The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in case of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.
We studied the vegetation of a 260 ha Hungarian Grey Cattle pasture near Páskom, which can be found in Zámoly basin. We carried out our surveyes in May 2012. The pasture can be divided into five parts. One part, approximately the half of the area (150.83 ha), is an old-field grassland, which was overseeded 20 years ago. The other half of the pasture was restored (109.17 ha) in 4 different ways in 2009 and then was mowed until 2011. Seven relevés were made in each part of the pasture (the occurence of species and their cover value were recorded). The aim of our study was to compare the effects of the different restoration methods and mowing on the botanical composition of the pasture.
The results showed, that the grassland restored with hay transfer method was the most similar to the natural conditions. The greatest number of species was recorded in that part and the species of natural grasslands become dominant. The directly sowed and the spontaneous grassland parts separated chiefly from the semi-natural 20 years old grassland.
The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol and the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
The environmental factors to which surplus water can be assigned (topography, soil, groundwater, vegetation etc.) can be subject to special analysis and the randomness of the occurrences can be limited. The results of these procedures are surplus water risk maps of the areas, which can be utilised in land use planning. The risk map of the research site was created with overlaying digital category maps of the determining factors (hydraulic conductivity, convexity, critical probability of ground water level and land use).
The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.
The marketability of table grapes is mainly characterized by berry size, color, taste and texture. Mechanical measurements of table grape berries could provide objective information on the textural qualities of grape berries. In addition, this method might be suitable to study the effects of phytotechnical methods (such as girdling) on table grape quality. The aim of this preliminary work was to demonstrate how instrumental testing could be used to examine the effects of girdling on berry grape texture and define the textural characteristics of table grape berries. Cane girdling was carried out at veraison in two table grape varieties. Texture analysis was performed several times during the maturity. Besides this examination another five varieties were analyzed to assess their berry mechanical properties. Double compression test was used to determine berry hardness and its derived parameters. Puncture test was applied to evaluate skin hardness, skin elasticity and skin break energy. Skin thickness was also investigated. Berry hardness, skin hardness and skin thickness of the girdled grapevines were significantly affected by this technique. Most of the textural parameters showed differences among the seven cultivars.