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  • Challenges – the impact of climate change on the nutritional management of Hungarian orchards

    The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in intensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

    Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.

  • Influence of temperature and variety on seed germination of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) at different germination times

    Seed germination is an important stage in crop development that affects plant performance, crop yield, and quality. Many factors influence seed germination, and one of the most important factors is temperature. The closer the temperature is to the optimum, the faster germination will occur. Temperature affects seed germination in various plants and varies depending on the variety. Therefore, the effect of temperature on seed germination is necessary to investigate, also for soybean varieties. Soybean is one of the world's most valuable oil-seed crops. Generally, proper seedling establishment and germination of soybean seeds are crucial processes in the survival and growth cycle of the crop. Thus, a study was done to investigate the influence of temperature and variety on soybean seed germination at different times after sowing. The experiment was carried out at the Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Crop Production Laboratory. Seeds of two soybean varieties were subjected to three different temperatures: 15, 25, and 35 °C, and two soybean varieties, Martina and Johanna were tested. There were four germination times based on the days after sowing: Days 3, 5, 7, and 9. This experiment was set up with a completely randomized block design and four replications. According to the findings of this study, the Martina variety showed a better germination rate as well as higher vigor and viability than the Johanna variety in the first 12 days after sowing. At temperatures of 15 °C and 25 °C, both varieties achieved comparable percentages of viability, but they were more vigorous at 25 °C due to better total seedling length. Thus, the information gained from this study will indirectly determine and confirm the proper temperature for the initial growth of the Martina and Johanna varieties.

  • The Examination of Some Determining Elements of Efficient Practical Sweet Corn Growing

    We did the detailed agronomy examination and assessment of sweet corn cropping technology by analysing the data of TONAVAR Ltd. The Ltd. developed a special sowing construction which is based on band application of main sowing and double growing. In main sowing they use super sweet hybrids, and in double growing they use normal sweet varieties. In double growing sugar peas and the sweet corn can be cultivated together successfully. In every two years appearing sugar peas has a good effect on the sweet corn growing in monoculture. At the same time
    the long-term successfulness of this questionable onto the illnesses of the peas because of the considerable sensitivity.
    According to our examinations in main sowing the optimal period is between May 1. and 30., and in double growing the optimal period of sowing is between June 1. and 20. The optimal plant density is different too for the two sowing time. For super sweet hybrids the optimal plant number is 60-63 thousand/ha and for the normal sweet that is 65 thousand/ha.
    Our examinations show that soil pest (defence with soil sterilisation in sowing time), Diabrotica virgifera, Helivoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubialis are the greatest danger for the sweet corn quantity and quality.
    The use of herbicides is the most efficient in the postemergens in main sowing and preemergens in second crop.
    Our examination shows that the efficient sweet corn growing cannot be imagined without irrigation. The most efficient irrigation is in main sowing in the critical fenophase of crop time. In double growing the initial irrigation, and the crop irrigation are the most efficient. Based on the production data verifiable that beside the application of the discribed growing technology in the 2005-2007 years the average yield was 20,9t/ha of main sowing, and 17,8t/ha of second crop on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. 

  • Technological and Economic Analysis on the Hungarian Rice Sector

    Hungary lies on the northern edge of rice production area. According to this, the climatic conditions area not perfect for this species. The production area of rice involves typically the poorer quality soils, however these meet the requirements of rice. In Hungary exclusively domestic types are grown which have high yield and good quality and these are usually wore successful than foreign types. On the other hand, these Hungarian types should be improved considering safety in production. Nowadays, rice is grown in large scale companies with 300-1400 hectares, where production technology already exists, machinery is suitable, however the latter one a little bit old.
    The average yields of the analysed companies were 3-4 t/ha in the past few years, which were a little bit above the national averages. The operating cost per hectare is almost 200 thousand HUF, from which the main part is the cost of machinery (35%) and the material cost (34%). The main part of the latter one is the irrigation costs (30%). The average cost, calculated from the total production cost, is 80 thousand HUF/t. Considering the above-mentioned costs and the price of rice (75 thousand HUF/t) it can be stated that the profitability of the rice sector is not the best, the cost rated profitability is -6.6%. According to the results of this analysis possibilities for the increase in profitability and improvement are increased subsidies and market price, as well as genetic improvement.

  • Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties

    Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in their origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

  • Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina

    The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main breeding organization is the Departmant of
    Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

  • Economic Aspects of Winter Wheat and Sunflower Production Under Organic Farming Methods

    On the basis of data from selected organic crop producing farms around Hortobagy and a significant conventional agricultural enterprise, the efficiency calculation of two important crops, winter wheat and sunflower were compared to each other, according to the organic and the conventional farming methods. The analysis was carried out on the basis of data of the year 2002, helped by the calculation and the comparison of the efficiency indexes. According to the results, the organic winter wheat was more highly profitable in 2002 than the conventional one, and this is because the price ratio of the two was quite high, however the yields and the production costs per hectare were almost on the same level. Considering the sunflower, organic farming was less productive than the conventional one in 2002, as the average yield in the examined organic farms was significantly lower than under the conventional farming method, and this was not compensated by the extra price for the organic crop product.

  • Studies on the Fusarium stalk rot infection of the maize genotypes using the Findex percentage and a computerised image analysis program

    In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. When the pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. During the three years of the experiment, 14 inbred lines were examined. The genotypes were sown in a two-factor split-plot design with four replications, with the genotypes in the main plots and four treatments in the subplots: two Fusarium graminearum isolates (1. FG36, 2. FGH4), 3. sterile kernels, 4. untreated control. The results experiments showed significant differences between the genotypes for resistance to fusarium stalk rot. Among the inbred lines the best resistance to fusarium stalk rot was exhibited by P06 and P07, both of which were related to ISSS. The precision and sensitivity of disease evaluations carried out visually and using image analysis software were compared in the experiment, and with two exceptions the CV values were lower for the image analysis. As the CV for measurements can be considered as a relative error, it can be stated that image analysis is the more precise of the two methods, so this technique gives a more accurate picture of the extent of stalk rot. The extent of stalk rot developing in response to natural infection is extremely environment-dependent, so the use of artificial inoculation is recommended for selection trials. 

  • Comparative study of newly-bred black locust clones with regard to photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency: early evaluation

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important tree species in Hungary, due to its positive economic impacts. Research to increase its yield, improve its stem quality and enhance its drought tolerance has been ongoing since the 1960s. Of the current research works in this field, the clone trial of the Forest Research Institute, University of Sopron, established in 2020 in the Nyírség region, is worth highlighting. In this experiment 4 newly-bred clones and a state-approved black locust cultivar ('Üllői') are being tested. In the summer of 2022, ‘on site’ measurements of assimilation parameters – net assimilation (An), transpiration (Tr) – were carried out using the LI-6800 portable photosynthesis system. From the data obtained, the water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated. The results of the statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis H test) have shown significant differences (p < 0.05) between the clones for all three parameters (An, Tr, WUE) tested. The NK2 clone has performed the highest value for all the parameters studied. However, no significant differences were found between clones NK2 and PL040 for Tr or between NK2 and control ('Üllői') for WUE. Studies of this kind contribute to the improvement of black locust growing through the production and selection of cultivars, which are relatively resistant to the negative effects (drought) of climate change.

  • Economics of hail protection net installation in super intensive apple orchards

    The main objective of this study was to determine and organize beneficial and detrimental effects of hail protection nets, and as far as possible to quantify their economic impact. The main factors were determined, through which hail protection nets can affect the costs and incomes of the production, and as their sum the economic result. Considering these factors together with the investment cost and the annual maintenance costs allows the economic evaluation of purchasing of hail protection nets. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from apple producing businesses. Installing hail protection nets as additional technological elements of intensive apple orchards can be concluded by all means as an economic investment – trough their protective effect. However, to achieve really favourable economic indicators, definitely bigger tree height is needed making possible the realisation of around 8.0 t ha-1 extra yield. The main root of this phenomena are obviously the extremely high investment costs of hail protection nets, which result in a large mass of fixed costs during the production period. Therefore the basic economic interest is reaching higher yields and thereby higher profits per unit area.

  • Nutrient deficiency and effects of various nutrition technologies on crop health

    The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.

  • The Role of Trichoderma in the Rhizosphere of Tomato Plants

    It is well established that microorganisms are closely associated with the roots of plants can directly influence plant growth and development. Species of Trichoderma, on the other hand are primarily studied for their ability to control plant disease. The ability of species of Trichoderma to directly promote or inhibit plant growth has been noted for many years.
    Tomatoes were treated with different Trichoderma strains by seed treatment and soil inoculation. The Trichoderma were grown on malt-agar medium and conidia were washed off by sterile water for making suspension which contained 107 CFU/ml (colony forming unit/ml). The suspension was used for seed treatment and for the soil inoculation by watering as well. The artificial soil inoculation was made by Trichodermas growing on grounded maize were mixed in mould and tomato seed were sown in it. Tomato seeds were also sown in bags made of close-meshed material which allowed the soil microorganisms to colonize the roots but it simultaneously protected the roots from soil contamination. Roots were put on Trichoderma selective medium to check the root colonization of the Trichoderma.
    The tomato plants were bedded out in a field in four repetition. After harvesting by hand the results supported by statistics shown that there was significant differences between the yield of the untreated and treated tomato plants by Trichoderma strains.

  • Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen

    The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In this respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
    Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
    The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
    The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

  • How have thermal conditions changed in different phenological stages of apple (Malus domestica) in Northeastern Hungary?

    In temperate climates, most fruit trees need cold weather, low temperatures in winter, and a certain amount of heat during the growing season until harvest. One of the most apparent effects of climate change is the elevated temperature in all seasons of the year. In our study, the changes in thermal conditions have been calculated in Hungary's most significant growing region of apples using the Chill Unit for winters and the Growing Degree Days for summers. The meteorological data were obtained from the gridded dataset of the Hungarian Meteorological Service on a 10 km × 10 km grid, so the whole studied area is well-covered over the last 50 years. The results show that the trees are more exposed to early budding than a few decades ago. Furthermore, the accumulated heat amount in summers has increased drastically, which may increase the heat stress and lead to higher yield losses.

  • Studying on the frost damage of some peach and nectarine varieties

    To be able to grow stone fruit species, the peach and the nectarine varieties, yield stability is very relevant. However, the climate is suitable in Hungary for growing stone fruits. We have to calculate with damage. Important winter damage and spring frost damage occur in every second year on the Great Pplains. To reveal the frost tolerance of cultivars and to clarify the differences among growing areas is the most important point of peach and nectarine production.
    We, made our experiments in the winter of 2005 (January-February), at Pallag, Zsombó, Siófok, Sóskút and Szatymaz. These former places are determinant in peach and nectarine growing in Hungarian respects.
    In our experiments we analyzed 10-10 fruit shoot from 82 varieties, and we measured the frost damage and the flower bud density.
    The minimum and the maximum frost damage values (%) at the different growing places were 7.6-38.7 at Siófok, 6.5-31.3 at Sóskút, 34.3-100 at Szatymaz, 83.7-99.6 at Pallag and 51.9-99.6 at Zsombó. There were expressive differences between the same cultivars depending on the growing area.
    The frost damage of „Suncrest” variety was 7.6% at Siófok, 8.2% at Sóskút but it was 69.8% at Szatymaz. The „Maystar” variety had 17.6% at Siófok, 12.4% at Sóskút and 87.2% frost damage at Szatymaz. In case of „Redhaven” variety the frost damage values were 16.8% at Sóskút, 54.6% at Szatymaz. We collected fruit shoots from three different heights in case of „Cresthaven” variety. In case of 1 meter height the frost damage was 74.6%, at 2 meter height 44.7%, and 25.2% at 3 meter.
    We experienced also big differences in flower bud density (flower bud/10 cm) of varieties. The following cultivars had the highest flower bud density (6-7 bud/10 cm): „Suncrest”, „Meystar, „Maria Luisa” and the „Maria Bianca”, „Redhaven”, „Michellini” had the lowest flower bud density (2-3 bud/10 cm).
    After our experiments we established that there were very expressive differences among the frost damage of peach and nectarine varieties from different climatic conditions and there are also big variance between the frost damage values of those fruit shoots, what were collected from different heights, but from the same variety. It conspicuous very good among our items, that difference of the flower bud density is very big among the varieties.To be able to grow peach and nectarine successfully, the suitable variety (low frost damage value, high flower bud density) and the suitable growing are is determinant.

  • The role of the hybrid-specific technological recommendations of maize in precision crop production procedures

    The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturity groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.

  • Microgreen leaf vegetable production by different wavelengths

    Microgreens are becoming more popular in gastronomy, especially as a salad ingredient. In this study, two plant species belonging to the cabbage family were grown as microgreens, namely red cabbage and broccoli. Three different light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used in the experiment, blue, red, and combined (blue:red) lighting. The experiment was carried out by 118 µmol-2 s-1total Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF), LED lighting was applied for 16 hours a day. Blue light primarily stimulates leaf growth, while red light promotes flowering. In our experiment, blue and combined lighting favorably affected plant development, yield (~3000 g m-2), chlorophyll-a (~8.0 mg g-1), and carotenoid content (9.0 mg g-1). However, the red light resulted in reduced harvest yields (~2200 g m-2), chlorophyll-a (~6.0 mg g-1), and carotenoid content (~7.0 mg g-1). The development of red cabbage was favorably influenced by the blue spectrum, while the combined spectrum favorably influenced the development of broccoli.

  • Evaluation of blue and red corn landraces

    Corn breeding can be successful only on a broad base of genetic material. The expansion of breeding aims includes the research of germplasm materials. In our experiments, we examined 11 blue, purple and red exotic corn varieties on two locations in Hungary. We conducted a complex study to obtain more information. We studied several morphological and phenological features and determined the most important qualitative parameters (protein, fat, ash). We applied the Tassel Area Index (TAI) under Hungarian conditions and compared it with the pollen producing ability of different genotypes. Results show that there are great opportunities in exotic corn varieties. Their quality exceeds that of the yellow ones in many cases. There are significant differences in yield and nutritional parameters. The favorable nutritional composition is not coupled with great productivity. Based on their flowering time and their agronomical features, they can be cultivated under Hungarian conditions as well. They match the new breeding aims, so they can be used as functional food or energy plants. With their high pollen producing ability and TAI, they can be utilized as markers in future pollen research.

  • Experience at Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy on introduction and integration of precision agriculture technology

    Traditional and precision agriculture technologies are compared on the basis of the field experiment. Problems of soil and crop survey and mapping are discussed.

  • Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle

    This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the genetic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

  • The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation

    Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

    The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

    We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

    Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

  • Soil Fertility Management in Westsik’s Crop Rotation Experiment

    The crop rotation experiment, established by Vilmos Westsik in 1929, is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary. It is still used to study the effects of organic manure treatment, develop models and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of fertilisers, green, straw and farmyard manure. The experiment also provides a resource of yield, plant and soil data sets for scientific research into the soil and plant processes which control soil fertility, and into the sustainability of production without environmental deterioration. The maintenance of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment can be used to illustrate the value of long-term field experiments.

  • The impact of sowing date, production area and nutrient supply on the yield and quality parameters of millet

    The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies to the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The examinations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU CAS RINY in the small plots in four replications in 2013. The largest effect was recorded in the sowing time of the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area). The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing. The examined factors did not affect in the protein content and milling rate, except in the latest sowing time when protein content was significantly the highest.