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Applicability of precision weed detection technologies
Published February 10, 2013
163-168

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.

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Effect of agrotechnical factors on the activity of urease enzyme in a long term fertlization experiment
Published February 18, 2016
43-48

The soil is a natural resource, the fertility preservation is an important part of the sustainable development. We have to monitor the transformation dinamics of the organic nitrogen-containing substances, to get accurate information about the changes of the nitrogen cycle in the soil.

Physical and chemical properties of the soil and th...e microorganism effect on the organic matter in the soil – in addition to the composition of organic matter. Wide variety of extracellular enzymes are present in this decomposition. These enzymes help in the transformation of the macromolecules to transforming low molecular weight compounds so they will be available during the assimilation.

The urease enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3. The urease is widely spread in the nature, it is present in the microorganisms, plants and animals.

We found that the soil moisture content, the rotation and the fertilization affect to the amount of urease in spring. Furthermore, we get significant difference between the irrigated and non irrigated samples in the second period of the year. Based on our results we can state that the activity of urease was higher in spring 2014.

The objective of our study was to present how the different agronomic factors affect on the activity of urease in a long term fertilizationexperiment.

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The effect of Willow extract, Bistep and their combination on some quality parameters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Published June 1, 2021
239-247

The research described in this paper was conducted at the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute in its Botanical and Exhibition Garden, Hungary. The aim was to investigate the influence of plant biostimulants on the morphological parameters of three lettuce varieties (May King, Kobak and Great Lakes). Willow bark extr...act and Bistep were used through irrigation and spray onto the plant leaves with the amount of 5% Willow and 0,5% Bistep. Vegetative parameters like head structure (1….10), head weight (g head-1), head closing (1….10), number of leaves, head diameter (cm), internal stem size (cm) and root weight (g head-1) were measured in 2019 and 2020. According to our results, vegetative parameters are significantly affected by plant varieties and treatments. In the experiment of 2019, important vegetative parameters were influenced by the Willow extract, while in the season of 2020 the most influenced parameters were under the impact of Bistep biostimulants followed by Willow+Bistep. However, the most favourable vegetative growth was recorded in the Kobak variety in the season of 2019 followed by May King and Great Lakes varieties in the season of 2020. On the other hand, the interaction effect of plant varieties and plant biostimulants on the vegetative parameters were varied from seasons. For example, for the season 2019, significantly the highest vegetative value was recorded for the interaction of May King variety treated with Willow extract, whereas in 2020, significantly the most influenced vegetative parameters were under the influence of the interaction of Bistep and May King variety followed by the interaction of Willow+Bistep and Kobak variety.

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Effects of plant density on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize under irrigation condition
Published May 23, 2019
115-118

Maize plant response to plant density is an essential agrotechnical factor used for determining grain yield. Three plant densities (60,000 ha-1, 72,500 ha-1, and 85,000 ha-1) were used in this study to ascertain the effect of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Results show a significant difference in the... photosynthetic parameters (SPAD, NDVI, LAI) and plant height for plant density of 85,000 ha-1. Grain yield and stem diameter were not significantly affected between the different plant densities.

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Evaluating changes in nitrogen and sulphur content in a soil-plant system in a long-term fertilization experiment
Published December 1, 2020
77-85

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the chang...es of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.

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Examinations of soil waterbalance in different crop-rotation systems of maize
Published November 2, 2009
41-49

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in dry (2007) and rainy (2008) cropyear in maizestock. According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were much smaller in 2008 than values of last y...ear in not irrigated and irrigated plots of three of crop-rotation systems because of favourable supply of precipitation. We found difference between values of waterdeficit of two irrigation treatments. We measured smaller values in irrigated plots of three of crop-rotation systems before sowing.  Waterstock of soil started to decrease with the rising of average temperature and despite of increasing of precipitation quantity in this way we calculated higher values of waterdeficit. Precipitation in August and high average temperature intensified the waterdeficit. Waterdeficit achieved highest values of croptime to front of September. We examined waterbalance of soilprofile in 0-200 cm and we concluded that the waterdeficit of the 80-120 cm soilzone was most intensiv in not irrigated and irrigated treatments because of significant rootmass. 

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Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
Published April 23, 2014
19-25

The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was... divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

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Near infrared spectroscopy (NIT) analysis of maize hybrids starch content
Published February 10, 2013
119-122

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The purpose of my research is to find the most favourable maize hybrids for bioethanol-production feedstock, using the so called „NIT”, near infrared spectroscopy method in the analysis of the inner contents especially of starch content. The other goal of my analysis is to reflect on how the effects of the most important growing factors – such as irrigation and the use of different dose fertilizers – contribute to the maize hybrids starch content.

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Comparative Study on Different Water Bodies and their Sediments
Published December 22, 2010
17-21

Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but ...also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.

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The influence of climatic conditions of the harvest year on the wheat quality
Published February 18, 2016
23-25

Technological potential of wheat bread depends on the variety, manner and type of fertilizer, irrigation conditions and climatic conditions in their absence. This study was done on two varieties of wheat grown in Bihor county in a place with identical fertilization conditions, for two different years: year 2014 can be characterized by a greater... quantity of rainfall during the wheat vegetation period and the year 2015 can be characterized by a drought during the growing wheat on the subject of the study. In the study was examined whether climatic conditions have any influence on the technological potential of wheat, not taking into account the data on quantity produced per hectare in the years studied.

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Effect of different production types on the yield and ß-carotene content of sweet potato /cultivar Ásotthalmi- 12/
Published June 1, 2021
45-49

Production of sweet potato is extending in Hungary, despite the fact that there is no field-specific production technology. Therefore, many growers cannot utilize potential yields and quality. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal production method of the Ásotthalmi 12, a Hungarian sweet potato cultivar which can adapt to the... Hungarian climate. The effect of single and twin rows production on the yield of this cultivar was examined. The planting was carried out on June 24th, the harvesting on October 20th and the growing-season was 120 days long. Uniform nutrient supply was applied to the whole field experiment. During basic fertilization, 206 kg Knd 20 kg N, 36 kg P ha-1 were used on the soil. While forming the ridges, we used an additional 25 kg N, 45 kg P and 62.5 kg K ha-1. We adopted drip tape irrigation on the experimental field. After the planting, from the 8th week of the vegetation, another 21 kg ha-1 K, 10 kg ha-1 MgSO4, and 2 kg ha-1 Ca(NO3)2 was added in one dosage weekly, until the 13th week of vegetation. At the evaluation of the experiment, we examined the yield regarding the whole experimental plot. SPAD and fluorescence measurements were carried out on 08.16. 2019, 08.28.2019, and on 09.13.2019, during the watering break. To demonstrate the difference between the dates, we applied ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. For the measurement of phytonutrients HPLC, a liquid chromatograph was used, where the carotenoid content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar was determined in connection with the different production methods. Test results showed that twin rows production leads to a nearly 30% greater yield, than single row production. We determined, that the growth of yield correlates negatively to the ß-carotene content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar sweet potato.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Effect of hail net on the water potential of an apple orchard
Published December 1, 2020
109-113

 Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the ...use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.

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Effect of fish feeds with high vegetable oil and low fish oil content on the growth performance and innate immune system of common carp (preliminary results)
Published December 21, 2009
7-12

Fish meal and fish oil are very important components of fish feeds used by aquaculture. They contain poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential nutrients both for fish and human nutrition. However, sources of fish meal and fish oil are limited, there is a need for new feed components to supply the increasing fish production and the incre...asing demand for fish feed. The aim of AQUAMAX project, supported by the European Union is to replace the fish meal and fish oil with vegetable oils. As a participant of this project, group of immunology in Research
Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI) examined the effect of three different fish feeds on the growth performance, innate immune response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection of common carp in an in vivo experiment. Fish feed supplemented with Camelina oil, but still containing fish oil significantly increased growth performance of experimental fish and their resistance against the infection. Fish feed containing linseed oil only did not enhance the growth performance, and it had a negative effect on resistance against infection. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that fish oil used in fish feeds cannot be replaced effectively with vegetable oils, but can be supplemented with them. 

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Virtual Appliances for geospatial data management and processing in the Integrated Land Management System (ILMS)
Published November 13, 2012
59-62

Virtualization is increasingly taking on a key role in various system architectures which follow new platform concepts like Software as a Service (SaaS). This trend addresses more instant and short-term environments and comes with new methods and strategies for the distribution of mainly complex application stacks not only in large IT infrastru...ctures. The paper presents how a so called Virtual Appliance can be set up in order to operate in virtual server environments using hypervisor software like Oracle Virtual-Box. Using the example of two server-side components within the Integrated Land Management System (ILMS), it will be shown that the use of state-of-the-art methods, standardized tools and interfaces on servers enables different aspects of environmental system management, analysis and planning.

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Baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the long-term experiments on chernozem soil
Published October 5, 2010
152-156

Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-a...verage yields of wheat were about 5,0-5,5 t ha-1 („industrial-like”
crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
(eastern and middle-parts).
The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.

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Coherence and connection between the good pond culture practice and the environment conscious management
Published April 11, 2007
60-73

According to the data indicating the decline and restructuring during the past decade, as well as the trend in the European Union member states, it can be expected that the role of traditional agriculture and fish production in direct rural employment decrease further. This also values those strategic directions for restructuring that will lead... fishculture from quantity driven to quality production along with sustainable development (i.e. environmental conscious production) and multifunctional farming. This way the economic and social tensions caused by the concentration of the production and labour output can be mitigated.
It is laid in the 1257/1999 Act on rural Development that farmers that enrol the agri-environmental scheme should follow the “Good Agricultural Practice” on the whole managed area. In case of agri-environmental schemes this is a precondition for which no grants are given.
The adaptation of “Good Agricultural Practice” in fishproduction,where it is called: “Good Pond Culture Practice” is considered important on the basis of the above mentioned. This programme is undertaken in co-operation with the Research Institute for Aquaculture, Fisheries and Irrigation, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development and the Association of Hungarian Fish Farmers and Product Council.
The European Commission proposed the formulation of the European Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EFAF) for the period 2007-20013, which will replace the Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), but it also consists of several new elements and will be working differently, too. According to the proposal the budget for the Fund will be nearly 5 billion EUR (4963 million EUR). The development level of aquaculture and fisheries and the social and economic significance in the given member state will be considered when distributing the Fund between the Member States.
According to the plan the Fund is organised along five priority axes, of which the most important for the Hungarian fisheries sector is No. II: Aquaculture and the processing and marketing of aquaculture and fisheries products. The main measure areas are the followings:
1. investment support for aquaculture;
2. support for aquatic-environmental schemes;
3. environmental- and animal health issues;
4. investments in processing and marketing
In case of accessing support under measure area No. 2 farms are obliged to meet the requirements of the scheme beyond the “good management practice” for 5 years, which is to be supervised by the approved body of the Member State. For this reason our work is considered to be substantial.
Approval of the application of “Good Pond Culture Practice” is based on two elements: first the prevailing environmental and nature conservation regulations, as well as the list of controllable conditions in the new agri-environmental agreements are to be met. “Good Pond Culture Practice” are to be conducted on the whole farm area. Its main elements are:
- nutrition management,
- feeding,
- pond maintenance,
- stocking,
- harvesting,
- animal welfare (storage and over-wintering).

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The setting of fenological- stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) varieties in 2012
Published February 10, 2013
93-96

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties grafted on 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010. Our aim was to observe differences in the fenological-stages of plum rootstock and variety combinations. ‘Cacanska lepotica’, ‘Jojo’,

‘Katinka’, ‘Topfive’, ‘Topper’, ‘Toptaste’ plum varieties were planted on ‘Mirobalan’ (Prunus ceresifera var. ceresifera cv. myrabolan); damson (Prunus institicia) – ‘St Julien A’, ‘St Julien GF655/2’; and ‘Wawit’; ‘Wangwnheim’; ‘Fereley’ rootstocks. We observed the bud burst, the flowering course: at the start of the flowering, during the main flowering, and at the end of flowerings and the ripening of the plum. Finally we observed the difference in leaves falling observed in the case of the different varieties and rootstock combinations.

The bursting of buds started with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in March 16 and finished with ‘Jojo’ / ‘Mirobalan’ combination, in March 22. The starting of flowering course was in March 29 with ‘Topper’ / ‘St Julien GF655/2’ combinations and the end of flowering course finished with ‘Toptaste’ varieties, in April 3–4. The start of ripening of the plum was with ‘Katinka’ / ‘St Julien A’ combinations, in July 17. and the end of ripening of the plum finished with ‘Topper’ variety. The start of leaves falling began with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in Sept 5–8 depending on irrigation, and ‘Katinka’, ‘Jojo’ varieties finished, in November 28–29.

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Does drought stress always negatively affect the yield and quality of soybean in Hungary?
Published December 15, 2019
37-40

Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment..., especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.

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Role of some agrotechnical elements in the precision crop technology of cereals
Published November 13, 2012
241-244

The crop models and precision technology have an important role in the development of winter wheat and maize agrotechnics, which crops have determinative role in Hungarian crop production. The effects of agrotechnical elements (crop rotation, fertilization, irrigation, crop protection, plant density) were studied in our longterm experiments on ...chernozem soil. Our scientific results proved that the high yields, and good yield stability were obtained in the input-intensive crop models. Maize had lower ecological adaptive capacity than winter wheat. The optimatization of agrotechnical elements reduces the harmful climatic effects so we can increase the yield and yield stability of cereals agro-ecosystems. The yields of wheat varied between 2 and 7 t ha-1 in extensive and 8 and 10 t ha-1 in intensive crop models and the yields of maize ranged between 2 and 11 t ha-1 and 10 and 15 t ha-1, respectively.

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Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
Published September 5, 2018
357-369

The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

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Evaluation of Soil Degradation Based on High Resolution Remote Sensing Data
Published December 6, 2005
145-148

Soil salinity is the main problem of soil degradation in the Grate Plain with cultivated area of 20% affected. Its influence is accelerated on the water managed and irrigated lands. Remote sensing can significantly contribute to detecting temporal changes of salt-related surface features. We have chosen a farm where intensive crop cultivation t...akes place as a test site as soil degradation can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. In order to evaluate soil salt content and biomass analysis, we gathered detailed data from an 100x250 m area. We analyzed the salinity property of the samples. In our research we used a TETRACAM ADC multispectral camera to take high resolution images (0,2-0,5 m) of low altitude (300-500 m). A Normalized Vegetation Index was computed from near infrared (750-950 nm) and red (620-750 nm) bands. This data was compared with the samples of investigated area. Analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil properties (pH, salt content). A strong correlation observed between NDVI and soil salinity (EC) makes the multispectral images suitable for construction of salinity map. A further strong correlation was determined between NDVI and yield.

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Describing Fusarium diseases on maize in 2013 using data from several production sites
Published November 2, 2014
60-64

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">As in other parts of the world, the frequency of weather extremes has increased greatly in Hungary in recent years. This means that maize production is faced with greater risks from all aspects: nutrient replacement, irrigation, plant protection. This is especially true of fusarium diseases. In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. They infect the ears, which – besides reducing the yield – poses considerable risk to both human and animal health due to the mycotoxins produced by them. Depending on which Fusarium species are dominant at a given location, changes can be expected in the level of infection and in the quality deterioration caused by the mycotoxins they produce. Fusarium spp. not only damages the maize ears but when pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. The degree of infection is fundamentally determined by the resistance traits of the maize hybrids, but also a great role in that region Fusarium species composition as well.

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The setting of fenological-stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) rootstock-variety combinations in 2011–2013
Published February 25, 2014
25-29

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties and 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010, which of aim were the phenological -phases of variety-rootstock combinations analyses.

We observed 18 plum varieties – rootstocks combination in Kecskemét, in Garden of Kecskemét Collage. We set the examination with 2 kind irrigations.... A plum combination appear in the examination in 6 repetition depend on irrigation. The vegetative period started bursting of buds in 2011 March 15–18.; 2012 March 16–19. and 2013 March 12.–April 2. This was followed green buds stadium shorter or longer periods, than appeared white buds stadium and in the following day we could see started of flowering. The main flowering kept 7–10 days, except in 2012, when arriving frozen by April 8. morning stopped the main flowering. Following flowering we observed fruit falling 3 occasion, these weren’t noticed calendar date. These were in order: fruit falling after set, fruit falling in June, fruits falling before harvest. In 2013 these fruit falling there weren’t considerable. The ripening was characteristically varieties. The most of earlier ripening was ‘Katinka’/‘St Julien A‘, from which we didn’t harvest in 2011, but in 2012 July 17, and in 2013 July 9. pick up some plum fruits. The ‘Cacanska lepotica’ ripped in July 21–30, this was followed in ripening time the ‘Topfive’ in July 19.–August 6., The ‘Toptaste’ in August 5–23., The ‘Jojo’ in August 2–26., and the ‘Topper and ‘Katinka’/‘Mirobalan ’ stopped ripening in August 22.–September begin. The colouring leaves and the falling leaves started continue after harvesting, but we experienced the end of the falling leaves in the first bigger frozen time, October 24.–November 26.

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Circumstances of the establishment of the Eastern Main Channel, water utilisation problems and alternatives
Published July 18, 2012
79-84

After hundreds of years of drought in the area of Hortobágy and its surroundings brought up the idea of building a channel in Tiszántúl. It started with the idea of an irrigation canal but it ended up in a canal with high importance which can be used in many ways. Because of financial problems the necessary renovations cannot be achieved, an...d as a side effect the amount of silt in the water started to increase, water exploitation started to decrease, and the construction works started to get spoiled. Guided by the Water Directive the East Main Channel has become one of the most significant surface water base in Hungary. To use its water as drinking water brings up a few questions, like solving the pollution problems which problems have already occured. If we want the East Main Channel to be a solution for a long time, further steps and researches are needed to solve the problem of diverting the huge amount of precipitation of the last few years and miantaining the quality of drinking water.

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