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Irrigation Requirements for Grape Crop under Climate Changes Conditions in Egypt
Published March 3, 2013
23-27.

The present work is mainly directed to discuss sensitivity of climate changes upon the irrigation demand for grape crop in Egypt. The Penman Monteith equation was used to calculate reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) under current and future climate for the two locations (El Menya and El Beheira). The historical climate data for ten years from (...2000 – 2010) was used as current climate to calculate irrigation requirement for grape crop under Egyptian conditions. Two climate changes scenarios have been applied as changes in temperature. The first scenario supposed that increasing in temperature of 1.5°C would happen, and the second scenario supposed that increasing of 3.5°C would happen to calculate reference Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for future climate. The results showed that the evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for grape crop at El Menya location higher than El Beheira location. Irrigation demand for grape plant under two climate changes scenario will increase in El Menya and El Beheira locations. El Menya location will take the highest irrigation demand under climate changes. Therefore, possible adaptation countermeasures should be developed to mitigate the negative effects of climate changes for the sustainable development of agro-ecosystems in Egypt.

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Prevention and protection technologies – How do the growers get ready for climate change?
Published December 4, 2011
67-69.

Within the sector of fruit growing, climate change related tasks cover a rather wide range of activities. According to what is claimed by the literature, all decisions impacting the sector should be made conformably with climate change in order to advance an increase in yield security. This, regardless of the impacts of climate change, is also ...one of the key questions in fruit growing. Regarding protection against extreme weather events, in addition to technological and technical elements, the level of importance assumed by farmers for the abovementioned protection techniques as well as the type and extent they intend to use of this in practice are also worth of studying. This ongoing research beginning in 2009 mainly focuses on studying the opinions of fruit farmers making up the target group for this analysis. The questionnaire survey primarily intends to study their knowledge on the definition of climate change as reactivity to unfavourable weather events occurring in the growing. The study aims at providing a realistic view on the fruit-farmers’ knowledge on climate change and on how technological elements, new technical solutions applicable to mitigate damage are used during production.

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Results in the valuation of some balcony plants Hungary
Published May 18, 2005
73-77.

Three varieties of different species of annual bedding and balcony plants were examined in balcony boxes in three different places (Budapest, Solymár-Kerekhegy, Tázlár) in order to determine their tolerance to different climate conditions. The experiment proved that Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa 'Savaria' and Dichond...ra repens J. R. Forst. et G. Forst 'Silver Falls' tolerate well the Hungarian extremely dry, hot and changing climate. Nemesia Vent. 'Blue Bird' developed and flowered well only in cooler and protected conditions; therefore, this species can be offered to a more balanced climate as the western areas of Hungary and the mountains.

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Water relations of sour cherries (minireview)
Published September 19, 2007
103-107.

Recently, the sour cherries as food resources become more important for health preservation and so the modernization of growing technology in sour cherry production will be timely. The global warming and inadequate distribution of precipitation result a decrease in the alternancy of sour cherry production, as well. Sour cherries rather adapted ...to survival of drought than sweet cherry trees therefore a few studies performed to explore the water requirement of sour cherry varieties. The rootstocks, the type of soils in plantation and the water balance influence the water management of sour cherries. In orchards, in particular first year plantation, use of various row covering contribute to preservation of the natural water pool of soil and affect on the tree vigor, yield and fruit quality. Wide-spread application of integrated fruit growing technology and climate changes the researches are pointed to develop efficient irrigation technology based on transpiration yield model. The crop model based on use of meteorological data was developed for cherry orchards in order to predict transpiration of trees, dry matter production and fruit yield. The linear relationship between dry matter accumulation and transpiration was verified for sour cherry trees. Other models essay to asses the effects of climate changes on crop production. Importance of economical production and fruit quality such as ingredients of raw materials and food increases in intensive sour cherry orchards used by irrigation techniques. Because of climate changes it should more pay attention to research concerning on the stress physiological response of sour cherry varieties and post-harvest fruit quality.

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Sustainable food production with greenhouse technologies
Published September 7, 2014
99-105.

The greenhouse fruit and vegetable production is one important area which supports sustainability. To achieve
sustainable economy and growth, the given natural resources have to be used in a smarter, renewable way in order to avoid
depleting them. New technologies and new methods are developed and implemented to utilize resources in more ...optimized way.
Sustainable food supply is essential globally for the world, however it has to be managed and achieved on local levels. We present
the greenhouse production market restructuring with new players. What kind of difficulties arise in the open field vegetable
production and what benefits can be realized by the customers and producers from the covered greenhouse technology in the
continental and desert climate? What are the technical boundary conditions to establish and operate greenhouse production in
different regions and what are the benefits realized from local food production? As an example, we analyse Qatar’s energetics,
climate conditions and food resources, Qatar’s food supply process and its barriers. We will show how the sustainability and
food safety appear in Qatar’s National Strategy Plan.

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Effect of dry and wet years on primary inoculum source, incubation period and conidial production of Venturia inaequalis
Published October 11, 2005
53-58.

The present study focuses on the characteristics of epidemics caused by the selected model-pathogen, Venturia inaequalis in relation to weather elements, with special respect to the increasing or decreasing effects of the specific weather elements. First, those weather elements are discussed which have a role in the development of scab... epidemics. Subsequently, by accepting the thesis that climate change includes also weather extremes, an extremely hot and dry year (2003) and a colder year of higher than average precipitation (2004) were chosen as models. The presented examples verified that the variability of weather elements had had an undoubtable effect on the development of epidemics. The variability of weather elements manifests in the unusual behaviour of the pathogen, resulting in no or extreme disease epidemics. The extremities are well demonstrated by the fact, that in a year of drought an efficient protection can be achieved by considerably less applications than average, while in the next rainy year, the susceptible cultivar cannot be protected effectively even with such a high number of applications as is usual under humid Western-European climate conditions. It can also be noted, that the pathogen has a very good adaptability under unfavourable weather conditions. Consequently, more efficient management strategies should be developed for protection against the effects of extremities. However, it should be emphasized that it is very difficult to adapt to the variability and extremities of weather in the practice, because no long-term, accurate and reliable information is available about the variability of these elements.

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Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry
Published August 16, 2010
49-52.

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

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Climate change effect on sour cherry production in Central Hungary
Published July 2, 2016
61-66.

Consideration of the soil and climatic conditions and their expected changes is very important in planning of new orchards. This research focuses on the expected climatic conditions and opportunities of sour cherry production in Central Hungary in the periods of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100, compared to the base period of 1961–1990. Results sh...ow that in the near future the expected changes are mostly favourable for sour cherry production, the utility values are increasing in most of the subregions. By the end of the century the utility values show further increase in the formerly colder subregions. However, in some subregions the utility values slightly decrease because of the appearance of the extreme dry and warm year types, though their values remain at the level of the base period or even higher.

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Adaptation of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries II. General characteristics, Hungarian experiences and possibilities
Published September 11, 2001
5-11.

The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temper...ate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.

For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.

To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.

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Comparison of frost damages in apple plantations cultivated with environmental friendly growing technology
Published August 16, 2010
21-24.

The global changes in climate and meteorological conditions have many negative consequences, which may diminished with adequate measures. In our continental climate, the winter frosts but also the late spring frosts are always threatening. There are technologies to avoid late frost damages (with spray irrigation or with smoking), but against wi...nter minima, we are nearly helpless. The different damages experienced recently called our attention on the question of optimal condition, which is a delicate balance between the vegetative activity and the provision of nutrients. The excesses on both ends are increasing the danger of damages (Zatykó, 1980). Our examination was performed in the plantation, which was cultivated according to ecological and integrated technologies. The variable condition of the trees gave opportunity to evaluate the effects of cold temperatures as frost damages. Our results will represent not only the differences between varieties but also the effects of the growing technologies – which influence the condition of the plants – consequently, the measure of frost damages.

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Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) from ornamental plant to dedicated bioenergy species: review of economic prospects of biomass production and utilization
Published June 10, 2018
39-46.

Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial, herbaceous grass, it has been spread all over the world from continent to tropical conditions by human activities. In continental climate, especially Hungary, it has been considered as ornamental species, due to its decorative appearance, striped variants’ colour of leaves, long growing season and ...low maintenance requirements. It does not produced viable seeds, so it can be propagated vegetative ways by rhizomes or stem cuttings and by in vitro biotechnology methods. Because of its growth habits and good adaptation capability, it has been considered invasive weed primarily in coastal regions in warmer climate areas. In the previous century, giant reed produced for paper/cellulose/viscose production, woodwind musical instruments, stakes for plants or fishing rods etc. Over the last few decades, it has been produced for bioenergy purposes (bioethanol, biogas, direct combustion) or utilize as chemical basic compounds or construction materials. It has been considered a dedicated promising biomass crops thanks to high biomass production, high energy balance of cultivation and adaptability of different kind of soils and conditions. The objective of the present paper is to overview the most significance literature data on giant reed production and utilization, compare to own experimental data and economic calculations and to determine some critical factors, advantages and disadvantages of giant reed production compare to other biomass species.

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Adaption of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries (Review Article)
Published March 21, 2001
7-11.

Adaption of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries (Review Article)

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Results of cherry rootstock evaluations in Hungary
Published December 8, 2008
11-14.

The paper gives a review on the results of the latest rootstock evaluation projects in Hungary. Several cherry rootstock evaluation projects were carried out in Hungary during the last two decades. The evaluated rootstocks are partly mahalebs selected in Hungary, but more or less all the most important new rootstocks from different countries ar...e involved. The aim of these evaluation projects was to find appropriate rootstocks in a wide range of vigour for our climate and soil conditions. The conclusion of the last 20 years of research in Hungary proved just the opposite of believes, that high density orchard can only be planted with dwarfing rootstocks. Before choosing the right rootstock the most important is to consider adaptability, precocity and productivity. Dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstocks showed proper results only with irrigation or very good site conditions. These rootstocks are very precocious, but branches form easily blindwood. This must be corrected by severe pruning in the first years. The relatively small leaf surface area can also be disadvantageous, but it can be controlled by pruning, fruit-thinning, irrigation and fertilization. After studying different rootstocks semi-vigorous rootstocks seem to be the most adequate for different site conditions in Hungary. Fast initial growing and competent precocity are their favourable characters. From the vigorous group of clonal mahalebs or seedlings are highly recommended first of all for poor site condition (sandy, lime soils with high pH). They turn to bearing early and easy to find them in the Hungarian nurseries. But on vigorous rootstocks trees might need stronger summer pruning.

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Climate change impacts and product lines
Published January 3, 2010
79-83.

This paper summarizes the main effects of extreme weather events on agricultural production and demonstrates their economic consequences. For cost-benefit analysis of economic impacts and for determination of risk levels simulation models are needed that contains the relationship between product line levels and elements. WIN-SIM model is develo...ped for this goal, specialized for wine production. The model is suitable to analyze the market share, the cost and income relations as well as the relation structure of the product lines. The four levels of the model (site, vine growing, wine production and wine market levels) have individual values added from the aspect of end product, where the product line sets out from the site level and gets through the levels up to the consumer segments. Theoretically, all elements can be connected to any element of the next level and sublevel, but there are “prohibited contacts” because of professional, regulation or production practice reasons.

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Chemical characteristics of nectarine genitors used for breeding program in Romania
Published August 14, 2002
41-43.

The geographic location of Bucharest area, the nature of its soil and its climate offer remarkably favourable conditions for nectarine growing, with juicy and well flavoured fruit, good for fresh consumption and processing.

The five years' investigation (1996-2000) has helped to identify some nectarine cultivars and hybrids (NJN 58, ARK... 165, ARK 139, Morton, ARK 107, Romamer I, ARK 125, Firebrite) with exceptional fruit quality (dry matter content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, overall sugar, and amount of pectic substances).

Dry matter content varied over the three years from 8.3 to 18.5% (NJN 68), meanwhile titratable acidity varied between 0.26 and 1.08% (Romamer I). Sugar / acidity ratio was within the limits of 8.6 and 36.5 (Nectared 7). Nectarines have high vitamin C content, over 10 mg/100g (Fairlane, NJN 67, Regina, Harko), glucides were found in Firebrite, Romamer I varieties and NJN 21, CIR1T127, HFSR3P4, HNA hybrids.

Some cultivars have been recommended for planting in this southern area of Romania (Crimsongold, ARK 125, Harko, Hardyred, ARK 134), others used as quality genitors (ARK 85, Nectared 7, NJN 21, ARK 21, ARK 134, Fantasia) in breeding projects.

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Climatic indicator analysis of blooming time for sour cherries
Published January 3, 2010
11-16.

County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry grown in Hungary. Successful production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during the blooming period, being most decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict y...ields expected, the characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phonological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. Data of 7 indicators have been traced: number of frosty days, the absolute minimum temperatures, means of minimum temperatures, number of days when daily means were above 10°C, means of maximum temperatures, number of days without precipitation, and number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades. The indicators being associated with certain risky events may serve for the prediction of the future recommendations to prevent damages.

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Innovative research of ornamental plants in University of Debrecen (2001–2014)
Published September 7, 2014
111-117.

In the University of Debrecen started in 2001 related and biotechnology, genetic researches on climate-changerelated.
This work has already visible signs on the city’s public spaces. The main goal of participants of the program is it that
in Debrecen and in the surrounding communities more adaptable to the variable climate, ecologically... and biologically more
grounded urban ornamental planting are preferred in the next decade. The new results and ongoing researches of the decorative
ornamental and biomass plants are an interdisciplinary breeding program.

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Genetic variation in the rose pathogen Marssonina rosae estimated by RAPD
Published February 8, 2006
63-67.

Blackspot, caused by the fungus Marssonina rosae (Diplocarpon msae), is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases in garden roses, and it has as yet not been fully characterized in molecular terms. In this initial study we used RAPD analysis to investigate the genetic diversity among and within a few geographically diverse gr...oups of single-spore isolates of M. rosae. DNA was extracted from in vitro­grown mycelia of 1 I single spore isolates grown on PDA medium. High levels of polymorphism were detected among the isolates. They clustered into three distinct groups: Group !consisted of isolates from eastern North America plus a European isolate (Germany), Group 2 included isolates from southern Sweden, and Group 3 included the isolates from Manitoba, Canada. The greater similarity of the environmental conditions in eastern North America and Europe as compared to the Canadian prairies suggest that. climate and weather could be key factors in influencing the potential race structure of M. rosae. However, variations among closely situated sites, e.g. southern Sweden, also occurred.

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The examination of the broadleaf evergreen ornamental shrub species in Keszthely
Published September 6, 2010
27-30.

The examination of production possibilities of woody ornamental shrubs (originating from warmer regions than our country) commenced with the financial support of the INTERREG IIIA Slovenia – Hungary – Croatia programme at the Department of Horticulture of the University of Pannonia’s Georgikon Faculty in spring 2007. Our examinations focu...sed on the appearance of species in our country as well as on their frost resistance abilities. The species participating in the experiment are as follows: Abelia grandiflora, Aucuba japonica ’Rozzanie’, Calycanthus floridus, Cotoneaster franchettii, Elaeagnus pungens ’MaculataAurea’, Ilex cornuta, Ligustrum sinense, Ligustrum texanum, Nandina domestica, Osmanthus heterophyllus, Perovskia atriplicifolia, Phyllyrea angustifolia, Photinia fraseri ’Red Robin’, Prunus lusitanica, Sarcococca hoockeriana, Spartium junceum, Teucrium fruticans, Viburnum cinnamonifolium, Viburnum tinus.

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Influence of abiotic factors on the green mass and seed productivity of the raw material of Levisticum оfficinalе c. Koch in the conditions of Transcarpathia
Published July 29, 2019
46-51.

For the wide implementation of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch in Transcarpathia into production it is necessary to widen its sort composition, as it is rather poor in Ukraine. Solving this problem is possible by enriching the source material with the samples of different ecological and/or geographical origin, by studying the influence ...of abiotic factors on the formation of green mass and seed productivity, separating the specimens best adapted to the conditions of growing, involving them into the selection process and creating new, highly productive sorts on this basis. The scientists of the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station (TSAES) conducted researches (during 2011-2016) on the adaptive potential of the source material of the type of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch, which counts seven samples (Ukraine – 5 samples, Poland – 1, and Romania – 1), the selection work on creating new varieties for the given region is being done. The investigations were made on soddy podzolic gleyed low-humus soils with low content of nutrients. The results were obtained on the basis of generally accepted methods of investigation, i.e.: laboratory, field, visual, measuring-weighing, biochemical, mathematically statistic, and comparative-calculating. In the conditions of Transcarpathia the spicy greens of the high quality L. officinalе C. Koch are being gathered on days 25-30, the output of the essential oil makes up from 0.72 tо 1.89% on c.d.s., depending on the climate conditions of growing. The plants pass through all the stages of development, the bush is 55.4 to 92.7 сm in height, the plants form a big amount of rosette-shaped stems (11-34 pieces), the productivity of spicy greens is between 9.9 and 42.1 t hа1. The scientists of TSAES created the following sorts – Mriya (А. с. 06131 Ukraine, first registered in the State register of plant varieties of Ukraine) and Coral (Pat. on the variety № 140830). Economic effect from growing of the Coral variety in the conditions of Transcarpathia is 10230 UAH/ha and the level of profitability is 28.4%. The geographic position and agroclimatic conditions of Transcarpathia, as well as the unpretentiousness of L. officinalе C. Koch. tо the conditions of growing contribute to the enrichment of the local flora with useful plants; and the rich chemical composition contributes to the spread of this culture in the given region.

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Spatial and temporal variation of extremely low minimum temperatures in Hungary during the period between 1951 and 2010
Published July 26, 2012
75-80.

For this study, data of 16 meteorological stations have been processed over a period of 60 years with the purpose to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of the frequencies of absolute extreme minima in Hungary with special reference to the surmised global rise of temperatures on a worldwide scale. In the main areas of fruit growing, the m...onthly or seasonal absolute temperature maxima and minima are presented during the 60 year-long period and projected on the geographical map. For the main fruit- and vegetable growing regions the probability of winter- and late frosts is of prime interest. The time series of extreme temperatures though did not prove signifi cant changes over the period observed, but the information upon changes and their tendencies is a precious tool being utilised in planning, choice of adequate varieties for a longer period of time in the future. The deleterious winter frosts experienced in fruit production is not a consequence of a sole drop to a minimum temperature, but of an earlier period of mild temperatures during the winter, which sensibilised the trees. Frequent and extreme variations of temperatures may cause troubles at any time during the year and reduce the yields conspicuously. We ought to get familiar with the hazards of our climate and fi nd optimal solutions to mitigate the damages expected. The seasonal and monthly distribution projected on the geographical map we can follow up also the spatial relations and the signifi cance of their occurrence. Coeffi cients of variation between meteorological happenings at different localities facilitate the calculation of the probability of risks on the surrounding areas.

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Exotic woody plants inclining to escape in the Buda Arboretum under strong urban effect in Budapest
Published September 11, 2001
93-97.

The Buda Arboretum of the Szent István University is situated in the western-middle part of the city of Budapest. It contains 1640 taxa of woody plants on an area of 7.5 ha. The sheltered position and the urban micro- and meso-climate is favourable for warm-loving, even subtropical plants, of which many species not simply stay alive, but flowe...r, bear fruits and are spreading by seedlings in suitable spots. These instances call our attention to the possibilities that urban climate offers for landscapers, but also to over 110 species, which can be garden escapes in the future. Full list of plants, which tend to escape in the Arboretum is given in the paper.

 

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Comparative analysis of the production risk of major fruit species
Published September 2, 2009
119-122.

Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life.... The development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.

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Promising black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cultivars in Hungary
Published December 4, 2018
18-20.

In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important exotic stand-forming tree species, growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions. Considering the climate change effects its importance is increasing in many other countries. As a result of a selection programme, several black locust cult...ivars have been improved for setting up cultivar trials. In the paper four black locust cultivars were evaluated in Central Hungary under arid hydrological and brown forest soil conditions. Significant differences (P<5%) were found in height, DBH, mean tree volume and average stem form value (SFV).  At the age of 35 the cultivar ‘R.p. Jászkiséri’ appeared to be the most promising one for yield production and ‘R.p. Zalai’ for SFV.

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Development in intensive orchard systems of cherries in Hungary
Published September 19, 2007
76-86.

High density central leader systems, the so called "spindle trees" are spreading in intensive stone fruit orchards established for hand picking in Hungary. Results of Brunner (1972, 1990) and Zahn (1967, 1996) inspired the researchers to implement their theories into practice under our climate and special soil conditions. For ...sweet cherry it is essential to apply an orchard system appropriate for hand picking because of the European market requirements. In intensive sweet cherry orchards two new training and orchard systems are developed and adapted to environmental conditions in Hungary based on previous inventions. The first step of the development is represented by modified Brunner-spindle, which applies the delayed heading of the central leader and the sectorial-double-pruning system from Brunner (1972), resulting intensive orchard of 600-800 trees/ha density, planted on standard vigour rootstocks. Modified Brunner-spindle trees are developed with a central leader and wide-angled branches on it. Light bearing wood is positioned on the central leader and wide-angled branches. During training, shoots for branches are bent or a sectorial double pruning is used. The growth of central leader is reduced by delayed heading, and the strong upright shoots are pinched in summer. Based upon tree size spacing of 5 m between row and 2.5-3 m between trees is recommended, tree height is around 3.5-4 m. This training system is useful for hand-picking; 60-70% of the crop can be harvested from ground. Modified Brunner-spindle is suitable for either standard or moderate vigorous rootstocks. The cherry spindle is an intensive orchard planted with 1250-2300 trees per hectare and it is recommended for sweet and sour cherries on semi dwarf to vigorous rootstocks, depending on soil fertility and quality. Trees are 2.5-3.5 m high, 75-80% of the crop can be harvested from the ground. Permanent basal scaffolds are developed on the basis of the canopy to counteract the stronger terminal growth. The tree is headed only once, after planting, from the following year the central leader grows from the terminal bud. The central leader developed from the terminal bud results moderated growth in the upper parts of the tree head. The strong upright shoots that may develop below the terminal bud are pinched to 3-4 leaves in the summer or removed entirely. The weaker, almost horizontal shoots growing from the central leader form fruiting twigs in the following year if their terminal bud is not removed. Brunner's double pruning is used only once or twice on the permanent basal branches because of its good branching effect. Trials on various rootstocks are running to find optimum spacing and fruiting wood management. The training and pruning guidelines are discussed in the paper. The average crop of bearing years is around 20-30 t/ha depending on site and cultivars. This new system is spreading in Hungary, around 70 ha sweet and sour cherry orchards are trained according to our guidelines.

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