The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m<...sup>-3 for 611.
Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.
From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of ...>Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
A variety trial has been carried out to study the colour changing — colour stability of the flowers of some modern roses, especially of Hungarian varieties. 100 floribundas and polyanthas were observed. Colours of the petal surface were examined at three fenological stages of the flowers: at the bud, at the young open flowers and at the aged...open flower stages. The colour difference was described in HLS standard. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in both studied classes, but more floribundas bred in Hungary had good colour stability than polyanthas. The best Hungarian floribundas were 'Pest' and 'Remenyik Sándor emléke', although 'Regen', `Szent Lász1ó emléke' and 'Szabó Dezső emléke' were quite good. The best Western-European floribunda rose was 'Perneille Poulsen'. Their colour stability was reliable in different situations. Colour changing of the two best varieties was almost unperceivable from the bud to the young petals and from the young to the aged petals. In the polyantha class there was only one perfect variety: the Czech `Cs1 Cerveny Kriz'. The 'Fairy Damsel' was almost excellent as well. The best Hungarian polyanthas were `Domokos Pál Péter emléke' and 'Savaria'.
A variety trial has been accomplished to study the flowering performance of some modern roses. Blooming time and blooming intensity were studied in Hungarian and Western European varieties. 120 Floribundas, polyanthas and climbings were observed. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in all the three studied classes. The... best Hungarian climbing roses at blooming intensity were `Futótűz', `Rozalia', ‘Sarolt and 'Szent Erzsébet emléke'; best floribundas were ‘Báthory István emléke', 'Munkács', 'Szent Margit emléke; and the best Hungarian polyanthas were `Csinszka', `Domokos PáI Péter emléke'. Some really good flowering Western-European rose varieties have also been found, the best ones were 'Clg. Gertrude Westphal' climbing, 'La Sevillana' floribunda and 'Beauty of New South Wells', 'Happy' polyanthus. 'La Sevillana' and 'Picasso' were in strong bloom for the longest time.
In Hungary, the floribunda and polyantha classes had good flowering intensity to the almost the same extent, floribundas had stronger, and polyanthas had longer flowering waves, but the ever-blooming ability of the climbing roses was moderate in the dry midsummer.
In order to improve the post production quality of cut flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Baroness, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g LI. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or wit...hout sucrose at 50 g 1-I. l-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g in-3 for 6h.
The postproduction quality was improved as a result of using any chemical treatment comparing with untreated control. All the treatments of 8-HQS increased the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of rose cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was lorger when 8-HQS was combined with sucrose. The best treatment of 8-HQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS + 50 g 1-1 sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss compared to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucrose was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose was the best one. l -MCP treatment prolonged the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level compared with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was l -MCP at 0.5 g m-3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chid)) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than the control. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose gave the best results in this respect.
Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. 'Echo' Fl cultivars ('Echo White', 'Echo Rose', 'Echo Blue', 'Echo Blue Picotee') were used and multiplication of shoots was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 11 g/1 agar-agar and 20 g/1 sucrose. To test the effect of BA different concentrations were added: 0.10, 0.25 mg/1 and...a culture medium without BA. Differentiation of roots was examined on Jámbor-Benczúr and Marta (1990) basal medium with the same concentration of agar-agar and sucrose. To examine the effect on rooting, various concentrations of NAA were used: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l. The pH was adjusted to 5.6 in every case using KOH. We studied the after-effect of different concentrations of BA during the acclimatisation. During the multiplication, the cultivar 'Echo White' formed the most shoots and the smallest leaves on the medium with 0.10 mg/1 BA. Fortunately, in the case of this cultivar, the number of shoots was reduced and the length of leaves was increased succesfully on the medium without BA. The other three cultivars developed the longest leaves on the medium containing 0.10 mg/1 BA. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. Examining the rooting, the highest percent of roots was found on the medium with 1.0 mg/1 NAA, and the cultivar 'Echo Rose' formed the most roots on this medium. Higher concentration (2.0 and 3.0 mg/1) of NAA already reduced the number of roots in all of the cultivars. During the acclimatisation, the percentage of survival was 76.3% and the tallest plants with the longest leaves were found on the multiplication medium with 0.25 mg/1 BA. 'Echo Blue Picotee' gave the best results with the tallest pieces and longest leaves on this medium.
The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flower...s (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.
Wild roses of the section Caninae, commonly known as dogroses, have been described as more disease tolerant than ornamental roses and could therefore become valuable for breeding improved rose cultivars. Two fields with dogroses, one with plants obtained by open pollination in wild populations, and one with plants obtained from intra-...and interspecific crosses, were evaluated for blackspot, powdery mildew, rust and leafspots in the autumn of 2005. Symptoms of the different fungi on different dogrose species were carefully evaluated in a microscope and documented by photography. Interestingly, almost no symptoms of powdery mildew were found in either field, although the fungus infected wild roses of a different section in a field closeby. Surprisingly few symptoms were found also of blackspot, and they differed considerably from those found on ornamental cultivars, indicating a lower susceptibility in dogroses. The most important fungal disease in 2005 was rust, followed by leafspot symptoms. The latter were apparently caused by Sphaceloma rosarum and Septoria rosae which can be properly discriminated only in a microscope. The investigated dogrose species and their progeny groups varied significantly in disease susceptibility and in the appearance of encountered symptoms but there was no evidence of major resistance genes, except possibly in Rosa rubiginosa which did not show any symptoms of Septoria. In 2006, a subset of the plant material in Field 1 was evaluated to check for consistency between the years. Leafspots had overtaken rust as the most important disease but results were otherwise very similar to those of 2005.
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
Blackspot, caused by the fungus Marssonina rosae (Diplocarpon msae), is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases in garden roses, and it has as yet not been fully characterized in molecular terms. In this initial study we used RAPD analysis to investigate the genetic diversity among and within a few geographically diverse gr...oups of single-spore isolates of M. rosae. DNA was extracted from in vitrogrown mycelia of 1 I single spore isolates grown on PDA medium. High levels of polymorphism were detected among the isolates. They clustered into three distinct groups: Group !consisted of isolates from eastern North America plus a European isolate (Germany), Group 2 included isolates from southern Sweden, and Group 3 included the isolates from Manitoba, Canada. The greater similarity of the environmental conditions in eastern North America and Europe as compared to the Canadian prairies suggest that. climate and weather could be key factors in influencing the potential race structure of M. rosae. However, variations among closely situated sites, e.g. southern Sweden, also occurred.
Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Exper...imental site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain training
system. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.
The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.
The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.
Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.
To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).
The importance of hydro-cultural growing is significantly increasing.We have been dealing with the hydro-cultural growing of cut flowers at the Department of Ornamental Plant Growing and Maintenance of Gardens at the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét College since 1988.We started our experiments by growing carnation in growing estab...lishment without soil then we introduced other species of cut flowers and potted ornamental plants into our research work.
The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose ...>(Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).
The effect of 1-MCP on rose cultivar 'Bordeaux ' was studied in combination with different preservative solutions. The flowers were treated with 1-MCP for 6 hours at 17 °C and for 18 hours at 4 °C. As for the diameter of flowers the best resu lts was achieved, when applying 20 gL- 1 sucrose + Clorox (2 ml L- 1), as well as preservative "Sprin...g" ( I 0 gL-1) + 1-MCP ( 18 hours). Similar results were measured in the case of Spring + Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1-MCP (6 and 18 hours). The longer MCP treatm ent gave better results as compared to the shorter ones, because the flowers were much more open.The condition of flowers was the best in the solution of Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose and Spring solution combined with the longer MCP treatment. and Clorox + 20 gL- 1, on the IQ1h day. The longest vase life ( 10,3 day) was observed in the case of Spring application combined with 18 hours of MCP treatment. ln this treatment the vase life was prolonged by 3,3 days. As regards the calculated ornamental values, the following sequence could be established :"Spring" + l-MCP ( 18hrs) 134 points, Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose + 1-MCP (l8h) with 129 point, and the third was the Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1 19 point.
Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growe...rs had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.