Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decrease...s constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.
There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of... 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.
This study was carried out at the Hungarian National Artificial Insemination Centre in order to evaluate the seasonal effects on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production using sperm analyser equipment. The volume of ejaculate (VE), percentage of living sperm (PLS), spermatozoa concentration (SC), motility score (MC), perc...entage of motile spermatozoa (PMS), speed of movement of sperm cells (SMS) and the percentage of sperm cells moving straightforward (PSMS) were collected and observed in three seasons (summer, autumn, winter) in Holstein-Friesian breeding bulls (n = 15). The sperm collection was done for three successive weeks in every season on the same day (summer: n = 41, autumn: n=39, winter: n = 42, altogether: n = 122). The same sperm samples were measured by sperm analyser equipment (HTM version 7.0, Danvers) for PMS, SMS and PSMS. The seasonal and the number of sperm collection effects were confirmed on semen characteristics by multiple analysis of variance (two ways MANOVA, Type III) using the program package of STATISTICA 4.5. The average values of VE were similar in the three seasons (summer: from 4.42 to 6.28 cm3, autumn: from 4.08 to 6.86 cm3, winter: from 5.43 to 5.71 cm3). The average values of the MC were similar in each of the three seasons (summer: from 3.66-4.00 M; autumn: from 3.66-3.77 M; winter: from 3.86-4.07 M). The summary of all effects for season (P<0.001), repeated sperm collections in the same season (P<0.05) and interaction of two traits (P<0.01) were established on the measured characteristics. The special effects (P<0.05) of a given season were calculated, excepting the VE and MC, on all of the measured characteristics. The special effect (P<0.01) of the repeated sperm collections in the same season was verified in only one case (SMS). It is not surprised at the interaction was established on the VE (P<0.001), PMS (P<0.05), and SMS (P<10.0). The results of present study suggest that seasonal effect on sperm quality of breeding bulls cannot be eliminated even at standard feeding and keeping conditions. Considering our results, we can recommend that the average values of three successive weeks in every season be used, to take advantage of seasonal effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production.