Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus ce...rasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.
In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to im...prove immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.
Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.
The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive... compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.
The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.
In Ukraine’s Steppe zone the extraction of minerals is important. To eliminate the consequences of coal mining the agricultural recultivation of the disturbed soil is used. Thus toxic compounds for human beings and the majority of plants and soil biota representatives, which can be found mining rock, get into plants and invertebrates by troph...y chains. When remediating soil, it is necessary to create tropic conditions in order to provide the life of soil biota. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are the primary decomposers of the organic material. They are numerous in soil and facilitate the improvement of natural and artificially created soil. This paper studies the possible influence of different variants of substrates, which are used in re-cultivation, the leaf litter from leaves of different wood species, as well as different levels of humidity on the representatives of soil saprophages. Optimal variants of artificial mixed-soil providing the stable existence of animals have been shown, which are recommended for the implementation of rehabilitation measures.
The antioxidant capacity of 12 cultivar that were harvested in 2014, were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural... bioactive compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method is the most suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries
The soil is a natural resource, the fertility preservation is an important part of the sustainable development. We have to monitor the transformation dinamics of the organic nitrogen-containing substances, to get accurate information about the changes of the nitrogen cycle in the soil.
Physical and chemical properties of the soil and th...e microorganism effect on the organic matter in the soil – in addition to the composition of organic matter. Wide variety of extracellular enzymes are present in this decomposition. These enzymes help in the transformation of the macromolecules to transforming low molecular weight compounds so they will be available during the assimilation.
The urease enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3. The urease is widely spread in the nature, it is present in the microorganisms, plants and animals.
We found that the soil moisture content, the rotation and the fertilization affect to the amount of urease in spring. Furthermore, we get significant difference between the irrigated and non irrigated samples in the second period of the year. Based on our results we can state that the activity of urease was higher in spring 2014.
The objective of our study was to present how the different agronomic factors affect on the activity of urease in a long term fertilizationexperiment.
In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food
moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.