After the change of the political system the main looser was in Hungary the fruit-growing branch. The yields varied at high amplitudes, and the production increased slowly in spite of multiple planting activities. The European Union ranked fruit production “loosely” to the products, which allows the extension of its markets. Thus I decided to analyse the economic relations of the period between 2002 and 2008 in order to reveal the main effects of movements. The pictures are the resultants of a heterogeneous population, which cannot be influenced on the level of enterprises. But they are utilised for the recognition of challenges and trends on the level of branches of economy. The immediate costs increased the production monotonously, which cannot be compensated by a thrifty management of the general costs. Thus costs of production increased dramatically, whereas the marketing of products could not realise the values.
In this study we were studying the question whether walnut production under domestic natural and economic circumstances shall be considered a profitable activity or not. Our partial objective is to determine, what level of natural inputs and production costs are required for walnut production, what yield level, selling price and production value can be attained, what level of profitability, rentability and efficiency may production have, is the establishment of a walnut orchard profitable on the entire lifespan of the plantation, and the production of which is more efficient: the dry shelled walnut production requiring postharvest activity or the raw, shelled walnut without postharvest activities. In this study, comparison of two systems is conducted. First version: producer establishes a walnut plantation and sells walnut raw and shelled. Second version: producer also invests into a drying facility, and in this case the end product is the dry, shelled walnut. If the producer sells walnut right after harvest in a raw bulk, total production costs in productive years reaches 974,011 HUF/ha. Attainable yield is 2.63 t/ha with 396.3 HUF/kg selling price, therefore the profit is 138,258 HUF/ha with 14.19% cost-related profitability. In the case when the producer sells dried, shelled walnut, production costs are 25% higher compared to that of raw walnut due to the cost of drying. By calculating with the postharvest loss, average yield is 1.84 t/ha, however, its selling price is way higher (882.84 HUF/kg), therefore the profit per hectare reaches 475,496 HUF with 39.01% cost-related profitability. Thus it can be stated that walnut production in an average year may be profitable even without postharvest, but efficiency is improved significantly when the producer sells the products dried. Investment profitability analysis revealed that production of raw, shelled walnut is not economically viable, since the plantation does not pay off on its entire lifespan (30 years), while walnut production with postharvest is efficient and rentable, since both net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) showed more favourable values than in the previous case, and the orchard pays off in the 21th year after establishment.
After the political changes of 1989, economical processes impaired heavily the Hungarian fruit growing branch, more particularly production of sour cherry. Paralleling with the increasing mass of production, producer’s prices dwindled drastically. At present, Hungarian growers cannot cover the costs of production, nay, hardly raise income. My purpose was to analyse the cost and income relations of the sour cherry branch during the period of 2002-2009 years in order to find out what are the decisive features, which reveal the trends to be considered. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of economics of the branch.
The major part of the pepper growing farms in Hungary operate as family enterprises with areas varying between 1,000 and 3,000 m2. As a result of the small size, their profitability is greatly dependant on the technological level and market circumstances. Most of these farms are characteristically affected by the lack of capital, therefore, they are unable to implement any further developments with their own forces. Greenhouse pepper production on rockwool had already been subjected to analysis earlier in our research, however, those calculations were directed solely at the profitability and efficiency of production. Based on the data from 2004 in 2005 yet another and more profound analysis was set as the objective. Besides the methods already applied before, several dynamic indicators have been introduced which could also be useful for practical applications. The graphs can permit growers to monitor the temporal distribution of the costs incurred and revenues earned during production. Thereby it is easier to plan the costs and more simple to distribute them more rationally over the production period. Our experiences suggest that this sort of analytical method is applicable only in cases where a very careful and precise collection of data is ensured and the results obtained can not be generalised as being valid only for the single farm analysed. Experiences and results, however, make us consider the dynamic economic analysis as being very useful both for beginners and practicing horticulturists.
The main goal of this research was to work out programmable, cost-effective and industrial scale technologies of mass propagation from the seeds of rootstock nurseries of undomesticated American populations of Sidahermaphrodita. During our previou`s seed treatment experiments, it was concluded that around 60% of the Virginia fanpetalsseeds collected during the four cropyears can be considered as high quality, infection-free, normally imbibing and germinating seeds (Kurucz et al., 2013a,b). The experiments performed with the nurse-in-tray method developed by us showed that the summer-autumn nurse-in-tray plantlet production and unprotected wintering of Virginia fanpetals with properly pre-treated and fractioned seeds is a promising new method. No weeds appear between the plants, but only on the side of the cases during plantlet production. The investment cost of the method is minimal. There are no heating costs and this phytotechnique can be easily and properly mechanised. Plantlet production can be performed near the large-scale plots. After exploring the root and shoot system, it was concluded that the nurse-in-tray method is suitable for producing plantlets with hardened and strong roots. Scheduled plantlets can be produced in an industrial scale volume by the time of early spring (March) plantlet planting. The excavateof plantlets can be flexibly adjusted to the needs; they may even grow in the plantlet cases for a whole year. We think that these innovative plantlet production and wintering methods which are suitable for large-scale use will make Virginia fanpetals a proper feedstock for the constant supply of the Biomass Supply Chain both in Hungary and in European countries which are in the same climate zone. The comparative analysis of the costs of this procedure calls for further research.
Apple is the most important fruit in Hungary, despite of that, it is a paradox that during the last years, apple growing was the most unsuccessful enterprise among the prosperous ones in the country. The real cause of regression was unequivocally the low price, which could be obtained and the inadequate structure of apple varieties. A heavy problem is still the overweight of the quality doomed to supplying the processing industry instead to the fresh consumption. In order to improve the conditions, we aimed the economic analysis of the five year long period, 2005-2009, to trace the changes involving values and costs of production, income and all conditions combined with this activity. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of that branch in economics.
This study focuses on the business management-related advantages and disadvantages of sea buckthorn production and processing based on economic analyses. It is the main objective of the authors to identify the expected economic findings in a high standard plantation with different average yields. A deterministic model calculation was performed on the basis of technological processes, using the primary data collected from enterprises dealing with sea buckthorn production. The calculation is based on the assumption of a 10 hectare plantation with intensive production technology (high soil quality (golden crown value: 32 GC per ha), irrigation, high plant density per hectare). The cost and income relations and the long-term return of the plantation were examined in the case of different average yields (12 t ha-1, 18 t ha-1 and 24 t ha-1). Under the economic circumstances of 2016, the planting cost of an intensive plantation is around 4-4.1 million HUF ha-1. In the years following the fruit-bearing stage, direct production costs are between 2.5-3.9 million HUF ha-1, depending on the given average yield. On the contrary, 5.6-11.1 million HUF ha-1 revenue can be reached based on the current market prices, resulting in a gross margin of 3.1-7.1 million HUF ha-1. Under the modelled circumstances, return is realised on the plantation’s costs in 6-8 years. The net present value (NPVr=3.24%) calculated for the 15-year-long life cycle of the 10-hectare plantation is between 151-466 million HUF, while the internal rate of return (IRR) is between 23-45%. From the business management aspect, the advantage of sea buckthorn production is that it provides better income and return at a planting cost which is similar to that of other small fruits and berries. At the same time, the disadvantage of sea buckthorn production is the fact that yields are harvested every two years due to the technological characteristics of harvesting. The negative impact of this bi-yearly yield on liquidity can be eliminated with the so-called delayed planting.
We have viewed a business in the south of the Great Plain Region from an economic point of view in 2004-2005. The main activity there is pear growing and storage. Four varieties of different time of ripening and storing are grown there. We have measured all the relevant activities, worked out a local normative and prepared a detailed technology. The economic evaluation was based on this data. Activities, like disinfection, pre-storage disinfection and selection, in-storing and out-storing, classification after storage, packaging, as well as loading trucks, were monitored by variety. Storage loss was determined and widely varied according to varieties, length of storage and time of out-storing. Different varieties resulted in different quality classes after storage. Price depended on the quality classes. Economic evaluation was carried out when all the relevant costs and revenues were known. Fixed and variable costs of storage were determined, break-even point was calculate and the market position of the product was evaluated.
Total investment costs of an up to date apricot plantation requires about 5000 thousand HUF/ha. Modern
plantations yield under normal conditions 15–20 t/ha with 80% quality for fresh consumption. Consequently, taking the life span of a plantation (15 years), the internal rate of return of 15–17% per year (IRR), that means that the costs of investment will be regained in the 9–10th year, which is considered to be satisfactory. However, weather hazards (frost, hail) may occur at a probability of 20–25%, therefore, maintaining the quality (80% for fresh consumption) and yields (15–20 t/ha) are badly needed to speak about rentability. This level of yields maintains the option of feasibility up to 20–25% losses.
Our main objective in this present study is to evaluate the profitability and efficiency of sour cherry production by a complex economic analysis of its technological process. We concluded that the per kilogram prime costs range between 80 to 90 HUF/kg in case of sour cherry for industrial purposes. On this basis, it is clear that the 50 to 90 HUF/kg regular selling prices of previous years do not make profitable production possible. Under the present market conditions even considering per hectare average yields of 10 to 15 tons the establishment of sour cherry orchards is not economical, the internal rate of return is below the interests of money-market and the recovery will not be happened even during the whole life-time of the orchard. In this way the domestic enterprises should not only raise the yields but realize technological changes (e.g. mechanic harvesting) in order to decrease the production costs in a significant way and to maintain a profitable sour cherry production. It is expected that the enterprise farming on great land (several ten hectares), being settled for mechanic harvesting (subordinating everything to this), reaching yields of 15 to 20 tons per hectare, producing on high technological and input levels, having specialized knowledge will stay on the sour cherry market far in the future.
In Hungary, natural conditions are optimal for growing plums. In spite of that, plum production was not a successful business in the past years. The reasons of it are, first of all, the utter fluctuation of yields and of the producer’s prices, increment of direct costs of production, dwindling incomes and uncertainties on the market. Serious problems are caused by the high rate of aged plantations, which are not counterbalanced by new plantings. Decisive is the “loose” ranging of the branch by the Union regarding plum production, which is expected for the sake of enlarging production and markets. Our aims are to analyse the management of the eight-year-long period, 2002-2009, and the fate of components of husbandry. The results presented are means of an utterly heterogeneous population of enterprises, being hardly suitable to make actual decisions, but they may enlighten upon challenges and recognise tendencies within the branch.
Being competitive is a goal all over in the EU. Competition is free and getting closer among the competitors of the apple industry. In Hungary, one of the most important issues of apple industry has been what are the prospects for aged plantations, which account for 50% of crop land. Based on our results, 80% of those apple plantations on the down-grade yielding apple, the ones only for processing, do not meet the criteria of competitive production. For those plantations in better shape that yield 30-40 t/ha, of which at least 20-30% are for fresh production, it can he profitable. Because of the future trend in technology and economy, however, even the latter ones can not be considered being competitive in the long run.
Success of apple production is highly influenced by the applied production system and the planted cultivar. In this paper growing characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were studied in integrated and organic production systems. These kind of parameters are less studied in the cultivar and training system examinations, although they have huge effect on the training and maintaining of canopy, on the pruning necessity, ultimately on the production costs. According to our results the thickness of the central axis of apple trees showed significant differences between the integrated and the organic systems. Axis of the trees with lower trunk thickness tapers more slightly in the integrated production system, than in the case of the trees with thicker trunk in the organic system. Thicker axis is not accompanied by thicker trunk, namely the thickness of the central leader starts to decrease stronger in the organic production system, compared to the integrated one.
In our research using primary data sources we are searching for satisfactory evidences, that the impressive economical growth of China has a strong impact on Chinese grape and wine production, wine market. However grape cultivation has long tradition in China, modem grape wine and wine production has only started 20 years ago. During my research I have collected the very rare and unreliable information on this theme to make a picture of Chinese grape and wine production. Using primary sources describe the present situation of Chinese grape industry, verify the supposition that the rise of Chinese grape crop land includes the growth of the total size of wine grape plantations. After this verification I make a comparative analysis of Chinese and Hungarian grape cultivation costs, to confirm, that grape and wine producing is a more requital activity in China than in Hungary.
In this study cost-profit analysis is carried out to up-to-date Hungarian sour cherry orchards. These orchards cover only 1 to 3 thousand hectares from the sour cherry territory of 16 thousand hectares. In a many-year-average a yield of 15 tons per hectare may be reached in up-to-date sour cherry orchards cultivated under high standard conditions. Per hectare direct production costs take up of approximately 1000 thousand HUF, from which the major portion (60%) is accounted for the personal cost of harvesting. Regarding the above mentioned average yield and a selling price of 100 HUF per kilogram a revenue of 1 500 thousand HUF may be realized, which results in a per hectare contribution of 500 thousand HUF. To sum up, regarding the present extremely unfavourable selling price only reaching an average yield of 15 to 20 tons per hectare may lead to appropriate profit.
Experiments are going on all over the world assisting the joint effort of researchers and practicing specialists to identify the methods which can help either in the reduction of production costs or in the increase of yields.
The task of the growers is to make profitable use of the forcing facilities and to satisfy market demands at an acceptable price by means of improving production technology and applying new scientific, technological and technical information.
For the last few years, rockwool based forcing has been gaining in importance. The subject of our scientific work was the analysis of an important question of this technological variant, the selection of the variety. Besides, we also tried to identify the most suitable pruning technology for the varieties studied.
In Hungary, the highest demand is commonly known to be for the light yellow fleshed varieties which are suitable for stuffed dishes. In the future, due to their special quality and appearance, as well as to the Hungaricum character, they could become important export goods on the European Union market. It was within this variety type that comparison between varieties already common in production (HO F1, HRF F1, Danubia F1) was carried out, trying to get an answer to the question which of the three varieties could be produced with the greatest success. Considering the quantitative and qualitative indicators, it was H6 F1 that proved the best out of the three varieties tested under unheated forcing on rockwool. It excelled the other two varieties both in quality and in average fruit weight, preserving this advantage until the end of the growing period.
Hungary was considered as one of the most significant raspberry producers in the 1980’ies. The acreage and the produced quantity, however, reflected a decreasing tendency during the past two decades: the 7 000 hectares existing in the year of 1990 reduced to 1 500 hectares, the current territory does not reach the 500 hectares. The annual yield is only 1 to 3 thousand tons. The level of domestic fresh consumption is very low, due to the fact that it is a relatively expensive fruit for Hungarian consumers. The requirement of the processing industry is satisfied by raspberries from mainly Polish and Serbian import. These two countries belong to the biggest raspberry producing countries in the world by producing raspberries of more than 50 thousand tons. Comparing to the Hungarian production costs and yields they are able to transport their products here at a very low price, consequently they hold the prices at a low level. The profitability of the domestic raspberry production is rather unfavourable, production often shows a deficit even in orchards of good standard; furthermore the lack of labour causes an extremely great difficulty, which is an important component of the decline of the production independently from cost conditions.
In this study I investigated the cost and profit conditions and the efficiency of intensive, qualitative apple production on the basis of a data collection carried out in ventures of high standard production. I concluded that the intensive apple production has an extremely high cost requirement, the production costs are approximately 1500 to 1600 thousand HUF per hectare. In an average case, a production value of 2000 thousand HUF per hectare may be reached, which may fluctuate in a wide interval during the years. Considering the above mentioned, a net profit of 400 to 500 thousand HUF may be realized in one hectare. It should be highlighted that regarding the present marketing conditions, realizing the appropriate profit may be expected only by producing 30 to 40 tons per hectare yields and 80 to 90% food quality ratio.
The situation of the horticulture sectors have been in the limelight of the professional and economic decision makers all over Europe. This article analyses the situation of the sector from economic point of view and reveals the main reasons of its low income and high risk. It concludes that one of the biggest problems is the trading uncertainty in the vegetable and fruit sector that is caused by the asymmetric market structure of the post-regime era. Since sizes of vegetable and fruit plantations do not allow producers to supply individually the extremely concentrated food retail trade or the processing trade they must find alternative ways for trading their products. The study introduces two alternative solutions. One alternative is foundation of modern multi-level producer co-operatives with the help of EU subsidies. Secondary and tertiary co-operatives may achieve better market position and lower trading price risk with managing production, professional marketing, and improving the information flow. The other alternative is searching for new trading channels such as local provision, restructuring of local markets, and direct trade (home delivery and pick-it-yourself programmes). The shorter producer-consumer distance means better quality at lower price for customers and income in the case of smaller amount of products for producers. It is concluded that both solutions together or separately may help individual producers in their trading problems. However, whichever way they choose, producers must co-operate.
In the recent years, several disease-resistant apple varieties appeared through the modern breeding technologies. These varieties can be grown with low usage of pesticides, which mean not only environment friendly fruit growing, but the production costs are also lower. In Eastern-Hungary — it is one of the main apple growing regions — a new apple growing structure started to form by the investment of the German Wink Ltd. — several resistant apple varieties were brought from Germany. 'Resistant' refers genetic resistance that usually transferred from the genome of wild apple species. But the fruit of these apple species is not only resistant to diseases, but its quality is poorer, too. In Germany the Re-apples are grown only for the processing industry. Due to climatic circumstances in Eastern Hungary, the first experiences showed better parameters during laboratory measurement, the fruits have more beautiful view, shape and inner characters than usual industrial apples.
In our paper we discuss the results of sensory (consumer) tests, carried out in Eastern Hungary and in the Budapest-region the data analysis of systematic storing experiments (refraction, flesh firmness, weight loss, etc.) and profile analysis of fresh and stored Re-apples. (In the profile analysis the ProfiSens software [4,5] has been used.)
In vitro shoot multiplication responses of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ were studied on media solidifi ed with different gelling agents. The media were gelled either with 6.8 g l-1 fi brous agar-agar, or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch, or 20.0 g l-1 Guar gum, or 15 g l-1 Isubgol or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch mixed with 0.5 g l-1 Phytagel. Shoot cultures were grown for two months, thereafter the multiplication rates (number of newly developed shoots per explant) were counted and the length of shoots were measured. We found that the highest shoot multiplication of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ occurred on media gelled with Guar gum, while the longest shoots developed on media with Starch. About four-fold shoot number were obtained on media with Guar gum compared to the weakest results found on media gelled with Isubgol. Finally, considering all factors (shoot growth parameters, costs) the most economical gelling agent for Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ was proved to be wheat starch among the tested alternatives which allows a 75.6% cost reduction.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production. Experiments have been conducted with the purpose of estimate the amount of nutrients involved. According to the results, as a mean, 30-80 per cent of the main nutrients was utilised. The rate of nutrient utilisation is influenced by the plant species involved as well as by the circumstances of production. One of its most important components is the irrigation, which determines the amount of overflow and of its salt content.
Hungary is a country with excellent ecological potentials and with rich traditions in vegetable production. The total vegetable production area comprises about 100 000 ha and annual production amounts to 1.4-1.8 million tons, 75-80% comes from fields and the rest from forcing. Approximately 40 species are produced, but only 20 of them play a dominant role. The most important ones arc: sweet corn, peas, peppers, watermelon, onions, tomatoes, gherkin, carrots, beans, white cabbage.
40-45% of the total production is processed, 20-30% sold on the fresh market and 30% exported.
Vegetable production is based on rural farms of 1-5 ha average acreage. It provides living for about 70-100 000 families. The low number of producers' organisations is a major setback.
Profitability of vegetable production is rather low. Production costs are high, wholesale prices are depressed.
Vegetables are produced for the industry by contract. Fresh vegetables are sold through local markets (15-20%), the wholesale market (decreasing importance) and direct marketing (35-40%).
Against the self-sufficiency of the country there is a seasonal import of vegetables mainly in winter and early springtime.
Hungarian legal regulations are harmonized with the EU directives, EU standards are accepted and applied, traditionally good market connections and cooperation with several EU countries enable the country to be a partner of EU vegetable growers.
Biological active compounds and valuable characteristics of some apple varieties and candidates were measured in our trials. Fruits of ’Rosmerta’, ’Hesztia’, ’Cordelia’ and ’Artemisz’ are recommended to enrich the Hungarian assortments for fresh consumption and choice of new tastes. Based on examined parameters it can be assumed that novel Hungarian resistant varieties are suitable for juice and fruit concentrate production, and due to high pectin content of their remaining pomace these varieties can be raw material of pectin production as well as they are also suitable for jam production mixed with other fruit species. Furthermore, functional food industrial product having high quality can be produced by using novel resistant varieties because of their high pectin and polyphenol content. Beside of their high market value their suitability for growing among orchard conditions is confi rmed by lower costs of production because of less plant protection treatments.
Despite of its importance there is no exact information on water use of new scion/rootstock composite trees, which would be needed to optimized irrigation. Our research purpose is to define exact water-demand of different rootstock/scion composite trees, calculating seasonal weather changes and by using the results decrease irrigation costs. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár, at the Experimental Farm of Corvinus University of Budapest in May 2008. From among the investigated trees two are budded onto Prunus mahuleb `Érdi V' seedlings, two on "Korponay' seedlings. The sapflow measurements are carried out using Dynamax Flow 32 equipment with Dynagage trunk sensors. The first daily maximum of sapflow was around 10:00 a.m. (2.5 kghour I), the second maximum was always between 14:00-15:00 p.m. (2 kgday- I). Comparing to the very intensive morning water uptake by 20:00 p.m. the water flow slowly reached the minimal level. Significant differences can be seen on rootstocks: trees on `Korponay' rootstock always showed more intensive sapflow and a higher morning peak than trees on `Árdi V'. But later during the day they have the same run.Based on our results the water quantity transpired only by the trees reached in May 86-104 mm, while the precipitation was only 42.4 mm. This means a 40-60 mm deficit in the orchard, which should have been supplied by irrigation despite of the satisfying horticultural performance of the orchard. In the first half of the month beside the steady vapor pressure deficit the shoot and leaf surface growth could cause the increased sapflow.