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Evaluation of Hungarian show-jumping results using different measurement variables
Published May 6, 2013
81-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.

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Identification of Hucul mare families by mtDNA markers
Published March 20, 2014
75-79

Hundred animal species have disappeared during the last century. By this time, approximately one-third of domestic animals have been in the endangered category. Hucul horses are also in this category; furthermore saving the genetic diversity beside the race preservation is an important challenge as well. The number of mares and stallions is onl...y one of the expressive elements of genetic diversity; together with their quality determine the genetic variability of this breed. Beyond that, if an exact breed can originates from more founders, it can be more renewed genetically. Stud book documents these data by registering the mare families and stallions’ genealogical lineage. Molecular genetics, especially mitochondrial DNA analysis can make the precise identification of mare families possible. As a result of these molecular based methods, protection of genetic diversity, as well as breed preservation became more reliable. After the primer designing, the optimal primer pair was chosen which targets a 1092 bp length DNA sequence in the cytochrome b region. After the successful PCR optimalisation, we determined 170 Hucul mares’ sequences. According to our results, the samples compose ten haplotypes, which are much less, than the registered number of mare families in the stud book. Further investigations are needed to reach more representative results, and drawn the further consequences.

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The effect of immigration on some population genetic parameters of the Hungarian Hucul population
Published August 29, 2017
91-96

Population genetic indicators of the Hungarian Hucul population were calculated taking also into account the effect of imported horses.The birth year of the examined 3002 individuals ranged between 1871–2015. The last year involved in the examination was 2015, when the research was conducted on the stock under stud book control. The calculati...ons on the population were made using the statistic indicators in the Endog programme, with and without the imported Polish horses. Figures were depicted using R software. Number of offspring of the Polish individuals was presented in tables; the distribution of the offspring per stud and per mare family, as well as the Nei’s genetic distance,were presented graphically.

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Genetic diversity of the Hungarian draft horse assessed by mitochondrial DNA
Published October 24, 2016
29-32

Hungarian draft is a horse breed with a recent mixed ancestry. It was developed in the 1920s by crossing local mares with draught horses imported from France and Belgium. To genetically characterize the breed and to set up the basis for a conservation programme, we have employed a molecular marker: a 256-bp D-loop mitochondrial DNA fragment. We... analyzed 124 horses representing Hungarian draft horses to assess the maternal phylogeography of the breed. Sequence analysis of a 256-bp segment revealed a total of 34 haplotypes with thirty-four polymorphic sites. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values (Hd=0.953±0.001; π=0.024±0.001) were detected. The average number of pairwise differences were k=5.998. This breed counts 800 mares today, and only survive due to breeding programmes, this way each haplotype frequency depends on the extent to which mares are involved into the breeding. The reduced number of surviving maternal lineages emphasizes the importance of establishing a conservation plan for this endangered breed. Due to the revealed 34 polymorphic sites we could presuppose twelve maternal linages, which could be a first step for making a breeding programme.

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Some population genetics parameters of the present Hungarian Hucul Horse population
Published March 23, 2016
15-22

We examined the Hungarian population of the Hucul horse breed, under genetic protection, based on population genetic indicators until the year 2014 included. The evaluation was performed using the Endog programme based on the following indicators: inbreeding coefficient, average relatedness, the maximum number of generations, the number of full... generations traced and offspring number. Our findings were as follows: the average inbreeding coefficient of the total population was 5.99%, average relatedness was 11.82%, the maximum number of generations was, on the average, 16.04%, and the number of full generations traced with reference to the whole population was 4.15% on the average. 40% of the whole population (723 individuals) did not have any offspring; 42% (759 individuals) attained an offspring of 1 or 2, while 3.4% (88 individuals) had a surviving offspring of 3. The highest offspring number according to the national database (92) was attained by one stallion.

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Genetic diversity study in Hungarian coldblooded horses
Published August 29, 2017
29-34

Because of the feeding technology innovation, accelerated transport and communication facilities breeds of high performance breeds replaced local autochone breeds worldwide. These latter species however have an important role in gene conservation. Hungarian cold-blooded horse breeding stock are lacking pedigree, the actual founder breed mares a...re not known. For this reason, it is an major priority defining the genetic backround of the existing flock, for that breeding could operate with purposeful using of origin maternal founders. In the present study 195 cold-blooded Hungarian mares tail and mane sample were analized. Our analysis was carried out between 15531–15752 base pairs in mithocrondial DNA D-loop region, which reported a total of 222 base pairs. Fourtyone polymorphic sites were determined, which resulted in 39 haplotypes (h=39). The average pairwise differences were k=6.825. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values were observed (Hd=0.968±0.003, π=0.026±0.003). Based on the previously defined variable positions of haplotypes defined by Jansen et al (2002), we groupped our haplotypes into haplogroups. 23 percent of the studied population (45 mares) belonged to haplogroup F1. Nearly 97% of the analyzed population was classified into one of eight  haplogroups defined by Jansen.et al. (2002). This study gives genetic information nearly 25% of the Hungarian population. Another possibility would be patterning more mares or involving more genetic marker in the study which will assuming the possibility of a more comprehensive analysis.

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Coincidences between molecular genetic and studbook data of gidrán mare families on the basis of mtDnA
Published March 24, 2015
69-73

The traditional Hungarian horse breed, Gidran has been close to the edge of extinction several times. Despite the multiple bottleneck effect, the breed has retained a part of its genetic variability, and performed prominently in carriage driving and show-jumping competitions. Maintaining of the Gidran breed is important in the point of view of ...world heritage; because besides Hungary, smaller Gidran populations exist only in Bulgaria and Romania. Taking advantage of the special inheritance features of mtDNA, our study focused on two mtDNA regions of Gidran mares. Altogether, 251 hair samples from various Hungarian studs were examined. The analysis was successfully made in case of 251 samples of the cytochrome b and in case of 246 samples of D-loop regions. Because of the distinct mutation rates of the two mtDNA markers, the number of the haplotypes and the way of grouping samples into haplotypes was different. Our key finding was that most haplotypes may be compatible with mare families of the stud book; however incidental mistakes in stud book have occurred only in a few cases. Our results indicate the importance of the preservation and breeding those mare families, which are molecular genetically more diverse than the others, and are in the edge of extinction.

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Random regression models for genetic evaluation of performance of the Hungarian show-jumping horse population
Published April 23, 2014
87-91

The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for show-jumping competition performance using random regression model. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. The database contained 272 951 starts of 8020 horses. Identity number and gender of the horse, rider, competition date, the level of the c...ompetition and placing were recorded in the database. Competition levels were categorized into five groups. Weighted – competition level used – square root transformed placing was used to measure performance of horses. The random regression model included fixed effects for gender, year and place of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment.

Later performance of show-jumping horses measured with weighted square root ranks is less influenced by rider and permanent environmental effects than performance at the beginning of a horse’s sporting career. Heritability increased continuously from 6.3 years of age (2296 age in days), values were in the range of 0.07 and 0.37. Higher heritability was found in later ages. Weak genetic and phenotypic correlation was found between the early 4–5–6 years of age and older (7, 8, 8+) age classes. From 8.5 years of age (3132 days old) there were strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between neighboring age groups. For the same age classes moderate and strong genetic and phenotypic correlation was found. Genetic correlation between 13.5 years of age and older horses was very strong.

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Study of a Turkey Population for Gene Preservation
Published May 4, 2004
48-52

Genetic variability is very important in small populations. We examined an indigenous bronze turkey population which is bred for gene conservation in order to see if the current mating system maintains genetic variability. The present generation was surveyed using microsatellite markers and a computer model was used to simulate changes in the p...opulation over 100 generations.
The data was analysed using the concept of entrophy from information theory instead of genetic variance so that we could more accurately measure genetic variability.
The results indicate that the breeding method currently in use, rotational line mating, is acceptable with respect to preserving genetic variability, but new selection methods may provide additional protection against the loss of alleles.

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Analysis of show-jumping results with different measure variables
Published November 24, 2008
77-81

The aim of this paper is to estimate heritabilities and to  compare different fitted models for Hungarian Sporthorse showjumping results. Our analysis is based on the show-jumping results between 1996 and 2004. The repeatability animal model for the evaluation of the test results included the fixed effects of gender, breeder, rider, age, y...ear of competition, type of competition, height of fence and number of starters. Variance and covariance components were estimated with VCE-5 software package. Fitting of the models were evaluated with log-likelihood values and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Heritability was low in all cases.
The lowest goodness-of-fit model was height of fence-error score and the best-fitting genetic model based on AIC was model using cotangent transformation.

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Selection of Sport- and Racehorses
Published March 4, 2005
3-10

The utilisation of the horse has changed from time to time in response to human needs. For a few decades, it has been serving in several equestrian sports more intensively. It has also been proved that the standards for this kind of performance cannot be established in the way certain characteristics, such as the weight gain or milk production ...of other animal breeds can. Breeding horses for sporting comprises highly complex selection criteria.
Some of these (e.g. external features, temperament, manageability and intelligence) do not put the breeder in a difficult position, but finding the traits that establishes the safety of sporting achievements poses a genetic problem.
The performance of a horse for sports is a highly complex feature, which cannot easily be assessed or put down in figures. In addition, man plays a decisive role in shaping all kinds of performance of a horse at any given time by not only creating conditions for a better performance, but also by playing an active role in increasing it.
The performance of the horse is mostly defined by its general aptitude to movement, ie., the regularity, clear rhythm and springiness of basic types of strides, as well as the ability to move in a naturally balanced way. Training and riding principles are based on these traits. These two together will determine about 70% of the value of the horse and its adequacy for high performance equestrian sports. In order to avoid subjectivity in determining the above variables and to increase the degree of objectivity, competent expert teams (trainers, judges, other riders) are employed to form an opinion on an individual animal.
Assessing horse performance outside races does not seem to be efficient, as owing to the dominant effects of the environment, the indicator of inheritability is hardly above 0.1.
Free jumping is an especially appropriate means for assessing a horse’s readiness and ability to move in an environment free of disturbing factors. In free jumping, it is especially important to judge the style of the jump. The first phase of jumping – as a sequence of movements – lasts from the moment the fore-feet touch the ground until the moment the hind-feet push off, while the second phase lasts from this moment until touching the ground. The most important task in the first phase is to make the angle of the dip of the body by the supporting fore-feet that is necessary for the jump. The quality of the jump is determined by the jumping and adequately expanded hind-legs. The intensity of pushing off and jumping done by the hind-legs can be inferred, and differences between individuals can be discerned from the shaping of the curve by the hocks and the paths of the pasterns in relation to the withers.

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Goose Production Responses to Grass-Based Diets
Published May 4, 2004
26-28

A feeding trial with 4 week-old goslings was conducted in 2003 using different proportions of chopped grass and grain pellets in the diet. Proportions of chopped grass and grain pellets in diets for Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 and 0:100, respectively. Weekly and final live weights of geese and the feather quality were meas...ured. Treatments with higher grain contents produced higher live weights, and better feather quality.

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The Role of Grasslands in the Diet of Geese
Published May 11, 2003
19-21

A feeding trial was conducted with 4 weeks old growing geese. Feeding treatments were different proportion of chopped grass and grain pellets. Daily DM intake, weekly live weight gains and final live weight was measured. It is concluded that 25% of chopped grass in the diet has similar result as only grain pellet diet. This is good for the econ...omy of goose production.

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Sporthorse performance testing in eventing by own and progeny performance
Published July 31, 2012
49-56

The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hungarian Sporthorse population based on eventing competition performance. The database contained the results of 792 horses and 449 riders between 2000 and 2006. The eventing results were gathered from Hungary and other European countries. Blom transformed ranks were used to evaluate the sport performanc...e.Three models were fitted to the Blom scores. Evaluating all the competition categories at the same time weighted Blom scores were used according to the difficulty of the category. The linear mixed model included fixed effects for age, sex, breeder, owner, location, year; and random effects for animal and rider. Horses from the database were judged by their own performance, and stallions were investigated by performance of their progenies on the basis of descriptive statistics of Blom scores and weighted Blom scores. Breeding values of eventing performance were predicted. To improve the reliability of breeding values, more progenies should be
used in eventing competitions. 

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