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  • Irrigation modeling in a pear orchard
    75-79.
    Views:
    223

    The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
    conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
    proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficients. As there is a considerable lack of information for different crops or fruits the
    Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
    pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
    of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
    climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
    with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
    6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.

  • Water relations of apple and influence on fruit quality (minireview)
    59-63.
    Views:
    318

    The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.

  • Irrigation of pear (A review)
    65-73.
    Views:
    194

    The plantation of intensive growing orchards and steady increase in yield is essential to return the growing cost by sale. Seasonal crop fluctuation of pear is increased by the frequently occurrence of drought and climatic changes. This study reviews genetic and growing factors determined the alternancy of pear and present the new knowledge concerning on water saving irrigation techniques. Use of dwarfing rootstocks, root pruning, branches pruning and new water saving irrigation make the changes in vegetative and generative growth that successfully improve the alternancy of pear growing. According to publications BA 29 of clonal quince rootstocks exhibited the best protection mechanism against to drought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) applied during rapid shoot growth and slowly fruit growth result a decrease in shoot growth and 60% of water saving in pear orchard while there was no influence on harvested yield. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) microjet irrigation applied in pear orchard result 23-52% of decrease in water use, however concerning explorations are contradictory. Further investigations need to improve the efficiency of new irrigation technology adapted pear varieties based on monitoring of soil water status and measurement of stem water potential as stress indicators of plants.

  • Irrigation Requirements for Grape Crop under Climate Changes Conditions in Egypt
    23-27.
    Views:
    246

    The present work is mainly directed to discuss sensitivity of climate changes upon the irrigation demand for grape crop in Egypt. The Penman Monteith equation was used to calculate reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) under current and future climate for the two locations (El Menya and El Beheira). The historical climate data for ten years from (2000 – 2010) was used as current climate to calculate irrigation requirement for grape crop under Egyptian conditions. Two climate changes scenarios have been applied as changes in temperature. The first scenario supposed that increasing in temperature of 1.5°C would happen, and the second scenario supposed that increasing of 3.5°C would happen to calculate reference Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for future climate. The results showed that the evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for grape crop at El Menya location higher than El Beheira location. Irrigation demand for grape plant under two climate changes scenario will increase in El Menya and El Beheira locations. El Menya location will take the highest irrigation demand under climate changes. Therefore, possible adaptation countermeasures should be developed to mitigate the negative effects of climate changes for the sustainable development of agro-ecosystems in Egypt.

  • Cooling irrigation as a powerful method for microclimate modification in apple plantation
    33-37.
    Views:
    262

    Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. InMarch 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Gala apple orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low.At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Gala apple variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured apple yields.

  • Effect of over tree cooling irrigation on ‘Bosc’ pear orchards microclimate
    153-156.
    Views:
    211

    Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surface temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.

  • The necessity and possibilities of irrigation in fruit growing under conditions of Hungary
    93-94.
    Views:
    223

    Climatic and soil conditions are highly suitable for most temperate fruit species and promise profitable yields with good quality. An accurate choice of the growing site is, however, decisive because of the wide range agro-climatic variation an soils within the country. One of the most important factors is the annual precipitation which does not exceed, in general, 700 mm. The aims of irrigation practices are, succinctly speaking, the improvement of quantity and security of yields and the guarantee of quality. The relative importance of those criteria changes according to the fruit species. In up to date apple, pear and cherry production, micro-irrigation systems are mainly considered. According to recent experiences, the micro-jet type of water distribution should be preferred to the dripping system. In cherries, the choice of the method is motivated by the need to prevent fruit cracking. Most of the peach and apricot plantations are located on the dry and moderately dry regions of the country. Because of the late freezes, the improvement of security is crucial. There the investment of irrigation systems should concentrate to the possibility of anti-freeze sprays. High water requirements of plums are met in Hungary by irrigation where the method should be decided at the plantation and adapted to the harvesting procedure which could be mechanised or (in high density plantations) picked by hand. Sour cherries are perhaps the less dependent on watering under Hungarian conditions. Yields in small fruits: currents, gooseberries, raspberries and strawberries could be increased by irrigation to 40-50 % and may improve quality too. In those cultures the system of moving flexible wing tubes are considered to be the best irrigation technique.

  • Irrigation management of a peach orchard
    19-24.
    Views:
    236

    The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. Mainly Sweet Lady (early ripening), Red Heaven (medium ripening) and Weinberger (early ripening) species were installed. In order to achieve the optimal developement level of trees and maximal yield amount and fruit diameter (Sweet Lady 60–75 mm, Red Heaven 60–70 mm, Veinberger 50–60 mm) continous water and nutrient supply is required. The irrigation modeling was set by CROPWAT 8.0 based on the climatic, crop and soil data inputs of the last 10 years. Based on the results, large amount of water is needed for optimal growth of fruit trees, particularly in the summer months, in case of active ground cover (+) and bare soil (–) as well. The irrigation requirement of a tree was found maximum 4 l/hour in certain cases. This irrigation intensity can be achieved – calculated with 12-hour operating time – by using continuous water NAAN Tif drip tube with 2 l/h flux on 3 atm pressure with 16 mm pipe diameter. If lower irrigation intensity is required irrigation can be controlled by the decreased the operation time.

  • Scheduling of irrigation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) using canopy temperature
    89-94.
    Views:
    132

    The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8t ha-I for spring sown and 1.9 t ha-I in summer-sown plants without irrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5t ha-I was reached twice in the case of spring sowing and only once in the case of summer sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature every day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterize the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value may cause 90-130 kg/ha yield loss.

  • Pilot study for irrigation modelling of a pear plantation
    81-84.
    Views:
    293

    Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.

  • The atmospherical drought as a decisive factor of yield in the main sour cherry varieties of Hungary
    121-125.
    Views:
    200

    Atmospheric drought causes heavy diffi culties of water supply in most fruit species grown in Hungary, although the modern, intensive plantations are already equipped with irrigation. The use a dripping systems are widely applied, therefore nothing was done to avert the risk of atmospheric drought. In excessively dry seasons the reduction of yields is often due to atmospheric drought. Present study aims to utilise measured data of meteorological parameters (relative air humidity and temperature) to develop an index to characterise drought and measure its effect on fruit yield. Causes influencing yields are multiple. Phytosanitary problems are combined with defi cits of water supply. Water deficit of the soil is avoided by dripping irrigation, but the atmosphere is infl uenced by sprinklers only. Atmospherical drought increases the transpiration of the trees intensely and causes reduction of photosynthetic activity, consequently impairs the yield. Applying the index developed in a plantation of 6 sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary (Meteor, Nefris, Pándy, Újfehértói fürtös, Kántorjánosi, Debreceni bôtermô), we measured the specific yields (yield per volume of tree crown) during the period 1989–2011 using the meteorological database of the growing site. Additionally, other parameters characterising the drought are compared and searched for a method most reliable for judging the specific yielding capacity of sour cherry varieties. The results proved convincingly the utility of the index, especially for the varieties Pándy and Újfehértói fürtös. Comparison with other indices expressing the effects of drought revealed the superiority of our index, which will be applied in the future to express the risk of atmospheric drought.

  • Influence of irrigation and row spacing on the growth, seed yield and active substance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
    78-81.
    Views:
    202

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn) has been used in medicine since ancient times, but it has been cultivated as a medicinal plant only in recent decades. The ripe fruit of milk thistle contains flavonoids, which are used to prepare anti-hepatotoxic drugs. The main purpose of this study was to substantiate the effects of irrigation and row spacing on growth, seed yield and the content of active substances (silybin and silymarin) in milk thistle. The results showed that the suitable amount of irrigation was 20 mm and the appropriate row spacing was 25 cm.

     

  • Simultaneous impact of the different water supply and year type on processing tomato yield
    79-81.
    Views:
    196

    A two year (2008 and 2009) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation on the yield parameters and fruit components of processing tomato. Two different treatments were applied: regularly irrigated (RI), irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest (CO), compared with unirrigated control (RF). The optimal water supply was calculated from average daily temperature. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. The regularly irrigated plant stands gave significantly higher yield, and unirrigated plants showed yield loss.Water supply had strong positive (R2=0.81) effect on marketable yield and average fruit weight (R2=0.78). Linear regression showed, that 46.5 mm more water supply caused 10 t/ha more marketable yield, and 13.4 mm more water supply caused 1 g more in the average fruit weight. The irrigation increased the Brix yield as well.

  • Estimating of water consumption of cherry trees
    15-17.
    Views:
    183

    Despite of its importance there is no exact information on water use of new scion/rootstock composite trees, which would be needed to optimized irrigation. Our research purpose is to define exact water-demand of different rootstock/scion composite trees, calculating seasonal weather changes and by using the results decrease irrigation costs. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár, at the Experimental Farm of Corvinus University of Budapest in May 2008. From among the investigated trees two are budded onto Prunus mahuleb `Érdi V' seedlings, two on "Korponay' seedlings. The sapflow measurements are carried out using Dynamax Flow 32 equipment with Dynagage trunk sensors. The first daily maximum of sapflow was around 10:00 a.m. (2.5 kghour I), the second maximum was always between 14:00-15:00 p.m. (2 kgday- I). Comparing to the very intensive morning water uptake by 20:00 p.m. the water flow slowly reached the minimal level. Significant differences can be seen on rootstocks: trees on `Korponay' rootstock always showed more intensive sapflow and a higher morning peak than trees on `Árdi V'. But later during the day they have the same run.Based on our results the water quantity transpired only by the trees reached in May 86-104 mm, while the precipitation was only 42.4 mm. This means a 40-60 mm deficit in the orchard, which should have been supplied by irrigation despite of the satisfying horticultural performance of the orchard. In the first half of the month beside the steady vapor pressure deficit the shoot and leaf surface growth could cause the increased sapflow.

  • Technologies developed to avoid frost damages caused by late frost during bloom in the fruit growing regions of Siófok and Debrecen
    99-105.
    Views:
    365

    The aim of the study was to fi nd out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. Three technologies have been tested in the regions of Siófok and Debrecen-Pallag. The antifrost irrigation proved to be the most advantageous. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and do not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be suffi cient. By means of a detailed analysis served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0°C near the fl owers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to –8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used anti-frost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. The Frostbuster represents a new technology developed for the same purpose of frost defence. It uses butane burning and produces high (80-90°C) temperature with a strong blast of air. On the protected area sensors have been distributed for measuring temperature and relative humidity. The means of the measurements proved a rise of temperature, which was suffi cient to save the fruit trees until the difference is less than –3–3.5 °C. Our analyses stated that paraffi n candles avert the frost until –4 °C. Its success depends largely on the intensity of air movements. A small wind would be enough to frustrate the effect. The results show clearly the utility of Frostbuster and paraffi n candle combined is approved.

  • Pre-scaling up evaluation of banana technology under irrigation conditions in Abergelle District, Wag-himra Zone, Ethiopia
    39-44.
    Views:
    550

    The study was conducted to compare the improved banana technology against the local production technique to enhance demand-driven banana technology up-scaling and diffusion. Data were collected at the field and farmers' levels. Descriptive and inferential statistics, cost-benefit analysis and matrix ranking were employed for analysis. The result revealed that the average yield (38.40 ton ha-1) of improved banana technology had a significant yield advantage (47.24%) over the local practice (p<0.05). Despite the higher cost of production, its net return was by far higher than the local practice. The benefit-cost ratio also displays that 9.49 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) profit per 1.00 ETB investment in an improved technology package. The overall farmers' perceptions were laid under strongly agree and agree categories, and 95% of them believed that the improved banana technology was appropriate for their area and hence accepted with full confidence. The respective organizations working on rural livelihood improvement are therefore advised to up-scale the improved technology for the wider community based on the irrigation potential.

  • Water relations of sour cherries (minireview)
    103-107.
    Views:
    206

    Recently, the sour cherries as food resources become more important for health preservation and so the modernization of growing technology in sour cherry production will be timely. The global warming and inadequate distribution of precipitation result a decrease in the alternancy of sour cherry production, as well. Sour cherries rather adapted to survival of drought than sweet cherry trees therefore a few studies performed to explore the water requirement of sour cherry varieties. The rootstocks, the type of soils in plantation and the water balance influence the water management of sour cherries. In orchards, in particular first year plantation, use of various row covering contribute to preservation of the natural water pool of soil and affect on the tree vigor, yield and fruit quality. Wide-spread application of integrated fruit growing technology and climate changes the researches are pointed to develop efficient irrigation technology based on transpiration yield model. The crop model based on use of meteorological data was developed for cherry orchards in order to predict transpiration of trees, dry matter production and fruit yield. The linear relationship between dry matter accumulation and transpiration was verified for sour cherry trees. Other models essay to asses the effects of climate changes on crop production. Importance of economical production and fruit quality such as ingredients of raw materials and food increases in intensive sour cherry orchards used by irrigation techniques. Because of climate changes it should more pay attention to research concerning on the stress physiological response of sour cherry varieties and post-harvest fruit quality.

  • Ecological drought resistance and adaptability of apple varieties
    113-122.
    Views:
    320

    For adequate yields in apple plantations, during the long growing period of the fruit primordia, one of the decisive factors is water supply. Indicators of stress are valuable signs for the diagnosis of drought and necessity of watering, i.e. planning the irrigation of plantations. The aim of the present study was to find reliable signs of water stress on apple trees and at the same time conclude on the drought tolerance of different varieties. The plantation of apple varieties grafted on various stocks and cultivated according to different systems (irrigated, non irrigated, integrate and biological) has been examined continuously by leaf analysis. Along the period of growing fruits, measurements were made in the field, then the leaf samples were analysed in the laboratory for composition of pigments, carbohydrates and antioxidants, as well as the histology of the tissues checked. Without irrigation, the mean leaf mass and the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) of the variety Idared on M4 stocks increases beyond the values of 50 SPAD, whereas on M26 stock and integrated system, it declines. In the collection of varieties, grown according to the „integrated” system, during the development of fruits, ‘Gála’ and ‘Remo’ varieties have been affiliated to the “less susceptible” group regarding drought tolerance because of the leaf morphology, structure and content of SPAD and antioxidants. However, ‘Idared’ and ‘Jonagold’ belong to the “susceptible” group. To the same group are ranged the ‘Akane, Red Rome vanWell, Pink Lady’ varieties. Those varieties reacted to a short period of drought by increased production (content) of carbohydrates. Regarding changes of carbohydrate content ‘Greensleeves’ and ‘Ozark Gold’ varieties belong to the moderately water dependent (requiring) group. In the field, SPAD-tests facilitated the measurement of nutrient-uptake and incorporation, which is proved by the tight correlation between the data of SPAD and the increment of leaf weight (r=0.76–r=0.88), however, this depends on the variety too. SPAD is an indicator of water supply and is related with the density of stomata, cannot used for the selection of water-exigent varieties but for (drought) tolerant ones. In integrated culture, the (drought) susceptible varieties display (water-soluble) hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants (ACWand ACL resp.) the quantity of which may have some role in drought tolerance.

  • Effect of water supply on canopy temperature, stomatal conductance and yield quantity of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
    13-15.
    Views:
    279

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most extensively cultivated horticultural crops in the world.Water supply is important for yield quantity and quality. The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the canopy temperature and the stomatal conductance on processing tomato substances with different water supply, 2) to investigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. There were two irrigated treatments, one of them was the reguralry irrigated plant stand which got 333 mm water during investigated period, including the precipitation and the other was the cut off substance which means the irrigation (drip) was stopped at the beginning of the ripening process and there was a control as well which got 189 mm precipitation. The canopy temperature was measured row by row with a Raytek MX 4 type infrared remote thermometer. The stomatal conductance was measured by Delta-T AP4 type porometer. There were significant differences between the control and irrigated plants according to the water supply which was formulated the canopy values. The plants with a deficient water supply were decreased the transpiration rate, therefore its cooling effect didn’t show up. The regularly irrigated tomato plants’ yield exceeded the unirrigated ones more than twice. It is emerged from the study that the irrigation has a positive effect on the amount of the harvestable yield in this year type.

  • Results of cherry rootstock evaluations in Hungary
    11-14.
    Views:
    237

    The paper gives a review on the results of the latest rootstock evaluation projects in Hungary. Several cherry rootstock evaluation projects were carried out in Hungary during the last two decades. The evaluated rootstocks are partly mahalebs selected in Hungary, but more or less all the most important new rootstocks from different countries are involved. The aim of these evaluation projects was to find appropriate rootstocks in a wide range of vigour for our climate and soil conditions. The conclusion of the last 20 years of research in Hungary proved just the opposite of believes, that high density orchard can only be planted with dwarfing rootstocks. Before choosing the right rootstock the most important is to consider adaptability, precocity and productivity. Dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstocks showed proper results only with irrigation or very good site conditions. These rootstocks are very precocious, but branches form easily blindwood. This must be corrected by severe pruning in the first years. The relatively small leaf surface area can also be disadvantageous, but it can be controlled by pruning, fruit-thinning, irrigation and fertilization. After studying different rootstocks semi-vigorous rootstocks seem to be the most adequate for different site conditions in Hungary. Fast initial growing and competent precocity are their favourable characters. From the vigorous group of clonal mahalebs or seedlings are highly recommended first of all for poor site condition (sandy, lime soils with high pH). They turn to bearing early and easy to find them in the Hungarian nurseries. But on vigorous rootstocks trees might need stronger summer pruning.

  • The effect of cooling irrigation on the blooming dynamic of plum
    57-59.
    Views:
    223

    The objective of the present study is to explore the effect of cooling irrigation (aspersion) on the beginning of bloom and on the micro-climate of the plantation. The results show that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jet influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect, The frequent repetition (20 minute intervals) may keep the temperature low also in the buds. The beginning of bloom may delayed for more than ten days. The dynamics of blooming was characterised by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control in spite of equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under our (Hungarian) climatic conditions, the method is successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result is the diminution of the frost damage in the spring and the security of yield. The costs and water requirement should be calculated later.

  • Evaluation of vermicompost application and stress of dehydration on mullein medicinal plants
    69-77.
    Views:
    105

    The use of organic fertilizers is one of the suitable solutions in the organic production of medicinal plants due to its good effect in improving soil properties, reducing environmental effects, and better plant growth. To investigate the effect of vermicompost organic fertilizer application and water stress on some morphological and physiological traits of the Mullein medicinal plant, research was conducted at Isfahan Azad University in the form of split plots in the form of a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The test factors included the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at three levels of 0, 4, and 8 kg per square meter of soil and water stress at two levels of normal irrigation and irrigation at the time of 50% of the soil's agricultural capacity as the main treatment in research farm conditions. The results of the experiment showed that the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer and water stress improved the morphological and physiological characteristics of the Mullein medicinal plant compared to the control, i.e. no application of organic fertilizers. The results showed that the highest number of secondary branches, number of flowers of the secondary stem, diameter of flowering stem, the diameter of flower, and fresh weight of shoot in the Mullein medicinal plant were obtained by applying vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil. The application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 8 kg in the soil increased flavonoids compared to the non-use of vermicompost treatment. However, to improve the vegetative growth and increase the reproductive efficiency of the Mullein plant and reduce production costs, the use of vermicompost organic fertilizer is recommended at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil, respectively.

  • Participatory evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties under irrigation conditions at Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara
    17-22
    Views:
    97

    Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved tomato varieties (‘Melka salsa’, 'Roma VF' and 'Kochero’) against the local tomato variety was carried out during the 2019/2020 growing season involving six farmers of Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara. The objective of the experiment was to assess the performance of different tomato varieties for the farmers, then to collect their feedback. Based on the actual and farmers’ preference data, the analysis underscores the better performance of improved tomato varieties over local varieties by most yield-related attributes. Average marketable fruit yields of ‘Melka salsa’, ‘Roma VF’, ‘Kochero’, and the local variety were 4.62, 3.88, 3.64, and 3.10 ton ha-1, respectively. The improved varieties thus had a yield advantage of 72.38%, 37.14%, and 25.72% over the local variety in that order. Among improved tomato varieties, ‘Melka salsa' provided the highest fruit yield on top of owing the highest score of overall preference attributes rank. Scale-wide diffusion of ‘Melka salsa’ tomato variety is therefore suggested for similar and potential agro-ecologies. Biological scientists also should take farmers’ preference attributes and feedback as a backup for future breeding and adaptation studies on tomato varieties.

  • The impact of irrigation on the yield and tuber fraction distribution of potato cultivars
    65-70.
    Views:
    123

    Potato is one of the most important plants in human nutrition, it is grown in about 140 countries. As a food, it can be prepared in many ways, it is easily digestable with proteins of high biological value, favourable dietetical-physiological characteristics, high starch content and good taste. An increase in its consumption would be favourable from the dietetical point of view. In Hungary, the growing area of potato has decreased considerably for the last decades and we are lagging behind the Western-European countries regarding yield. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen at Látókép between 2002 and 2004. In the large-plot experiment, the yields and the distribution of the tuber fractions were studied for 9 medium early cultivars. The experiment was set up on 50 m2 plots on calcareous chernozem soil. Among the studied cultivars, 3 were of Dutch (Desiree, Kondor, Kuroda) and 6 were of Hungarian breeding ('Góliát', 'Hópehely', 'Kankan', 'Lilla', 'Százszorszép', and 'White Lady'). The experiment was set up in 4 repetitions in a randomized design, two of the repetitions were irrigated while two were non-irrigated.

  • The effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) on the development of Saintpaulia ionantha
    33-36.
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    255

    In recent work the effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) agent (commercial name Pentakeep-V) was examined on the chlorophyll content, growth and development of Saintpaulia ionantha. The newly re-rooted potted plants were irrigated or sprayed with 0.3‰ or 0.5‰ Pentakeep-V solution, and plus 30% long lasting fertilizer was added to half of the all treatments. Control plants were sprayed with tap water. Best result were obtained on the field of flowering. All the treatments promoted chlorophyll-content in the leaves especially spraying with 0.3‰concentration. Plants treated with Pentakeep-V in both concentrations and independently from the spraying or irrigation flowered more than two weeks earlier than control and those that got plus 30% fertilizer. Besides in the case of some treatments the diameter of leaf rosette, the number and surface size of leaves grew comparing to the control. The longlasting fertilizer had positive effect on the fresh weight but none of treatments had effect on the dry weight.