The anthocyanin content of the Hungarian sour cherry is remarkable. Nutraceutical and pharmaceutical effects of the anthocyanins and their role in disease prevention have been studied extensively. Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. The objective of this work was to investigate pure sour cher...ry extract on human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an inflammatory model. HUVECs were treated with 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 50 mg/mL sour cherry extract or M199 medium as control. The optimal concentration range of the sour cherry extract was investigated and selected based on MTT assay measuring the conversion of the tetrazolium salt to formazan by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. The level of interleukine-8 (IL-8), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was measured in Luminex MagPlex assay. LPS treatment significantly increased the secretion of IL-8. The pure sour cherry extract was able to attenuate this increment indicating the potent anti-inflammatory effect of pure sour cherry extract. Our results emphasize that pure sour cherry extract could reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory response thereby may improve endothelial dysfunction.
In fruit production – among stone fruits – sweet cherry is considered to have great promise, but species of sweet cherry need improvement. Cherry plantations are advanced in years, therefore putting into operation high productivity plantations is an important field of research. Through clonal selection and cross-breeding, several new cherry... species were created in the recent past in Hungary. Spread of these species is also important. In our factorial cherry production, we use high trunk trees and trees with large crowns. Intensive plantations are very few in number.
Our goal is to study the morphological and physiological properties of new sweet cherry cultivars. The most important aim is to combine the productive area of foliage and the fruit quality. The present study shows the self pollination, fruit setting and fruit quality parameters.
Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are a
be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
from not covered tree
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for reducing fungicide treatments of sour cherry. The study was conducted in fruit bearing sour cherry orchards of the Institute of Agriculture at Kyustendil during 1991-2005. Cherry leaf spot was controlled by postinfection applications of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors and dodine.... Bacterial canker, brown rot, shot-hole syndrome were controlled by protective treatments with copper-containing fungicides in late autumn and early spring. Insecticide treatments were applied when it was necessary. Blumeriella jaapii is the main pathogen of sour cherry which can be controlled successfully by postinfection treatments. Their number could be reduced in some years. Sprays against leaf spot were effective against other diseases too. Protective treatments against Pseudomonas syringae with copper-containing fungicides were effective against shot-hole syndrome and Monilinia laxa as well as Monilinia fructigena.
Anthracnose is considered one of the most destructive diseases for sour cherry production due to the rapid development of the disease on fruits. Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk (anam.: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz.) has been the fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose in last deca...des. Yield losses greater than 90% may occur under epidemic conditions. C. acutatum (J.H. Simmonds, 1968) strains were isolated of sourcherry plantations in East Hungary and this pathogen, new for Hungarian microbiont became recently dominant. Contrarily to the former species it is certainly transmitted with ants during fruit ripening. About third of strains proved to be cutinase producers that enable them to actively penetrate via cuticule, and these strains infect directly berries of blackberry, grape and tomato as well as plum and apple. Most of cutinase negative strains could also infect these fruits after mechanic injury. All strains of both species produce amylase, cellulase, lecithinase, lipase, polyfenoloxydase and protease in vitro, although the activity of these enzymes highly varied in the medium. The only C. acutatum strains produced noticeable amount of chitinase. Strains, tolerant to recently applied fungicides to control the anthracnose, could be isolated of sour cherry plantations that might be the cause of ineffectiveness of control measures in 2010. The mycofungicide containing mixture of three Trichoderma species in oil carrier could efficiently depress the development of anthracnose in ripening sour cherry.
In our experiments sour cherry kernels were investigated. The kernels of different sour cherry cultivars were originated from Újfehértói Gyümölcstermesztési Kutató és Szaktanácsadó Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. Tocopherol profile, oil yields and nutritional value were stood in focus of examinations.
We started processes preparing... of sour cherry kernels. After the preparation recovered non-polar fraction was investigated. We worked with formerly developed chromathographic system, which is capable to separate different tocopherol isomers efficiently. We measured concentration of each tocopherol isomers and registered those and their relation in different oil samples.
According to received data, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol appeared in samples, but beta-tocopherol could not be detected. It became clear that level of gamma-tocopherol is far higher than alfa- or gamma-isomer, it is concentration exceeded 1–1.5 mg ml-1.
In this study male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used to determine the possible effects of our Hungarian tart cherry extract in a chronic obesity mouse model on antioxidant capacity.
The control group received standard mouse chow, the high fat control group was switched to high fat diet and tap water supplemented with 5% sucrose. The high fat...+anthocyanin group received the high fat and sucrose diet, but dissolved in the drinking water they received anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract. After six weeks, the antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were measured. Antioxidant capacity was decreased with a significant elevation of SOD activity. The tart cherry extract made a significant enhancement in antioxidant capacity and SOD activity. Our results show that chronic anthocyanin intake has a potential to enhance redox status associated with obesity.
The Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed significantly in the last decades, which primarily resulted in growing intensity of the orchards. Due to the favourable selling prices of the sweet cherry many growers see good prospects in this fruit. One of the key questions of their success is the choice of the most proper canopy form ac...cording to the growing conditions, which facilities the efficient completion of annual technological operations.
In new orchards almost exclusively variations of spindle canopies are established, although many other crown forms are used all over the world. From the point of the domestic sweet cherry production it is indispensable to get information about these canopies, and compare with the prevailing crown forms with central axis.
In our experiment we compared free spindle and bush canopies in the Horticultural Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen in 2013. According to our results it can be stated that the bush canopy can be described with more balanced growth, which makes easier to maintain the vegetative and generative balance. Another positive characteristic of the bush canopy is, that the height of the trees is smaller with 50% compared with the free spindle, which makes the pruning and the harvest easier.
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus ce...rasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.
The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive... compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.
The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.
By applying smaller crown sizes and intensive growing techniques, many advantages can be identified compared to the extensive orchards. Also, nursing/pruning and harvest work can be performed more effectively. The outer and inner quality parameters of the fruit and the effectiveness of plant protection techniques are improved. The smaller crown... size enables us to apply technologies for ensuring yield safety (e.g. hail, rain, bird nets), resulting in an increase in productivity. The introduction of smaller trees poses a great challenge to cherry production. Trials with dwarfing rootstocks have not yet been successful, therefore, we must use the cv. Mahaleb rootstock, which is excellently adapted to the Hungarian conditions, and also has a stronger growth. In addition, rootstocks with such strong growth are needed for the necessary regeneration of the productive parts of cherry cultivars, there is a need for. At the research garden of the University of Debrecen in Pallag, we planted 21 cherry cultivars on cv. Mahaleb (CT500) rootstock, in a 4 m x 1 m spacing pattern, in the spring of 2000. In our study, we demonstrated the possibilities of developing and maintaining the string super spindle through repeated summer pruning, in terms of growth, bud and fruit formation,. Based on these parameters, we determined which cultivars are the most suitable for intensive production.
The iron concentration of ’Csengődi csokros’, ’Debreceni- and ’Érdi bőtermő’ , ‘Éva’, ’Kántorjánosi’ ,’Petri’ and the ’Újfehértói fürtös’ cultivars was determined by ICP-MS. Furthermore the Vitamin C, L-Malis acid and Citric acid concentration of samples were measured.
Our results show that large am...ount Fe2+ (average 20.5 mg kg-1) accumulates in the pulp of sour cherry. Besides, the concentration of Vitamin C, L-Malis acid, that increase the absorption of iron, are high. Based on these results, the sour cherry and the products of sour cherry play an important role in the forming of iron content in body.
The stone fruit weewil (Anthonomus rectirostris L.) has been known as the kernel pest of the wild cherry in Hungary. There have been no data about its harm on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in our country, yet. 5-10% of stone infection has been observed on some sour cherry trees (cultivars: Debreceni bőtermő, Újfehértói fürtös) in the e...astern side of an orchard at Debrecen-Józsa adjacent to a wood in early July 2011. The damage can be in connection with the fact that the yield has not been harvested for years.
Fresh tart cherry consumption cannot be increased without the development of an appropriate technology for its elongated storage. This requires the development and optimization of the pre- and postharvest treatments. Currently, we have only limited knowledge about tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) postharvest technology, however, related studies...on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) may be adopted. In this article, we have collected the most important research results in this topic.
There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the... other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice.
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects.
Although a high portion of domestic orchards is cultivated extensively, quality Hungarian sour cherry is a highly demanded product throughout Europe. Trees are slightly pruned, or not pruned at all. Thanks to the unique character of the species, older wood parts are pilling up. Thus, the interior of the canopy is inactive, fruits and shoots con...fine the exterior layer of the canopy.
We established pruning treatments in the sour cherry plantation in the Horticultural Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, involving two age groups in two spacings. The trees are standing on seedling rootstock. The involved varieties were: Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő and Kántorjánosi. We examined how to encourage shoot formation and the regeneration of older, pilling wood of the interior canopy parts.
Applying strong rejuvenating cuts, the most shoots were generated on the 3rd and 4th year laterals. Wood parts older than the 3rd year shall be removed by leaving short (2-3cm) stubs. This way, older, passive woodparts can also be made to burst out. From the examined varieties the Kántorjánosi showed the most favourable regenerative ability. Due to summer pruning, more shoots regenerated on the axis of the trees, than on those rejuvenated in the dormant season.
Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society During our experimental work an effective extraction procedure has been developed for melatonin. Further chromatography was developed the quantitative and qualitative determination of melatonin. A compound that was equal to the standard was purifi...ed from the extract by preparative HPLC technique and the structure of the purified sample was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. Based on our measurements, harvested in the state of biological maturity Hungarian sour cherry cultivars contain high levels of melatonin.
Our results show that "VN4" variety has extremely high melatonin content, 9.893 ug g-1 and suggest that "VN4" which were selected from the "Bosnyák" varieties is melatonin accumulating. The average value of the melatonin content of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is 2.319 ug g-1.
To increase the intensiveness of sour cherry production, i.e. the use of smaller trees, it is necessary to adopt growth-moderating techniques rather than using dwarfing rootstocks. Apart from the traditional technique of using rootstocks that support stronger growth, new or rarely-used techniques and methods must be adopted. Pruning should be c...arried out in the summer rather than in the winter, the optimal period being 1-3 weeks after harvest.
A combination of the increase in favourable exposure-time and smaller crown sizes make higher tree densities (tree/ha) and better utilisation of the crown (specific cropload) possible.
The systematic use of summer pruning leads to better quality fruit.
Today’s programmes aiming at enhancement of fruit and vegetable consumption have been intensified. In the unanimous view of experts, different health problems, such as those of the immune system, inflammations, and even certain cancerous diseases can be prevented and/or cured with regular consumption of fresh (raw) fruit and vegetables. It is... well-known fact that among the biologically valuable components, antioxidant compounds – C- and E vitamins, as well as carotinoides – play an important role. In this field, Hungary can expect success in the future since it has excellent plant genetic stock. Regretfully, national data banks regarding cultivation technology, cultivation areas or varieties for fruits and vegetables and their antioxidant contents do not exist in Hungary. Nevertheless, in connection with the so-called “Hungaricums” its existence would be of urgent necessity. Such excellent Hungarian products are – among others – a lot of sour cherry varietiles, the Szeged green pepper and the Makó onion. They enjoy high priority as “Hungaricums” even in the European Union and such activities that support these kinds of products should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. Presently’ the USA leads in the research of antioxidant compounds of sour cherry, and so far 17 of these compounds have been found partly in Hungarian varieties. Similar research on green, and ‘pritamin’ peppers have not gone so far since they were limited only for seasoning paprika. In Hungary, studies on onion and garlic have not been performed. It should be mentioned that due to the continental climate, these products may be cultivated, consumed or processed only in a limited period. Taking this into consideration, processing and conserving methods are needed which make the consumption of these fruit and vegetables as functional food possible year-round. Scientific establishment of this set of questions is of current concern, because consumption of these products could have an important role in improving the health status of the Hungarian population in the future.
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the m...ethod of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.
The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.
Increasing the intensity of plantations is a basic precondition for the renewal of fruit growing in Hungary.
The intensification of production of stone-fruit species is difficult for several reasons. In particular, knowledge of dwarfing rootstock is very limited. In this study, we tried to achieve smaller-sized, intensive crown formation by
In intensive cherry production, the most important variety-dependent characters determining the formation of the required productive surface are vigour of growth, branching potential and quantity and quality of the buds.
In this paper we have demonstrated that significant differences exist between varieties in these characters.
The effect of irrigation on tomato yield depends on the actual weather conditions, basically the air temperature and precipitation (quantity and dispersion). The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. The optimum water supply treatment gave a significantly higher proportion of lycopene than t...he control (rainfed) treatment (89% and 80% respectively) in case of Brixsol F1 variety. In spite of this we have not found significant difference in case of Strombolino F1 (cherry type). Content of total poly-phenols measured in Strombolino F1 (cherry type) was significantly higher than that found in the Brixol F1 (normal type). The optimum water supply treatment resulted in a significantly lower content of total polyphenols in both years. Tomato fruits are rich in polyphenols the largest amount of which is rutin from among the identified components.
We made our study on fruit quality in the summer of 2005 on 6 cultivars („Bigarreau Burlat”, „Germersdorfi 3”, „Germersdorfi 45”, „Katalin”, „Linda” and „Van”) in a half-intensive sweet cherry orchard in Siófok. We measured fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and...total soluble solids content. There were large differences among cultivars in the datas. These differences are due to genetic fruit-characteristics, because all other conditions were the same. We harvested fruits by 3 cultivars two times to check their characteristics on two ripening phases. We examined on these cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. With these data we can be informed about the role of later than optimal harvesting time and how big an effect it has on fruit quality.
The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.