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Evaluation of Hungarian show-jumping results using different measurement variables
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.

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Some population genetics parameters of the present Hungarian Hucul Horse population
Published March 23, 2016

We examined the Hungarian population of the Hucul horse breed, under genetic protection, based on population genetic indicators until the year 2014 included. The evaluation was performed using the Endog programme based on the following indicators: inbreeding coefficient, average relatedness, the maximum number of generations, the number of full... generations traced and offspring number. Our findings were as follows: the average inbreeding coefficient of the total population was 5.99%, average relatedness was 11.82%, the maximum number of generations was, on the average, 16.04%, and the number of full generations traced with reference to the whole population was 4.15% on the average. 40% of the whole population (723 individuals) did not have any offspring; 42% (759 individuals) attained an offspring of 1 or 2, while 3.4% (88 individuals) had a surviving offspring of 3. The highest offspring number according to the national database (92) was attained by one stallion.

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Influence of H-FABP gene polymorphisms on slaughter value of hybrid pigs
Published September 5, 2018

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The H-FABP gene was defined as a potential candidate gene influencing the fat deposition traits, primarily the intramuscular fat content. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene mutations are connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse. The study included data from 405 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The two chosen mutation (HFABP1: c. 103 T>C, HFABP2: c. 1970 T>C) were detected in one reaction with PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism) method with HinfI restrictoin enzyme. The allel frequencies are as follows: 103T(H)=0.75; 103C(h)=0.25, 1970T=0.32; 1970C=0.68. A HFABP1 mutation has significant effect on backfat thickness and lean meat % at stable 1 (sample 1), but there were no effect at stable 2 (sample 2). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on HFABP2 genotype did not reveal significant differences. Based on this study we can’t get a clear conclusion on the impact of polymorphisms on production parameters. In the examined flock the allele frequency of mutation in 5 'UTR is identical to the literature data, i. e. the more favorable variant regarding the intramuscular fat content is predominant in the population.

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The effect of immigration on some population genetic parameters of the Hungarian Hucul population
Published August 29, 2017

Population genetic indicators of the Hungarian Hucul population were calculated taking also into account the effect of imported horses.The birth year of the examined 3002 individuals ranged between 1871–2015. The last year involved in the examination was 2015, when the research was conducted on the stock under stud book control. The calculati...ons on the population were made using the statistic indicators in the Endog programme, with and without the imported Polish horses. Figures were depicted using R software. Number of offspring of the Polish individuals was presented in tables; the distribution of the offspring per stud and per mare family, as well as the Nei’s genetic distance,were presented graphically.

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Population date of Great Cormorant at the area of the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co.
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Hungary’s great cormorant stock did not use to be a considerable one before the 1980s. After that, their number has been rising significantly. The size of the stock now is rather stagnating or slightly growing. The presence of cormorants has been significant around ponds of the Hortobágy Fish Farm in the past few years. Due to considerable fish consumption of cormorants it is essential to know which and what kinds of units of the ponds (spawning, supply, and market) are preferred by the birds in order to see to adequate protection. The aim of our research was to discover any differences in the number of cormorants present at particular units of the fishpond system and certain ponds of equal kinds within them.

Our observations were in line with the methods used in ornithological researches. The experiment took place between April and October 2012 on a monthly basis. According to the results we found relevant differences in the number of cormorants based on the seasons and months as well. This fact was supported by statistical data. During the autumn and winter birds prefer supply and market purpose ponds while their presence here is vanishing during the summer. Relevant presence of cormorants around the area of the Old Fishponds (70 to 200 specimens) might be due to lack of disturbance and large sizes of the ponds.

Our research has great scientific relevance since it is vital to be aware of the preferred periods and areas in order to maintain effective protection; this way alerting activities can be applied in a more harmonized way. By keeping our research up as a monitoring activity, we will be able to receive more precise data later on.

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Effect of different lysine-metabolized energy ratio on performance of meat-type geese
Published August 29, 2017

The aim of the experiment was to determine, how the different ratios of the digestibility lysine/ metabolized energy (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) of the feed influence the performance of geese. There were 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatments, 10 birds/cages). The experiment has started and finished at the age of 3 and 9 weeks, re...spectively.
The results of the experiment showed, the different ratios of DLYS/AMEn (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) did not influence the performance of young geese. Better growth performances were found for the 0.91 g DLYS/AMEn feed (feed intake, body weight gain, feed and energy conversion rate). This treatment coincided with high feeding costs. Based on these results we need more models and farm experiments to prove this tendency.

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Chromatometric comparison of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) feathers
Published October 24, 2016

Chromatometric examination of the plumage of birds is a poorly researched topic. We have approached this issue in primarily aspect of differences in plumage of species. Moulted feathers sample collection method has been increasingly used. Reliable identification of feathers becomes an increasingly important issue, hence need for an exact measur...ement-based methodology. Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) primary, secondary and tail feathers were studied. Chromatometric parameters of feathers were measured in CIELAB color system and then statistical analysis (Independent samples t-test, Descriptive Statistics, Discriminant Analysis) was performed to compare the two species. Instrumental measurements has been confirmed the high similarity between colors of the two species, however species specific differences were also found. Lightless (L*) value were significantly characteristic of particular species, while the red/green (a*) and yellow/blue (b*) value had lower Predictive Power. We identified feathers and the variables which useable to separate the two species and determined the associated Confidence Intervals of these values. Our results may draw attention to a new potential direction for exact identification of the moulted feathers during sample collection.

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Association analysis of TNNI1/XbaI polimorphism on carcass quality in hybrid pigs
Published March 24, 2015

The contractile protein, which is encoded by troponin I 1 (TNNI1) gene, is located on the thin filaments of slow fibres in striated muscle. TNNI1 protein is a part of the troponin complex which plays an important role in regulation of muscle contraction by preventing actin-myosin interaction in absence of calcium. According to biological role, ...this gene can be potential marker for meat production related traits. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene polymorphism (EU743939:g.5174T>C) is connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse of the examined four-line European hybrid. The study included data from 404 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method with XbaI restriction enzyme. In this study the allele frequencies were found as follows: C: 0.84 and 0.808; T: 0.16 and 0.192. Based on result of the present study no significant impact of polymorphisms on production parameters was found.

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Associations analysis of production traits with leptin gene T3469C polymorphisms in pig
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.

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Random regression models for genetic evaluation of performance of the Hungarian show-jumping horse population
Published April 23, 2014

The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for show-jumping competition performance using random regression model. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. The database contained 272 951 starts of 8020 horses. Identity number and gender of the horse, rider, competition date, the level of the c...ompetition and placing were recorded in the database. Competition levels were categorized into five groups. Weighted – competition level used – square root transformed placing was used to measure performance of horses. The random regression model included fixed effects for gender, year and place of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment.

Later performance of show-jumping horses measured with weighted square root ranks is less influenced by rider and permanent environmental effects than performance at the beginning of a horse’s sporting career. Heritability increased continuously from 6.3 years of age (2296 age in days), values were in the range of 0.07 and 0.37. Higher heritability was found in later ages. Weak genetic and phenotypic correlation was found between the early 4–5–6 years of age and older (7, 8, 8+) age classes. From 8.5 years of age (3132 days old) there were strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between neighboring age groups. For the same age classes moderate and strong genetic and phenotypic correlation was found. Genetic correlation between 13.5 years of age and older horses was very strong.

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The effect of foreign stallions on the Hungarian Furioso-North Star breed
Published May 26, 2022

The most common aim of animal conservation programs is to maintain genetic diversity. Furioso-North Star is an indigenous Hungarian horse breed originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The breed is based on two founder stallions, Furioso Senior and North Star Senior. The aim of this research study was to analyze the effect of the foreign breeding ...stallions to the genetic structure of Hungarian Furioso-North Star breed. The genetic structure of the breed was studied from pedigree data what was received from the Furioso-North Star Horse Breeding Association. Foals born between 2015–2018 were chosen as reference population. Every breeding stallion was marked by nationality (Austrian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak) according to their birth place. The population was described with genetic variability, what was calculated using Endog software. The Furioso-North Star breed is popular in Central Europe and nearby countries. The stallion imports and the stallion transfers were necessary and useful as they made changes in the composition of the genetic variability. The new genes and the new lines have refreshed the genetic structure. There were several breeds, like the Nonius, Shagya Arabian and English Thoroughbred, whose had an impact on the genetic structure of the Furioso-North Star breed.

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Study of the rams’ jumping order
Published December 1, 2010

The bevahiour of Babolna Tetra, Ile de France and Suffolk rams was studied at semen collection by artificial vagina. The sequence of rams coming out of the group to the place of semen collection and the number of jumpings needed to ejaculation were observed. It was investigated if there were changes in these characters at different occasions, a...nd did they show connection to the body condition. The number of jumpings before ejaculation was different in the different breeds. Semen was taken at the first jump from 63% of the Suffolk, 56% of the Babolna Tetra and 55% of the Ile de France rams. There was no early ejaculation at the Ile de France, but it was common among the Suffolk rams. The greatest changes in the jumping order between different semen collections were observed in the Babolna Tetra breed. There was a medium correlation in the Suffolk breed between the jumping order and body condition in the autumn and spring, which was tight and significant in winter.

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Changes in the genetic variability of the Furioso-North Star population between 1989 and 2019
Published May 26, 2022

The Furioso-North Star (FNS) is one of the indigenous Hungarian horse breeds, originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The aim of this work was to analyze the pedigree diversity and inbreeding of the registered Hungarian Furioso-North Star population in two different time points: the first was the active population in 1989, the second was the population in 2019. Pedigree data was analyzed using Endog 4.8 software. The pedigree completeness was calculated in three different ways. In the past 30 years the pedigrees became more complete. In the population 2019 were 5 horses with ancestor in the 40th generation. Only 17–17 animals covered the 50% of the genetic variability for the two population. The most important ancestor was Herod xx in both reference populations. The FNS breed has English Thoroughbred background, that might be the reason of having several horses form this breed in the database. There were six animals among the ten most important ancestors in both reference populations. The average inbreeding coefficient was 3.31 in 1989 and 4.22 in 2019. Animals with highest inbreeding coefficient were born from the mating of close relatives (typically father-daughter). The Bart Furioso III-84 Boglár had the highest inbreeding coefficient (0.299) in the population 2019.

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Evaluation of the relationship between main type traits and longevity in Hungarian Simmental cows
Published May 26, 2022

The Hungarian Simmental cattle is a dual-purpose breed, having good milk and meat production characteristics. Simmental cows have some other important traits, for example, a longer productive life. The longevity or productive life is the time period between first calving and culling. The conformation contributes to productive life, reproduc...tion, and milk production.

The aims of this study were to analyze the longevity of Hungarian Simmental dual-purpose cows, to evaluate the effects of the size of the herd, age at first calving, main type traits (frame, musculature, feet and legs, mammary system), and combination of main type traits (frame and musculature, feet and legs and mammary system).

Animal, age at first calving, herd*calving, musculature, the mammary system as well as the combination of mammary system and feet and legs were significant effects on longevity. The highest risk ratio was observed for cows first calved after 31 months. The risk of culling increased with increasing scores of musculature and decreasing scores of the mammary system. The highest risk ratio was estimated in category 11 (lower scores of mammary system with lower scores of feet and legs). In this case, the risk ratio was 36% higher than the reference group.

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Using phenotypic correlations in the breeding evaluation of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published May 23, 2006

The aim of this paper is to analyse phenotypic relationships between self performance test (SPT) parameters of Hungarian Sport Horse mares. Establishing these relationships may contribute to develop a breeding value estimation model. Data were given by the Association of Hungarian Sport Horse Breeders.
The analysis is based on the SPT result...s of 3 and 4 year old mares from 1993 to 2004. Our aim is to determine practically explainable correlations among conformational traits (type, head, neck, saddle region, frame, forelegs, hind legs, regularity of movement, impulsion and elasticity of movement, overall impression); free jumping performance (jumping style, jumping ability, observation during training) and movement analysis traits (walk, trot, canter, overall impression, test rider’s score). A further aim is to determine correlations between free jumping performance and movement analysis traits.

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Sporthorse performance testing in eventing by own and progeny performance
Published July 31, 2012

The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hungarian Sporthorse population based on eventing competition performance. The database contained the results of 792 horses and 449 riders between 2000 and 2006. The eventing results were gathered from Hungary and other European countries. Blom transformed ranks were used to evaluate the sport performanc...e.Three models were fitted to the Blom scores. Evaluating all the competition categories at the same time weighted Blom scores were used according to the difficulty of the category. The linear mixed model included fixed effects for age, sex, breeder, owner, location, year; and random effects for animal and rider. Horses from the database were judged by their own performance, and stallions were investigated by performance of their progenies on the basis of descriptive statistics of Blom scores and weighted Blom scores. Breeding values of eventing performance were predicted. To improve the reliability of breeding values, more progenies should be
used in eventing competitions. 

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Effect of feeds with different crude fiber content on the performance of meat goose
Published December 15, 2019

In the last 50 years, poultry meat production has increased dynamically. The role of crude fiber content in feed is unclear based on a small amount of literature about goose feeding.

The aim of theis experiment was to determine how various crude fiber content (55; 60; 65g crude fiber/kg feed) influences the performance of meat geese in ...the second phase of the rearing period. 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatment, 10 birds/cage) were included in the test. The experiment started and finished at the age of 21st and 63rd  day, respectively.

The obtained results suggest that various crude fiber content did not influence the performance of meat geese significantly; however, a feed of 55g crude fiber/kg resulted in better fattening results (final body weight, body weight gain, specific feed protein and energy conversion rate). In addition, compound feed of 65g crude fiber/kg proved more favourable with respect to cost-efficiency. Based on the obtained results so far, further models and farm experiments are required.

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Analysis of show-jumping results with different measure variables
Published November 24, 2008

The aim of this paper is to estimate heritabilities and to  compare different fitted models for Hungarian Sporthorse showjumping results. Our analysis is based on the show-jumping results between 1996 and 2004. The repeatability animal model for the evaluation of the test results included the fixed effects of gender, breeder, rider, age, y...ear of competition, type of competition, height of fence and number of starters. Variance and covariance components were estimated with VCE-5 software package. Fitting of the models were evaluated with log-likelihood values and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Heritability was low in all cases.
The lowest goodness-of-fit model was height of fence-error score and the best-fitting genetic model based on AIC was model using cotangent transformation.

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Genetic analysis of selected body measurements of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published July 16, 2007

The authors made their analysis based on the body measurements of 3080 Hungarian Sport Horse mares listed in the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook. Height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape, heart girth and cannon-bone circumference were measured in Hungarian Sport Horse mare performance tests.
Phenotypic correlations among height a...t the withers and heart girth and cannon-bone circumference varied within a range of 0.45-0.55. There was close genetic correlation (r=0.63-0.82) between the body measurement traits. Heritability values were moderate for height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape and heart girth (h2=0.31-0.49). There were high heritability values (h2=0.51) for cannon-bone circumference.
There were low phenotypic correlations between frame (as conformational trait) and height at the withers (measured by tape and stick) and heart girth.

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Estimation of direct and maternal genetic parameters for weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle
Published December 8, 2021

The aim of the current research was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters of weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle. Weaning weight records were obtained from the Association of Hungarian Simmental Breeders. The dataset comprised of 44,278 animals born from 1975 to 2020. The data was analyzed using the restricted maxi...mum likelihood methodology of the Wombat software. We fitted a total of six models to the weaning weight data of Hungarian Simmental cattle. Models ranged from a simple model with animals as the only random effect to a model that had maternal environmental effects as additional random effects as well as direct maternal genetic covariance. Fixed effects in the model comprised of herd, birth year, calving order and sex. Likelihood ratio test was used to determine the best fit model for the data. Results indicated that allowing for direct-maternal genetic covariance increases the direct and maternal effect dramatically. The best fit model had direct and maternal genetic effects as the only random effect with non-zero direct-maternal genetic correlation. Direct heritability, maternal heritability and direct maternal correlation of the best fit model was 0.57, 0.16 and -0.78 respectively. The result indicates that problem of (co-)sampling variation occurs when attempting to partition additive genetic variance into direct and maternal components.

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Evaluation of Hungarian Sporthorse mare performance tests
Published October 5, 2010

Results of the Hungarian Sporthorse mare performance tests were evaluated. Data from the period of 1993-2009 were used, covering
scores of 618 3-year-old and 310 4-year-old mares, 109 of them were tested at both ages. Seventeen traits were scored on the tests, which
covered ten conformational, three free jumping performance and four movem...ent analyses traits, respectively. Breeding value estimation was
based on BLUP animal model. Test year, age and owner were included in the model as fixed effects. Variance components were estimated
with VCE-6 software package. Heritabilities ranged from 0.32 (frame) to 0.50 (saddle region) for conformation traits, from 0.39 (jumping
style) to 0.49 (jumping ability and jumping skill) for free jumping traits and from 0.20 (walk) to 0.48 (canter) for movement analysis traits.
Breeding value indexes were constructed for each trait group. Conformation index was computed based on the weighted scores of the
breeding values of conformational traits. The conformational score scales were used as weightings. Free jumping and movement indexes
contain the proper breeding values with equal weights. A total index was also constructed using conformation index, two times the free
jumping index and two times the movement index. Each breeding values and breeding value indexes were presented with the mean 100 and
standard deviation of 20 for the easier understanding.

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