irrigation levels. The grain moisture content increased parallel to the longer vegetation
periods.
The starch content of maize is mostly affected by the hybrid,
so on P=0.1% significance level. Regarding our results, it can be
stated, that the starch content shows a decreasing tendency
parallel to the longer vegetation periods.

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Study of some physiologic properties of different genotype sweet corn hybrids
Published July 31, 2012
105-110

The effect of nutrient-supply (control, N120+PK) and two different genotypes on the physiologic properties of sweet corn has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Látókép. The experiment was ...sewn in two different sowing times: the 21st April can be considered as an early, while the 19th May as a late sowing time. The two involved hybrids were Jumbo and Enterprise. The applied plant density was 65 000 plants per hectare.
Our aim with this experiment was to study the plant production, just as the main affecting factors of its development and dynamics, like nutrient-supply and genotypes. We aimed to study and analyse the relationships between these factors and plant production. In this study following parameters were measured and calculated: photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll-content (SPAD-value), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). Regarding the analysis of photosynthetic activity values no obvious relationship between the measured values and the applied hybrids, just as nutrient-supply has been revealed. 
Analysing the SPAD-values it can be stated that the chlorophyll-content of the measured leaves showed an increasing tendency due to the nutrient-supply. The highest values have been measured in the intensive cob development phase of the early sowing time plots.
Regarding the LAI-values we have found significant differences between the fertilizer treatments in both sowing time treatments. In case of the leaf area duration values – that is derived from the LAI values – nutrient-supply has positively affected the duration of the assimilation area.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012
147-151

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012
141-145

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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Magnesium uptake dynamism of maize (Zea mays L.) on prairie soil
Published December 22, 2010
83-89

Different influence factors on the magnesium (Mg) uptake in case of three maize hybrids with different long vegetation period have been investigated at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, at Debrecen-Látókép. The soil of the experiment is a calcareous chernozem, based on lo...ess, with high fertility, that is characteristic for soils of the region Hajdúság.
Upon irrigation is the experiment divided to main plots, by different hybrids into sub-plots, while treatments of five nutrientsupply levels with fixed N:P2O5:K2O rate (beside control)mean sub-subplots. Soil samples were taken from the upper, cultivated soil layer 3 times during the year 2008. Their pH has been measures in a 0.01 M CaCl2-solution and their Mg-content from the same solution and from ammonium-lactate acetic acid (AL) extract. Plant samples were taken seven times in the vegetation period, of which we measured the Mg-content. Beside this, the during the
vegetation period by maize biomass extracted Mg-amount has been calculated using fresh and dry matter weights. The effects of irrigation, hybrids and nutrient-supply levels on the soil pH and on the AL- and CaCl2-extractable Mg-amount have been studied, as well. After that I tried to find a correlation between soil pH and the Mg-content of soil determined in different extractants, beside this between the by the two solutions extracted Mg-amount. 

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The effect of nickel-contamination, nitrogen-supply and liming on the chemical composition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published October 10, 2008
85-92

Plant-production is determined by many production-factors. Each of these factors became subject of research-works through the years, still we state, that studying their interaction is even more important. For studying these interactions we set up a potexperiment, within that the direct effect and the interactions of four factors was inspected: ...soil, nitrogen-supply, nickel-loading and liming. Experiments were carried out on two soil types with extremely different characters: one was a chernozem soil with good fertility and buffering capacity, the other was a shifting sand soil with low humus-content and buffering capacity. Nitrogensupply and liming was added on two levels, while nickel on three within 12 combinations on each soil types. Plant production was cut two times within the vegetation period. The amount of production and dry matter was weighted, fractured and their element-content was measured by an ICP-detector.
Ca-content on the shifting sand soil was determined by all three factors, however the interaction between nickel-loading and liming was also significant. Nitrogen and liming increased Cauptake, that is due to appropriate nutrient-supply and improvement of a better pH-value. On the chernozem soil nitrogen and CaCO3 also increased the Ca-content. This is caused by a better nutrient supply and a higher amount of available Ca-ions.
On the shifting sand soil nickel content was increasing parallel to higher nitrogen-dosages. In presence of higher nickelamount the nickel-content of plants was also increasing, still according to liming, this increment was different. On the chernozem soil nitrogen a nickel increased Ni-uptake. However, liming also had a positive effect on Ni-content, that can be explained by the high amount on colloids in the soil, the adsorption of Ni-ions on them and in presence of liming material the replacement of Ca-and Ni-ions. 
The potassium-content on the shifting sand soil was different in each liming-combination. In combinations without nickel the potassium-content of limed and not limed combinations was on the same level. In not limed combinations by adding nickel potassiumcontent was increasing, while in limed combinations no change was observed. On the chernozem soil by adding liming material the amount of uptaken potassium was decreasing, that is due to the antagonism between Ca- and K-ions. 

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The possibility of use of the 0,01 M CaCl2 and Baker- Amacher extractants for the determination of plantavailable potassium
Published November 2, 2009
7-15

The Hungarian fertilizing recommendation systems use AL soil test for the evaluation of potassium supply. The 0.01 M CaCl2 is a definitely milder extractant, it extracts the easily soluble and exchangeable potassium amount. Its European introduction was already taken into consideration in 1994. The research project on this topic is s...tarted in several european countries, also in Hungary at the Department of Agricultural Chemisty of Agricultural University of Debrecen. Another advantage this multielement method is that the different element-ratios can also be calculated.
The Baker-Amacher extractant’s principle is that it contains a known amount of K, P, Mg in the CaCl2 solution. During the soil extraction adsorption and desorption process take place, so the adsorption or desorption can be calculated from the original and the final concentrations.
In this paper we introduce the results of comparing analysis of the samples (n=630) from Soil Information and Monitoring System. Our aim was to measure the use of new extractants beside conventional extractant (AL) for the evaluation of K-supply would be reasonable.
It can be stated that there is a medium close relationship (r=0.75) between AL-K and 0.01 M CaCl2-K. My calculations confirmed the results of  former examinations, and proved that the two extractants don’t extract and change the same rate of K-fractions. We found that regression  between 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL depend on texture classes, pH classes, amount of lime, and organic matter content of soils.
Comparing the relations between AL and Baker-Amacher we find relatively loose correlation (r=0.45). We stated that there are K-fixing soils among soils considered to be well supplied with potassium by AL. This might be caused by the high amount of mineral clay and the quality of mineral clay. We stated that the dK averages show that the Hungarian nutrient-supply categories characterize generally well K-supplement of soil.
It can be stated that it would be necessary to use new extractants to specify evaluation of plant available K. We found that the 0.01 M CaCl2 and Baker-Amacher extractants could complete usefully the AL procedure and could help effective potassium fertilization.

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Changing of some parameters of the soil-plant system as an effect of different composts
Published October 5, 2010
262-266

Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system. 
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan...t was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested plants, the P-, K-, Mg-contents, and the pH of soils.
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.

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The system of fertigation-advising by the open-field vegetable growing with environment-protecting view
Published November 13, 2012
319-321

The changed economical surroundings and the more strict ecological rules induced a need of changes also of the system of advisory on nutrient-supply of vegetable growing. There were many experiences and scientific results born after the last summarizing vegetable fertilization directives (1981), which allowed finishing a new system of advisory ...mentioned and presented above. We are sure, that the new directives, based on the modern view of vegetable production and also laying on economical possibilities will help the domestic vegetable production to stay competitive on the domestic and the foreign markets both. 

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Nutrient Supply Effects on the Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published December 6, 2005
230-235

The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of ...four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány) under different N and NPK doses. The following fruit quality parameters were studied: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, flesh firmness, colour-coverage and we studied the density of foliage.
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.

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Statistical comparison of soil analysing results of chernozem soils
Published October 10, 2008
93-99

The soil fertility was degraded as a result of unreasonable tillage, therefore the application of site-specific nutrient replacement is necessary. It is essential for the application of precision fertilization to know the location, extension, soil properties and nutrient-supply of the different soil types of
cultivated areas.
We collected... soil samples from 580 hectares of land in 2006. Soil samples were collected from every 5 ha in 30 and 60 cm depths during Spring from 20.05.2006 to 12.06.2006 and again in Autumn from 09.19.2006 to 02.10.2006. Soil samples were analysed at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science of DE-ATC.
The two examined soils are slightly calcareous, weakly saline, poor in zinc. The calcareous chernozem soil is slightly acid, the content of humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is medium in this soil. The meadow chernozem soil is slightly alkaline, and properly supplied with humus and potassium, and middling supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus. The meadow chernozem soil is more heterogenous in soil plasticity, lime, saline, nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and less heterogenous in pH and zinc content than the calcareous chernozem soil.
Standard deviation of measured values in pH, soil plasticity, humus and nitrogen content significantly differ between the examined soil types. The soil plasticity, pH, humus, nitrogen and zinc content significantly differ among calcareous chernozem soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the difference in phosphorus content can be statistically proven only in case of Spring soil sampling.

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Correlations of the growth indexes and yield of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014
139-144

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment. As forecrop rotation, we set up two models: a biculture (wheat and corn) and a triculture (pea, wheat and corn). We applied three levels of nutrients ...during the fertilization process (control, N50P35K40 and N150P105K120). The third variable studied was irrigation in case of which we tested non-irrigated variables (Ö1) and irrigation variables complemented up to the optimum (Ö3).

The effect of pre-crops, irrigation and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, LAD), weight of dry matter, just as SPADvalues and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, and we used the correlation analysis. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the yield amount. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPADvalues, the fertilization and the forecrop have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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