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Some physical properties of apricots and testing apricot sorting machines
51-62.

Examinations were carried out in the manipulating and packaging plant of Gyümölcsért Ltd, in Boldogkôváralja, to determine some physical properties of five apricot cultivars and to test the work quality of the apricot sorting machines. The size and the weight of the fruits were measured and two sorting machines were tested. The results are given in tables and diagrams. The conclusions are also summarised.

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Spatial evaluation of the apple trees-soil environment
53-56.

Remote sensing of fruit tree micro environment plays a major role in both horticultural and soil mapping applications. In frame this study presented a novel method to survey the spatial distribution of physical and water management properties of soils. The examinations were carried out at an intensive experimental apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag. The examination site is the part of the Experimental Pomology plantation of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agronomy. Particle-size distribution, plasticity according to Arany, metal content by XRF spectrometry, soil physical parameters, acidity, electric conductivity of soils, were measured to obtain appropriate information on the physical properties of the soil. Based on the results, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were characterized where soil loosening should be implemented in 0,3–0,4 m depth. Spatially precise soil physical barriers were determined for applied micro-irrigation system. Based on the micro-element content and pH, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were selected where melioration and micronutrient fertilization is needed. These detailed data sources also applied to calibrate the applied airborne hyperspectral images to extend spatially these point based information.

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Effect of physical properties of horticultural substrates on pepper transplant development
75-78.

Pepper transplants were grown in trays using 6 different growing media. Trays were filled in a loose and in a compact manner with the 5 different peats and coconut coir. Measurements were made for the most important physical parameters of each single medium studying their effect on transplant development. Results indicated that compaction had had a beneficial effect on the germination of the transplants and on the rate of their development.

97
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Effect of the terroir and the harvest time on the Kékfrankos grape berries visual and physical parameters in Eger (Hungary)
81-85.

In this research, the effects of the “terroir” and the harvest time on the most important physical properties of the berries of Kékfrankos (Blaufrankish) grape variety were examined in 2010 and 2011. The results of the experimentation shown, that the maturation processes can be well described by different physical parameters of the grape berry. The terroir and harvest time effects were investigated in two different vintages and four different territories. It can be concluded, that these physical parameters change significantly during the ripening period, but trends differ between vintages and regions.

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Agronomic evaluation of different lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties under unheated plastic tunnel
50-56.

Among the leafy vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most widely grown species in the world. Wide ranges of physical properties of the products are used to assess the degree of maturity. In this study, different lettuce varieties were grown under an unheated plastic tunnel in springtime. We evaluated the agronomic properties of different lettuce varieties, evaluated the condition of the plants, and determined the bioactive substances. Larger head weight can be achieved by the ‘King of May’ butterhead (259.31 g) and ‘Great Lakes 659’crisphead (220.40 g) genotypes. A very strong correlation (r = 0.995) was observed between the lettuce head index, and leaf index and both had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.828 and 0.760) with NDVI. The highest SPAD values were measured for cos lettuce ‘Romaine lettuce’ (44.01) and iceberg lettuce ‘Great Lakes 659’ (42.71). However, these genotypes showed the highest (9.52%; 8.74%) dry matter content, too. The red leaf variety 'Lollo Rosso' had the highest total polyphenol content (181.53 GAE/100 g FW).  Among the evaluated properties, iceberg lettuce showed favorable morphology, plant condition, and good dry matter content. In addition, between the loose-leaf lettuces, the red leaf lollo type was outstanding with bioactive content.

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Some physical properties of sweet cherries
63-70.

The determination of the optimal time of the mechanical harvesting of sweet cherries has a great importance not only to prevent the fruit from mechanical injury but to find the optimal setting parameters of the harvesting machine. The primary objective of the experiments was to determine the force and work required to detach the stem from the limb and the fruit from the stem. Furthermore to measure the three main sizes (width, height, thickness) of the fruits in order to determine the sphericity, and also the pulp-stone ratio by measuring the mass of the fruit with the stone and then the mass of the stone. The average sizes of the fruits: width 19.62–27.76 mm, height 17.83–24.54 mm and thickness 17.30–23.60 mm. The stem length varied between 28.69 mm and 55.80 mm. The sphericity of each variety was above 90%. The average mass varied between 3.63 and 9.68 g. The stone mass turned to be between 0.27 g and 0.42 g. The stone-pulp ratio varied between 3.7%and 7.7%. The average pulp mass varied between 3.35 g and 9.32 g. The average values of maximum loads required to detach the sweet cherries from the stem varied between 3.23 N and, 4.12 N. The force required to detach the stem from the limb was 50–90% higher than the force needed to tear the fruit from the stem.

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Research of the elasticity of transplant - growing substrates after watering
67-69.

It gets more and more popular to grow transplants in different trays for the field vegetable growing. The best transplant-growing substrates in the world are made of peat. The peat is applied to provide an optimal supply of plants with water and air. To improve the water regulation and the structure of the mixtures there are often mineral matters used in different amounts. By measuring the physical properties of soil mixtures based on peat, the flexibility can be measured by Stable Micro System type table penetrometer. Our measuring confirmed the increase of bulk and flexibility of different kinds of peat by watering.

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Assessment of soil characteristics in orchard
11-14.

The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. The detailed goals were mapping and analyzing of physical properties of the soil in water management point of view, mapping the acidity and CaCO3content of soil for precision liming, measurement of humus the element content. Sites with different physical characteristics (from sandy loam to loamy clay) could be distinguished. The reason for this is that besides the possible increase of clayminerals, the increasing rate of colloidal humus content contributes to larger soil plasticity. Statistics also proved positive and strong correlation (r=0.822) between the soil plasticity and humus content. In the case of pH, only a small part of the orchard is has to be limed, since most of the orchard has neutral pH, which is advantageous for nuts and stone fruits. It has to be mentioned, that the CaCO3 supply is also appropriate for the stone fruits. Based on the results hyperspectral imagery can be a good solution for detecting calciferous soils, although these measurements are still need validation.

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The quality and storage efficiency of some apple varieties as a function of picking date, area of production and duration of storage
99-103.

Numerous apple varieties have been tested parallel with traditional Jonathan varieties during four years, 1990-1994 on three different geographical areas of Hungary. The picking time took place at three different times in a year: ten days before the probably optimal picking time, at close-to-optimal picking time, and ten days after the optimal picking time. The effect of storage on quality of fruits have been tested in February, March, and April under circumstances of a semi-industrial storage experiment.

The results of experience can contribute to answer numerous current, from point of view of practice important topics:

  • The stochastic relations between various fruit quality parameters at different varieties
  • The change of fruit — quality during storage
  • The effect of different picking date on storage losses
  • The possibilities of storage — loss predicting by the utilization of multiple regression analysis.

The most important results of experiences are as follows :

  1. The starch — degradation test and Streiff — index are well applicable for practical purposes to determine the optimal harvest-date.
  2. On base of analysis of various losses and physiological diseases the high importance of mass loss is obvious. In the variety Jonnee the earlier picking date considerably increased the mass loss. The effect of variety on mass loss is rather limited. In the Jonathan varieties the Jonathan spot was a rather important physiological disease. The late picking time increased the frequency of Jonathan - spot. At optimal date of harvest at Jonnee the frequency of Jonathan -spot was lower, than at Jonathan M 41. In the Jonathan M41 and Jonnee the importance of scald was rather limited, but in the Wellspur Delicious and Smoothee this disease occurred relatively frequently. In the Smoothee the earlier picking time considerably increased the probability of scald.
  3. The multiple regression analysis yielded reliable results, fit for prediction of storage losses and diseases on the base of chemical and physical properties, determined at the time of picking.

 

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Seasonal root development of Cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks
61-63.

The minirhizotron system gives opportunity to study the root development without disturbing the soil and root. We have found certified differences in root development during the year 2013 among the rootstocks grafted on ‘Cabernet sauvignon’. The number of roots varied according to the rootstocks in different depth of soil layers and also varied the development of ripeness of the root system. We conclude that root system development is affected by soil physical and chemical properties, but differences according to the rootstock genotype on the similar type of soil exist.

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Sampling experience in a cherry plantation
21-28.

Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were designated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.

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