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The effect of bentonite on the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the CO2-production and the activity of saccharase enzyme
Published July 16, 2007

We examined the impact of bentonite – the perspective improving material of sandy soils – and treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite on sandy soils, within the framework of a small-plot experiment.
The adjustment of the experiment was made on the Experiment Site of the Nyíregyháza Research Centre of the University of D...ebrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences (UD CAS). We collected soil samples from parcels treated with increasing bentonite doses (5, 10, 15, 20 t/ha) on the one hand, and from the parcels treated with livestock manure composted with increasing doses of bentonite, on the other.
We performed laboratory research in the soil microbiology laboratory of the Soil Science Faculty of UD CAS DAS, during which we determined the total number of bacteria, the quantity of microscopic fungi, the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the CO2-production of the soil and the activity of saccharase enzyme.
During the evaluation of the examinations, we made a statistical analysis using SPSS 9.0. We determined the average of measurements, the standard deviation of controls, the standard deviation, the significance value and we also performed a correlation analysis.
Concerning the impacts of bentonite treatment and the treatment of livestock manure composted with bentonite on the examined microbiological features of sandy soil, we can summarize the following:
• Our results prove that the microbiologic activity of the soil has increased owing to the impact of bentonite treatments regarding total number of bacteria and the quantity of microscopic fungi. ”Pure bentonite” treatments – although not significantly in every case – increased these values, but larger doses decreased them. The treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite resulted in a larger increase regarding both parameters.
• The number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was increased by the low doses of both series, and was decreased by the higher doses. Higher bentonite doses decreased it in a higher – significant – degree than those of treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite, whose low dose caused salient number of bacteria.
• Regarding the carbon-dioxide formation, we have experienced an increase even in the case of low dose treatments (nevertheless, the increase did not prove to be significant), but – similarly to the quantitative changes in the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria – the large doses of both series of treatment decreased the CO2-production of the soil.
• Bentonite also increased the activity of saccharase enzyme significantly. We learned that”pure bentonite” treatments increased the activity of the enzyme to a higher degree than composted treatments. Moreover, it can be stated that the treatments of larger doses of both bentonite and livestock manure composted with bentonite have decreased the enzyme activity – not significantly, though.
• Based on the correlation analysis, it can be stated that as an impact of the treatments, the microbiological activity of the soil has also increased with the increase of the number of soil microbes, as in both treatment series we have experienced a tight positive correlation (r=0.81-0.82) between the change of total number of bacteria and the CO2-production of soil. In both treatments, there was a medium correlation between the total number of fungi and soil respiration (r=0.63-0.63). Furthermore, it can be stated that the usage of organic manure had a positive effect on the activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, as in this treatment series there was a positive correlation (r=0.65) between this physiological group and CO2-production. Both treatments prosperously impacted the activity of saccharase enzyme, because there was a medium correlation (r=0.62-0.64) between the activity of the enzyme and soil respiration.

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Autumn and winter kidney fat indexes of roe deer does and their correlation with reproductive parameters
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">I studied the variations of kidney fat indexes (KFI) in two game management units of the Great Hungarian Plain between 2002 and 2004 in the autumn and winter months. I was looking for correlation between the autumn and winter KFI as well as between the autumn KFI and reproductive parameters (number of corpora lutea, recruitment rate).

There was a significant positive correlation between the average winter and the average next autumn KFI (r=0.991, p<0.1). The average winter KFI showed strong positive correlation with the average number of corpora lutea (CL) in the next rutting season (r=0.978, p<0.05). The average autumn KFI and the average grown up offspring showed positive but not significant correlation (r=0.725, p=0.275).

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Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

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Results of the sensory analysis of precision maize production
Published May 23, 2019

This research was carried out in 2018, at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in a moderately warm and dry production area, on deep humus layered medium-hard calcareous chernozem soil. In the scope of the research, the chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined under field circumstances by means of sensory measurements and we were looking for correlation between the obtained values and the amount of yield. Our measurements were carried out with Minolta SPAD-502 and GreenSeeker devices at 3 measurement times (4 leaf stage, 10 leaf stage and silking). It was found that phenological phases had an effect on the obtained SPAD and NDVI values and were in a slightly significant correlation with the yield. The most significant correlation was found between the results obtained during silking and the amount of yield. This may be because the least time has passed between the measurement time and harvest. Results obtained during the 10-leaf stage show excessive values in each case, which can be due to a measurement error. It was found that the phenological phase had an effect on the correlation of SPAD and NDVI values and the amount of yield. As the phenological phase progressed, the correlation between the measured results and yield has increased.

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Examination of extensographical parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour
Published November 2, 2009

In the trade of the European Union principally the analysis of alveographical and extensographical parameters mean the acceptance system.
In the present study we analysed the extensographical parameters of 10 winter wheat varieties breed by the Cereal Research Non Profit Company with Brabender extensigraph and we made a comparison, correlati...on among the results. The examinations with Brabender the following among: show the GK Kalász and the GK Élet varieties show high resistance of extension and the GK Petur variety produces high extensibility. The GK Garaboly has shown low extensibility and energy. The other parameters had different values in the examined three years. The measurings with SMS2 Texture Analyser show middle positive correlation between extensibility and subarea. There are weak correlation between at the significantial level in the 90, 135 resistence of extension by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser and in the 45 extensibility by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser of relaxed dough. There is no correlation among other parameters. 

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Correlations study between the selenium content of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum L.) and wheat seeds grown on different soil types
Published December 15, 2010

In the course of the research we determined selenium and dry-matter content of 35 wheat grasses and 35 wheat seeds. The selenium content of the preparation plant samples was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (ʎexcitation=380 nm, ʎemission=519 nm) of the resulted piaz-selenol complex. It was established that b...etween the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p=0.05 level which indicates a medium close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium close correlation between selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p=0.02 level.

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Comparative analysis in residential property price level and price dynamics in urban and rural areas of Hajdú-Bihar County
Published April 8, 2014

In modern market economies residential real estate prices, price shifts and their correlations with macroeconomic factors are surveyed quite frequently. However, in contrast with the wide scope of foreign examples, so far existing analyses in Hungary have ignored examining relation and extensity of macroeconomic indicators and failed to examine... their effect on real estate pricing. The scope of this survey is to highlight these potential correlations and thus develop new aspects of analysis. Although the examination needs further extension both in time and space, the results of this survey may help to understand the importance of the responsible management of the most precious element of national wealth from the perspective of sustainable rural development.

Based on my preliminary results, there exists a strong correlation between the number of inhabitants of a settlement and the average real estate prices. Nevertheless, the correlation seems to be significant only for cities. In the case of smaller settlements the correlation still exists but at a lower level. As opposed to the results of former publications and my own expectations, no direct link could be tackled between the amount of income tax paid by private individuals and real estate prices either in the cities or in the villages within the territory and time span examined in my analysis. Although this correlation is measurable on a macro-economic level, my micro-regional analyses revealed the complexity of asset pricing and price volatility. Continuing this survey, my goal is to identify the hidden factors influencing real estate prices, whose thorough mapping may promote conscious rural development.

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Impact of fertilisation and the fluctuation of precipitation on the ecophysical and production characteristics of maize
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.

The examinations were carried out in a moderately warm and dry production area at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences on calcareous chernozem soil in 2007 and 2008. Six different N doses (0,30,60,90,120,150 kg ha-1) were used in the irrigated and non-irrigated treatments of the field experiment.

The results showed that there is a significant strong positive correlation between Chl content and yield both in the non-irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.777) and the irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.801) treatment. The results of the correlation analyses performed yearly showed that weather factors significantly influence the strength of correlations, but these correlations are always positive.

The Chl content of maize leaves provided a reliable prediction of yield per hectare in the R1 growth stage. In the irrigated treatment, the correlation is always closer than in the non-irrigated treatment.

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Evaluation some important microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle in chernozem soils profiles
Published October 24, 2016

Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.

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The Effect of the Mineral Content of the Leg-Horn and the Age of Sheep on the Mechanical Parameters of the Horn
Published May 11, 2003

Species and individual animals with hard leg-horn have higher resistance against foot diseases. The reason for this is the fact, that bacteria can penetrate the hard leg-horn with more difficulty than the soft leg-horn, and in this way it is also more difficult for them to cause an illness. From among the mechanical parameters of the leg-horn t...he P = 0.1% negative linear correlation between the hardness and the water contents of the horn is significant. There is a positive linear correlation between the shock resistance and the water contents of the leg-horn. In the case of air-dry horn (with less than 8% water contents) there is a positive linear correlation between the Ca- and Zn contents as well as the Ca:P ratio and the hardness of the horn. The results suggest that the wider the Ca:P ratio of the horn, the harder the horn is, while the water content is the same. The leg-horn of the Hungarian Merino ewes have larger Ca contents and wider Ca:P ratio than juvenile animals have. This is why the juvenile animals with a softer leg-horn can be more susceptive to foot diseases than the older animals.

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The response of sunflower hybrids to different plant densities on a chernozem soil
Published July 31, 2012

In our experiment the reaction of six sunflower hybrids of different genotypes (NK Oktava, ES Biba, ES Diagora, ES Ballistic, EGH 8925, PR 64 H 42) towards plant density has been investigated by different fungicide treatments in the crop-year of 2011 on a chernozem soil. 
In the crop-year of 2011 sunflower populations were infected by a... significant Diaporthe helianthi disease. The extent of this infection was significantly enhanced by the increment of plant density. However, regarding the average of the hybrids and plant densities the two times executed fungicide treatment has decreased the infection rate by 22%. The most susceptible hybrid was the ES Biba. Contrarily, the hybrid ECH8925 proved to be the most resistant hybrid towards this
disease according to our results. According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation analysis it has been revealed that stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection stand in a very close (r=0.782**) and middle close (r=0.523**) correlation resp. with plant density. The relationship between fungucude treatments and stalk breakage, just as Diaporthe infection showed to be middle and close respectively. Our results demonstrate the role of stalk and plate diseases (among them Diaporthe) in causing stalk breakage, for we have found a close positive correlation between stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection (r=0.624**) in our analysis.
From the aspect of yield amount the optimal plant density varied between 45 000 and 55 000 plants per hectare. Fungucude treatments enabled not only the use of higher plants densities, but they had a yield increasing effect as well. In the crop-year of 2011 the highest yield (4 559 kg ha-1) on a chernozem soil has been measured in case of the hybrid ECH8925.

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Random regression models for genetic evaluation of performance of the Hungarian show-jumping horse population
Published April 23, 2014

The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for show-jumping competition performance using random regression model. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. The database contained 272 951 starts of 8020 horses. Identity number and gender of the horse, rider, competition date, the level of the c...ompetition and placing were recorded in the database. Competition levels were categorized into five groups. Weighted – competition level used – square root transformed placing was used to measure performance of horses. The random regression model included fixed effects for gender, year and place of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment.

Later performance of show-jumping horses measured with weighted square root ranks is less influenced by rider and permanent environmental effects than performance at the beginning of a horse’s sporting career. Heritability increased continuously from 6.3 years of age (2296 age in days), values were in the range of 0.07 and 0.37. Higher heritability was found in later ages. Weak genetic and phenotypic correlation was found between the early 4–5–6 years of age and older (7, 8, 8+) age classes. From 8.5 years of age (3132 days old) there were strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between neighboring age groups. For the same age classes moderate and strong genetic and phenotypic correlation was found. Genetic correlation between 13.5 years of age and older horses was very strong.

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Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2005

The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

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Búzalisztek minőségének becslése tészta nyújtás-szakítás alapján állományvizsgáló műszerrel
Published March 27, 2002

Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.

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The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
Published February 3, 2016

We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.

Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).

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The effect of the sowing time on the yield and oil content of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) in different crop protection models
Published March 5, 2015

The field research was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Debrecen at Látókép on calcareous chernozem soil in Hungary. We examined the effects of the sowing time and the fungicide treatment on the yield, oil yield and oil content of two different genotypes of sunflower hybrids (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We a...pplied three different sowing times (early, average, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control =no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).

During our research, we received better results in 2013 than in 2012. The application of different planting times affected the yield and oil yield production and the oil content as well. The optimal circumstances for yield and oil yield production were provided by late planting in 2012, while by average planting time in 2013. The highest oil yield results were reached by late plating in both years (except for hybrid PR64H42 in the double treated parcels where average plating time turned out to be more effective). The correlation between the plating time, the yield and oil yield production and the oil content was strong in 2012 (r=0.600**, r=0.639**, r=0.590**). On the other side, in 2013, the correlation was medium between the planting time, the yield production and the oil content.

We applied Pearson’s correlation to analyze the effect of the double fungicide treatment on the yield and oil yield production (2012: r=0.498**, r=0.407**). These results were better in 2013 (r=0.603**, r=0.623**), besides, the double fungicide treatment also increased the oil content (r=0.315**).

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The impact of environmental factors on the measurement of the normalized difference vegetation index
Published November 13, 2012

The level of nitrogen supply of a plant population can be quickly measured with non-destructive optical measurement devices and the differentiated determination of nitrogen shortage and the replenishment of nitrogen can also be carried out. The level of nitrogen supply is based on the fact that the chlorophyll content of crops is in close corre...lation with nitrogen content and that the amount of chlorophyll can be easily measured on the basis of the light absorption of chlorophyll molecules. The successfulness of optical measurements can be influenced by the change of weather  parameters; therefore, it is important to know the correlations between measurement results and weather parameters when it comes to practical use.
The GreenSeeker Model 505 measurement device determines the relative chlorophyll content in the form of the Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on the basis of the intensity of the reflected red and infrared rays of light from the crop population. The measurements were performed in alfalfa population with 10 replications at five measurement heights and four measurement times. The weather parameters were measured by a weather station located in the middle of the alfalfa population and the correlations between the meteorological data and the NDVI values were examined. During the statistical evaluation of the results, it was established that the NDVI measurement is primarily influenced by the relative humidity of the air, secondly by air temperature and thirdly by wind speed. Relative humidity was in strong correlation with the NDVI values which were also influenced by the measurement height and time. Regression was not significant in the case of 20 cm  measurement height, but the measurements above 40 cm height showed significant correlations. The correlation was shown to be strong at each measurement time, but the influence of humidity was the lowest at 11:00 and 14:00. 

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Examination of the chlorophyll content of maize hybrids of different maturity groups at different N fertiliser doses
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nitrogen fertilisation is a critical point of maize production. Five hybrids of different maturity dates were examined in a field experiment, three treatments (different application dates) and three basic fertiliser doses (0, 60, 120 kg ha-1 N) were used. At the 6-leaf-stage of maize, each fertilisation level of the 2nd and 3rd treatment was given 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser active ingredient in addition to the basic fertiliser doses with the exception of the control plots and further 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser was applied at the 12-leaf-stage. The final fertiliser doses were 0, 90 and 150 kg N ha-1 in the second treatment and 0, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 in the 3rd treatment. The whole amount of the basic fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) was applied in the spring, one month before sowing.

The relative chlorophyll content of the maize leaves was measured, with a Minolta SPAD-502 measurement device. The measurements were carried out at the 6-leaf growth stage (V6) of maize on the youngest fully developed leaf of the 6th, 7th and 8th plants from the second row of each plot.

There were significant differences in the SPAD-readings measured at the V6 phenophase of maize between the hybrids (p<0.001) and the fertiliser treatments (p<0.05). The regression analysis did not show any correlation between the SPAD-values and fertilisation.

The highest significant SPAD-reading and yield were obtained by applying 120 kg ha-1 N. As a result of the regression analysis performed on yield, it can be concluded that the correlation between fertilisation and yield in the 1st and 2nd treatment was moderately close (r=0.439, r=0.480) and it was close in the 3rd treatment (r=0.513). The correlation between the SPAD-readings and yield was the closes in the 2nd treatment (r=0.639), while the SPAD-value had a 40.9% influence on yield (p<0.001).

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Studying the effects of traits in the genotype of three maize hybrids in Hungary
Published May 23, 2019

In this study, we selected three hybrids (Armagnac, Loupiac, and Sushi) for evaluation of the effect of traits in genotype in Debrecen. In 2017, the total rainfall from May to October was 314 mm in Debrecen, which was 236 mm in the winter period before sowing. The obtained results showed that there was a positive correlation between the weight ...of the cob maize and the rate of seed/cob, number of rows with number of seeds in column and outer diameter ear with weight of cob and number of rows in grain per ear and the rate of seed / cob; Also, there was a negative correlation between grain weight in ear with seed/cob rate, outer diameter ear and the rate of seed/cob and outer diameter ear with the number of leaves. There was a positive correlation between stem diameter, Seed/cob rate and the number of nodes by GGE biplot. In addition, there are traits of weight of all seeds and outer ear diameter that had the highest effect on average yield. Moreover, the number of seeds per row showed the least effect on the average yield of hybrids.

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Investigation of directions of crossing in maize (Zea mays L.)
Published November 15, 2007

In Hungary, we examined eight features of twelve direct cross hybrids over a period of three years. The twelve hybrids were derived from direct and reciprocal crosses of four parental lines. We did not find significant differences in the cases of stalk diameter and leaf number in the average of 3 years in any of the hybrids. Statistically expla...inable differences in primary branches were observed in hybrids UDH5 and UDH8 and also in UDH6 and UDH11. It was evident in both instances that degrees of heterosis in reciprocal crosses far exceeded those of direct ones. High tassel branch number was dominant over the low one; consequently, parents with higher tassel numbers enforced their effects during the formation of this trait in hybrids. We experienced positive correlation (r=0.67**) between plant height and main ear height. A positive correlation (r=0.89**) was also found between the tassel length of the main axis above the lowest and the upper side branch. We observed a medium correlation (r=-0.42**) between the number of primary lateral branches and plant height. The number of primary lateral branches showed the highest heterosis. These results can be utilized in practical selection and seed production.

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Correlations of the growth indexes and yield of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment. As forecrop rotation, we set up two models: a biculture (wheat and corn) and a triculture (pea, wheat and corn). We applied three levels of nutrients ...during the fertilization process (control, N50P35K40 and N150P105K120). The third variable studied was irrigation in case of which we tested non-irrigated variables (Ö1) and irrigation variables complemented up to the optimum (Ö3).

The effect of pre-crops, irrigation and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, LAD), weight of dry matter, just as SPADvalues and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, and we used the correlation analysis. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the yield amount. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPADvalues, the fertilization and the forecrop have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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Correlation between the weather in 2017 and the productivity of maize
Published June 30, 2018
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of... maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In Hajdúszoboszló in 2017, up to October, 445.8 mm of rain fell, which is in line with the average values of 30 years, and is only 45.7 mm less than those. In 2017, the effect of increasing the plant number was slighter. Averaged over the observed fertilizer treatments and hybrids, the yield was 9.10 t ha-1 with 60 thousand plants ha-1, 9.11 t ha-1 with 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 9.12 t ha-1 with 80 thousand plants ha-1. Without fertilization, in most cases, increasing the plant number from 60 thousand plants ha-1 to 70-80 thousand plants ha-1 does not increased the yield but decreased it. With N80+PK treatment the yield changed between 8.90 and 11.27 t ha-1. The effect of increasing the plant number was just slightly observable and did not show a clear tendency. The effect of changing the plant number, even with the highest dosage of fertilizers, could not be detected adequately. In contrast with the plant number, the effect of the different fertilizer treatments was expressly traceable. Compared to the control treatment (treatment without fertilization), with N80+PK fertilizer dosage with 60 thousand plants ha-1 the yield increased by 3.36–4.99 t ha-1. The smallest demonstrable proof, i.e. the LSD5% was 0.22 t ha-1, which means that fertilization, in each case, significantly increased the yield. When analysing the effect of fertilization in the average of the hybrids and the different plant numbers, a yield of 5.61 t ha-1 could be detected, which value was 10.12 t ha-1 with N80+PK treatment and 11.61 t ha-1 with N160+PK treatment. Thus, it can be calculated that compared to the treatment without fertilization, the N80+PK treatment increased the yield by 4.51 t ha-1, while compared to the N80+PK treatment, the N160+PK treatment increased the yield by 1.49 t ha-1. In addition to agrotechnical factors, in maize production, the impact of the crop year is specifically of high importance.
The average yield of hybrids (in the average of the different fertilizer treatments) was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 and 9.11 t ha-1 in 2017. When comparing the yield results against the precipitation data, it is clearly visible that the amount of rain fell in the January– October period is directly proportional to the average yield of maize. The effect of the crop year can be defined in a 5.05 t ha-1 difference in the yield.
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Quality comparison of selected apple cultivars under ULO-storage
Published May 23, 2006

Our examination was carried out in the 103 ha apple orchard of the Kasz-Coop Ltd.. The plantation works with modern varieties standing on M9 root stock, planted in a tree density of 2500 tree/ha and treated with professional integrated technology. The date of harvest is defined by a combination of several ripening analyses methods. The orchard ...has its own ULO-system warehouse.
Used in the experiment were four apple varieties: ’Idared’, ’Golden Reinders’, ’Jonagold’ and ’Braeburn’.
While under ULO-storage, we took 20-25 piece samples 6 times regarding the four varieties, from which 5-5 pieces were kept under three weeks’ shelf life, measured on a weekly bases. In our research, we analysed the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life, and the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric value under ULO-storage.
Analyses were based on the following measurements: flesh firmness, refractometric value and number of mature seeds.
We looked for morphological and morphological-quality correlations.
Through these we described the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life for each variety. We referred to the stability of these attributes and to the dynamics of their change. Later, with the help of these, and also considering our practical experience related to the measurements, we characterised the four varieties.
We found a positive correlation between the seed number and the flesh firmness in the case of the ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ varieties, but no correlation was found in the case of ‘Golden Reinders’ in this concern. We visualized the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric values under ULO-storage. This allowed us to categorise the varieties.

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