Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered n...ext to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).
In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.
The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.
The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.
The obligate plant parasite fungi in the family Albuginaceae are responsible for causing white rust diseases on weeds and they are rather common worldwide. Weedy plants with characteristic symptoms have been collected in 2014 and 2015 on location Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties in Hungary. The determination of the species were b...ased on the morphological characters both pathogens and hosts. Albugo candida was determined on shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a host for Wilsoniana portulacae. The fungus Wilsonia bliti (syn.: Albugo bliti), the causal agent of white rust disease was found on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus).
Ustilago trichophora (Link) Kunze is a widespread smut fungus in all over the world. This fungus is pathogenic on species of Echinochloa genus. The subject of present research was that smut fungi occurrence on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Numerous barnyard grass plants with symptoms of smut galls caused by Ustilago trichophora on st...ems were collected from two counties, víz. Hajdú-Bihar (East-Hungary) and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Middle-Hungary). The infested plants were examined in laboratory, which included the observation of the symptoms and the morphological properties of the spores and the colonies developed from sporidia. The results suggested that this fungus could be effective against barnyard grass weed so the biological control of this weed plant (Echinochloa cruss-galli) can be managed by using Ustilago trichophora biopreparates. As Ustilago trichophora can produce abundant sporidia in liquid culture, a high effectiveness control should be apply by Ustilago trichophora smut fungus as a mycoherbicide in Echinochloa weed control.
Glycerol is a by-product of the biodiesel industry and it might be a good alternative to moderate the energy deficiency of sows during the lactation period. Preliminary experiments were carried out to test the effect of a powder, solid based “food grade” glycerol source with 72.9% glycerol content (Trial 1) and a liquid “feed grade” gly...cerol source with 86% glycerol content (Trial 2) on the performance of lactating sows and their litters. Trial 1 was conducted with 5 Hungarian Large White×Hungarian Landrace sows/treatment (313±24.9 kg) and Trial 2 with 12–12 DanAvl (323±17.0 kg) sows and their litters/treatment. Neither the solid, powder based glycerol (Trial 1), nor the liquid glycerol source (Trial 2) had significant effect on the feed intake, reduction in live weight and back-fat thickness, and weaning-tooestrus interval (p>0.05) of lactating sows. In Trial 2, on the 14th, 21st and 27th days of lactation the milk samples were collected and it was found that 50 kg/t glycerol decreased the protein content of milk samples (p<0.05). Glycerol supplementation had no effect on dry matter, fat, lactose content of milk samples (p>0.05). In Trial 2, no significant difference was found between control and experimental sow groups in triglyceride concentration of blood samples and in the activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT; p>0.05), but the concentration of plasma glucose and cholesterol increased tendentiously (p<0.10).
Based on our preliminary results, it can be concluded that additional dose trials are needed to perform in order to study the effect of glycerol supplement on milk production and on metabolic processes of lactating sows.
A study of fungi responsible for severe leaf spots of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in the Hajdúság region (East Hungary), Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata were isolated from infested leaf tissues. F. sporotrichioides was the most virulent fungus in pathogenicity tests conducted on healthy leaves of common milkweed ...plants. Inoculation of common milkweed (A. syriaca) in different growth stages with F. sporotrichioides yielded similar symptoms as the original ones. Spray mixtures containing 1.0×106 conidia/ml gave effective control when common milkweed plants were sprayed until runoff occurred. Laboratory (wet chamber) and field experiments showed that asexual spores of the fungal pathogen, F. sporotrichioides, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against common milkweed (A. syriaca).
More efficient control efficacy was observable on elder plants (at flowering stage) than younger ones. These results initiate that this fungus may be a biocontrol agent for controlling this invasive weed but should clarify its hosts because it could infect cultivated plants as well.
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is one of the most important, allergenic weed species in Hungary. A. artemisiifolia invades both a broad range of often disturbed areas (brownfields) and either undisturbed ones like waste lands, roadsides, riverbanks and railway tracks. In field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mainly in ...sunflower, maize, cereals and soybean. In Hungary many inhabitants suffer from allergy caused by Ambrosia pollen which results a serious human-health risk. The aim of the control is to prevent flowering and seed propagation of A. artemisiifolia. Until now the occurrence of numerous pathogenic fungi which attack common ragweed plants have been identified in Hungary, however there is not yet available biological weed control program because of shortage in acceptable effectiveness, and endangering cultural plant species. During our weed surveys in the region of Hajdúság (East-Hungary) we found numerous common ragweed plants showing heavy necrotic lesions on leaves and stems. The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from diseased tissues of common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia). The identification of fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and features of conidia and chlamydospores developed on malt extract agar (MEA) plates. After examination of axenic cultures we revealed that the fungus isolated from the leaves ands stems of common ragweed was a Phoma-like species.
Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an incre...asing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.
The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.
Because of the globalization and global warming the emergence of invasive weeds in Hungary are more common. The woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) is published as an important invasive weed in Hungary. Woolly cupgrass is native in East Asia and it spreads into several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protectio...n. It has been spreading extensively during the last few years,as the weed shows a very serious invasion potential.
Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.
The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to... determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.
The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).
The environmental factors to which surplus water can be assigned (topography, soil, groundwater, vegetation etc.) can be subject to special analysis and the randomness of the occurrences can be limited. The results of these procedures are surplus water risk maps of the areas, which can be utilised in land use planning. The risk map of the resea...rch site was created with overlaying digital category maps of the determining factors (hydraulic conductivity, convexity, critical probability of ground water level and land use).
Soil structure may be improved by adding readily decomposable organic matter. The extent of amelioration depends on the chemical build-up and decomposability of the crop residues. Three different kinds of organic matters were investigated: (1) maize stem, (2) wheat straw, and (3) maize stem
& wheat straw. Comparing the aggregate stabiliz...ing effects of the differently decomposable organic matters to each other, the expected maize stem & wheat straw (mw) > maize stem (m) > wheat straw (w) order was proved.
Nowadays in Hungary nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). According to the public opinion the ragweed is a weed. From agricultural and public health point of view it is exceptionally dangerous plant. As it contains a number of useful active ingredients, based on this the ragwee...d is consider a medicinal plant. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In the experiments we used the pre-flowering plants with roots and we extracted the biological active components of dried plant. We tested the biological activity of the extracts against Monilinia laxa in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Monilinia laxa.
In our country, wormwood ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) may cause serious problems. Nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), which is believed useless weed. Allergological point of view, most problematic weeds adventive. However, many physiologically very beneficial compound also inc...luded, those with the effects have been known also by the Indians. On this basis, herbs can be thought of as ragweed. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In this paper we tested the biological activity of the extracts against Alternaria alternata F.00750 in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Alternaria alternata. The minimum effective concentration was 300 mg extract in a Petri dish, which was three days inhibited the growth of fungus. Full fungicidal effect was observed over dose 525 mg.
Changes in the physical distribution (particle size and the state stability against decomposition) of the organic carbon pool in tilled layers of Hungarian field soil under different tillage treatments were studied. Three years after starting the experiment, soil samples were fractionated (they were taken in March 2005) by their particle size a...nd density. The treatments caused well measurable, significant effects on two fractions of intra-microaggregate organic matter (53-250μm particle-sized, well and less decomposition-resistant pools) and onto their relative rate in the organic carbon pool of the whole soil.
Different tillage treatments caused different distributions in the organic matter fractions. In regularly intensely cultivated soils evolve different physical structure, particle size-distribution, which reduce the soil fertility and its resistance against outer impacts.
In Hungary today is about 5 million hectares of agricultural land contaminated with ragweed. The ragweed problem a year is about 60 billion HUF to be paid, of which 30 billion are used to reduce the agricultural damage. Experiments with ragweed pollen has mainly been carried out in connection with terms of allergy. The other biochemical experim...ents and studies with this plant, have so far been the scientific horizons of public life, boosted the edge. We wanted to demonstrate that the ragweed, which is a weed, containsbiological active (for example: antifungal) compounds. For our experiments in the previous cycle of flowering, plants were collected manually, with its roots and with each plant part. The extraction of the substance from dry plant – meal was carried out using appropriate solvents. The biological activity of ragweed-extracts were tested against fungi isolated from soils and meadow with different mode of cultivation. Our results suggest that ragweed contains biologically active substances, which inhibit the growth of fungi, depending on the concentration of active ingredients of the plant.
Our experiments have repeatedly shown that the extract of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an antifungal and antibacterial component.
In our paper we tested of the biological activity of the herbal substance against opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus
aureus 110003 and 25923; Staphylococcus saprophyticus 11...0008). Our laboratory tests show that the extract is bacteriostatic and in several cases bactericid. We can assume that from the the agricultural and public health aspects can be extremely dangerous weed, contains biologically active components and it may be suitable for the prepare of antibacterial agents.