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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Researches on the quick method of sugar productivity evaluation
Published October 5, 2010
26-29

In a sugar factory it is necessary to be able to calculate very quickly the sugar productivity possible to obtain by processing the beet
having a certain technological quality. That is the reason why, in the following lines, it is presented a very quick method used by the Institute of
Alimentary Chemistry, the laboratory for sugar researc...h and engineering, for such kind of quick calculations, but with a high theoretical and
practical precision.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture
Published December 10, 2002
171-181

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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The effect of the dates of shoot selection and shoot tip removal on the growth of William’s pear trees
Published September 14, 2005
65-70

Increasing the intensity of production in the case of pear can be the solution to satisfy the market demand forr high-quality fruit. The aims in this technology are the canopy treatments and the maintainance of consistently high quality yields in the long run. The experiments were performed with cv. William’s pear, a cultivar grown on large a...reas in Hungary. To create the optimal canopy shape for earlier fruiting, we performed shoot selection and the cutting back of shoot tips. Our results show, that both pruning methods – applied at 3 different dates – decreased the number of short fruiting parts (spurs), and increased the number of vegetative shoots. The sole exception was from this the effect of shoot tip removal when done at the earliest date.

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A study of product strategy priorities at the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region
Published June 5, 2009
55-64

Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can... be characterised with certain strategic
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.

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Compost application in integrated and organic fruit cultivation
Published July 31, 2012
135-139

Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far. Compost doses were applied in biological and integrated apple orchards in cooperation with ...the Institute of Horticultural Science in the years 2010 and 2011. Different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple varieties (Golden Delicious and Pinova). There is no clear effect of compost on the changes of ash-, total acids, Vitamin C and the sugar content until now, because the improvement of the nutritional indicators takes more time. However significant differences were observed after one year between the apple varieties. Higher ash-, total acids and sugar content were measured in case of the apple variety Pinova, while the measurements showed higher Vitamin C content in case of the variety Golden Delicious.

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The role of non-optimum Fe-Zn ratio in the development of latent zinc shortage in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Published March 20, 2013
7-11

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The general micronutrient deficiency of the soils influences the quality of food production which causes human health problems in several countries as well. The non optimal Fe-Zn ratio can cause latent zinc deficiency – which the plants response in the function of their sensitivity –what has no visual symptoms or the plant shows deficiency symptoms in case of appropriate zinc supply. This phenomenon can cause significant decrease in the crop yield.

The aim of this study was to prove the role of non optimal Fe-Zn ratio in the evalution of latent zinc deficiency.

The non optimal Fe-Zn ratio caused decrease in the number of the leaves, the number and length of the internodes, the relative chlorophyll contents and in the dry matter production. According to the results the non optimal Fe-Zn ratio caused difficulties in the metabolism, which decreased the examined plant physiological parameters in the most cases. It can be concluded if there are higher iron contents in the tissues than zinc it can result latent zinc deficiency.

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The influence of climatic conditions of the harvest year on the wheat quality
Published February 18, 2016
23-25

Technological potential of wheat bread depends on the variety, manner and type of fertilizer, irrigation conditions and climatic conditions in their absence. This study was done on two varieties of wheat grown in Bihor county in a place with identical fertilization conditions, for two different years: year 2014 can be characterized by a greater... quantity of rainfall during the wheat vegetation period and the year 2015 can be characterized by a drought during the growing wheat on the subject of the study. In the study was examined whether climatic conditions have any influence on the technological potential of wheat, not taking into account the data on quantity produced per hectare in the years studied.

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Effect of agrotechnological treatment on nutritive value of common millet
Published May 16, 2017
65-69

The cultivation of common millet shows an increasing tendency due to its adaptability to extreme poor circumstances. In addition, millet do not contain gluten forming proteins such as gliadin and glutenin, therefore people with gluten intolerance could consume it. The vitamin B and mineral content increase the importance of millet. The aim of o...ur experiment was to measure the quality of flour of two millet varieties treated with different nitrogen fertilizer doses.

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Comparision of growth of mature all-female and mixed-sex Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks in RAS
Published May 20, 2020
65-68

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.

The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.

The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.

By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.

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Az évszak és az azonos évszakban történt ismételt mintavételek hatása holstein tenyészbikák ejakulátumának minőségi- és mennyiségi jellemzőire
Published March 27, 2002
33-37

This study was carried out at the Hungarian National Artificial Insemination Centre in order to evaluate the seasonal effects on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production using sperm analyser equipment. The volume of ejaculate (VE), percentage of living sperm (PLS), spermatozoa concentration (SC), motility score (MC), perc...entage of motile spermatozoa (PMS), speed of movement of sperm cells (SMS) and the percentage of sperm cells moving straightforward (PSMS) were collected and observed in three seasons (summer, autumn, winter) in Holstein-Friesian breeding bulls (n = 15). The sperm collection was done for three successive weeks in every season on the same day (summer: n = 41, autumn: n=39, winter: n = 42, altogether: n = 122). The same sperm samples were measured by sperm analyser equipment (HTM version 7.0, Danvers) for PMS, SMS and PSMS. The seasonal and the number of sperm collection effects were confirmed on semen characteristics by multiple analysis of variance (two ways MANOVA, Type III) using the program package of STATISTICA 4.5. The average values of VE were similar in the three seasons (summer: from 4.42 to 6.28 cm3, autumn: from 4.08 to 6.86 cm3, winter: from 5.43 to 5.71 cm3). The average values of the MC were similar in each of the three seasons (summer: from 3.66-4.00 M; autumn: from 3.66-3.77 M; winter: from 3.86-4.07 M). The summary of all effects for season (P<0.001), repeated sperm collections in the same season (P<0.05) and interaction of two traits (P<0.01) were established on the measured characteristics. The special effects (P<0.05) of a given season were calculated, excepting the VE and MC, on all of the measured characteristics. The special effect (P<0.01) of the repeated sperm collections in the same season was verified in only one case (SMS). It is not surprised at the interaction was established on the VE (P<0.001), PMS (P<0.05), and SMS (P<10.0). The results of present study suggest that seasonal effect on sperm quality of breeding bulls cannot be eliminated even at standard feeding and keeping conditions. Considering our results, we can recommend that the average values of three successive weeks in every season be used, to take advantage of seasonal effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production.

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Large Scale Measurement of the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Different hungaricum Fruit and Vegetable Samples with Photochem Chemiluminometric Device
Published December 6, 2005
300-304

In our present study, we performed a quick test of the antioxidant capacity of domestic fruit and vegetable cultivars with a PHOTOCHEM® instrument (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The instrument is special because it can measure both the total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL method) and the total water-soluble antioxidant capacity. Another... advantage of the system is its quick measurement. With similar instruments, such measurement can take several hours, while PHOTOCHEM® can perform it within a few minutes.
In our model studies, we examined the changes in the antioxidant capacity of sour cherry, green pepper, carrot, pumpkin, red beet and Brassica sp. cultivars. We aimed to determine how suitable the instrument is for quick, routine measurements in the case of the different horticultural products and which species have high antioxidant capacity values.
On the basis of our examinations, we can state that the PHOTOCHEM® system is suitable for routine, semi-automated measurements of the total antioxidant capacity at several vegetables and fruits. Besides this, the system can be used for testing the quality of food products, for monitoring storability in post-harvest technologies, and for special breeding programmes and for physiological and biotechnological studies.

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The Examination of Some Determining Elements of Efficient Practical Sweet Corn Growing
Published November 2, 2009
81-85

We did the detailed agronomy examination and assessment of sweet corn cropping technology by analysing the data of TONAVAR Ltd. The Ltd. developed a special sowing construction which is based on band application of main sowing and double growing. In main sowing they use super sweet hybrids, and in double growing they use normal sweet varieties.... In double growing sugar peas and the sweet corn can be cultivated together successfully. In every two years appearing sugar peas has a good effect on the sweet corn growing in monoculture. At the same time
the long-term successfulness of this questionable onto the illnesses of the peas because of the considerable sensitivity.
According to our examinations in main sowing the optimal period is between May 1. and 30., and in double growing the optimal period of sowing is between June 1. and 20. The optimal plant density is different too for the two sowing time. For super sweet hybrids the optimal plant number is 60-63 thousand/ha and for the normal sweet that is 65 thousand/ha.
Our examinations show that soil pest (defence with soil sterilisation in sowing time), Diabrotica virgifera, Helivoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubialis are the greatest danger for the sweet corn quantity and quality.
The use of herbicides is the most efficient in the postemergens in main sowing and preemergens in second crop.
Our examination shows that the efficient sweet corn growing cannot be imagined without irrigation. The most efficient irrigation is in main sowing in the critical fenophase of crop time. In double growing the initial irrigation, and the crop irrigation are the most efficient. Based on the production data verifiable that beside the application of the discribed growing technology in the 2005-2007 years the average yield was 20,9t/ha of main sowing, and 17,8t/ha of second crop on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. 

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Reflections on the use of subsidies received from the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the micro-region Ibrány-Nagyhalász
Published December 16, 2012
211-216

Hungary’s accession to the European Union caused major changes in the country’s life. Rural development subsidies can be received through extensive application mechanisms. This is particularly challenging for lagging micro-regions. My study presents the lagging microregion of Ibrány-Nagyhalász, focusing on what types of organizations and ...upon what grounds received subsidies in the framework of the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme 2004–2006 (AVOP). I focus on the same parameters when examining the measures in the third axis of the New Hungary Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 (ÚMVP), followed by a comparison between the two programmes’ effectiveness. I conclude that due to the experience collected throughout the period of AVOP, both the number and the quality of applications have risen from the year 2007. Still, due to the lack of competence, cooperation and motivation, the region's planned improvements are not yet fully met and the capabilities of the region are not yet fully exploited. For the future, even more complex and more feasible projects are needed.

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e-services for the farmers
Published May 2, 2012
11-19

Nowadays the different IT tools and use of the internet have appeared almost in every sectors of the economy, so it may give several benefits and help to the agricultural producers. In this article I give a brief overview about e-government and its’ opportunities, then I give a short description of a few important governmental and specialized... administration on-line services which are provided to the farmers. According to many experts using of informatics may cause essential change in the operation of the administration because of the fact that the electronic administration may evolve. Generally speaking, today the egovernment services are already an indispensable device to the reformation of the public administration, the modification of services which suits to people's demands and the creation of the more adaptable, clearer public administration. The electronic
documents are free from formal errors which is either important for clients or offices. The cases can be arranged even from home in 24 hours of the day. The spread and success of the use of electronic services depend not only on the quality of services, but the IT readiness of the target audience is also very important factor. Unfortunately the affect of e-gap is bigger in case of the farmers.

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The impact of sowing date, production area and nutrient supply on the yield and quality parameters of millet
Published March 11, 2014
105-109

The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies to the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The examinations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU CAS RINY in the small plots in four replications... in 2013. The largest effect was recorded in the sowing time of the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area). The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing. The examined factors did not affect in the protein content and milling rate, except in the latest sowing time when protein content was significantly the highest.

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Characterization of two rust fungi related to biological control concept in Hungary
Published June 30, 2018
195-199

Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an incre...asing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.

The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.

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The examination of human resources in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region on the basis of human resource hierarchy
Published July 28, 2008
91-110

In this paper, I deal with the examination of the situation and change of human resources through the human resource hierarchy. My research covers the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, which includes four settlements, two towns (Hódmezővásárhely as the centre of the area and Mindszent) and two villages (Mártély and Székkutas). Based on ...population density the micro-region is qualified as a rural territory, which is underpinned by the micro-region’s market town and homestead like character.
I took the human resource system of Cloke and Park (1985) published in their book of Rural Resource Management as a basis of my examination and I pursued my research in consideration of Fehér’s (2005) researches related to rural economy. The system of human resources provided a hierarchical and logical framework for my examination. In the course of the research I made analyses along the three levels of human resources concerning the micro-region and its settlements.
During the examination of the human resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region I pointed out some negative changes and situations which unfavourably influence the socio-economic processes of the territory and its settlements. All this reveal that the human resources are not only factors of the economy of the micro-region as a rural economy but at the same time they are areas to be developed. The living standard (welfare) of the people living in the area and their quality of life (well-being) depend on the development and level of the different dimensions of the human resources largely. For that very reason there is a need for coordinated development of the human resources and the related fields with respect to the cause-effect relations.
My research contributes to the better cognition of rural resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, without this a rational improvement and sustainable development of the micro-region and its settlements based on inner resources cannot be imagined.

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Effect of using antioxidants as feed additives in the diet of dairy cows on the vitamin E and lycopene content of milk
Published December 1, 2010
69-72

In 2007, the aim of an Ányos Jedlik program and call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants – in this case: vitamin E and lycopene ... used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an
increased level of vitamin E and lycopene content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E as feed-additive can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E in the milk. The use of lycopene as feedadditive also gave good results. At the beginning of the experiment, the lycopene content of the milk was below the detection limit, while in the post-feeding milk samples the lycopene became detectable. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that further experiments and analyses are needed regarding the quality of food of animal origin and animal health.

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Food safety of plant origin food
Published November 13, 2012
161-164

Expectation regarding changes related to food production, transportation, distribution and marketing have changed considerably in several regions of the world over the past decades. It is especially true for highly industrialized countries where not only the food security is important but the food safety is essential too. The concentration of p...roduction – processing – distribution involves the danger on the one hand products of unsuitable quality from point of view of nutritional physiology and the other hand ones that may contain substances harmful to human health will become widespread among consumers. We investigated the heavy metal, pesticide remains and mycotoxin content of different plant products.

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Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
11-15

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

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Agricultural biogas plants in Eastern Hungary
Published February 17, 2015
79-81

In the scope of the article, agricultural biogas plants which operate within the region have been analysed together with their linked livestock plants. The study attempts to describe the current condition and future opportunities of the sites. It also covers the description of energy production/use efficiency. The study contains the list of fac...tors determining the economic operation of biogas plants. In the course of the analysis, types, amount and quality of energy produced of different raw materials have been determined within the decentralised energy production.

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The effect of various composts on vegetable green mass on two soil types
Published May 16, 2017
179-183

Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
Composts p...roduced in different ways have different effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of different soils, although their positive effects have already proved in the literature. In our study the effects of composts from different composting processes were investigated in soil-plant systems. The different physical and chemical properties of the two examined soil types (arenosol and chernozem)strongly influenced the nutrient supply capacity of composts which could be characterized by the growth of ray-grass as a test plant in the pot experiment. In this work we examined the effects of three different composts on the green weight of plants on the fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment and sowing.

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Selection of Sport- and Racehorses
Published March 4, 2005
3-10

The utilisation of the horse has changed from time to time in response to human needs. For a few decades, it has been serving in several equestrian sports more intensively. It has also been proved that the standards for this kind of performance cannot be established in the way certain characteristics, such as the weight gain or milk production ...of other animal breeds can. Breeding horses for sporting comprises highly complex selection criteria.
Some of these (e.g. external features, temperament, manageability and intelligence) do not put the breeder in a difficult position, but finding the traits that establishes the safety of sporting achievements poses a genetic problem.
The performance of a horse for sports is a highly complex feature, which cannot easily be assessed or put down in figures. In addition, man plays a decisive role in shaping all kinds of performance of a horse at any given time by not only creating conditions for a better performance, but also by playing an active role in increasing it.
The performance of the horse is mostly defined by its general aptitude to movement, ie., the regularity, clear rhythm and springiness of basic types of strides, as well as the ability to move in a naturally balanced way. Training and riding principles are based on these traits. These two together will determine about 70% of the value of the horse and its adequacy for high performance equestrian sports. In order to avoid subjectivity in determining the above variables and to increase the degree of objectivity, competent expert teams (trainers, judges, other riders) are employed to form an opinion on an individual animal.
Assessing horse performance outside races does not seem to be efficient, as owing to the dominant effects of the environment, the indicator of inheritability is hardly above 0.1.
Free jumping is an especially appropriate means for assessing a horse’s readiness and ability to move in an environment free of disturbing factors. In free jumping, it is especially important to judge the style of the jump. The first phase of jumping – as a sequence of movements – lasts from the moment the fore-feet touch the ground until the moment the hind-feet push off, while the second phase lasts from this moment until touching the ground. The most important task in the first phase is to make the angle of the dip of the body by the supporting fore-feet that is necessary for the jump. The quality of the jump is determined by the jumping and adequately expanded hind-legs. The intensity of pushing off and jumping done by the hind-legs can be inferred, and differences between individuals can be discerned from the shaping of the curve by the hocks and the paths of the pasterns in relation to the withers.

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Assessing of soil aggregate stability: the sand-correction and its relevance
Published October 20, 2009
29-47

Soil structure and changes in its quality caused by Maize stem (1), Wheat straw (2) and Maize stem & wheat straw (3) addition were assessed by three aggregate-stability indices. We observed that the NSI index formula proposed by Six et al. (2000) was nonsensitive to the changes in soil structure caused by the investigated organic matter add...ition. Furthermore it overestimates the aggregate-stability of the investigated silty sandy loam soil. Therefore we proposed a new modified NSI formula which is sensitive to the questionable treatments and that resulted in a more
realistic NSI data. The most sensitive index to differences of the investigated treatments were the Mean weight diameter (MWD) proposed by van Bavel (1953, in Kemper és Rosneau, 1986).

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