Vol 26 (2020)

Published July 29, 2020



Comparative analysis of peach and nectarine cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators

Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectar...ines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.

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Effect of N, P, K and Mg fertilizers on some vegetative and generative parameters of a sweet cherry cultivar

This two-year-study was aimed to provide results on the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium fertilizer treatments (control, NP, NPK, NPKMg) on vegetative and generative features of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Carmen’. Examinations were performed in an orchard planted in 2012 on Prunus mahaleb rootstock with spaci...ng of 5 x 2.5 m. All treatments improved the vegetative features of the sweet cherry trees in both years of 2016 and 2017. Fertilizer treated trees increased trunk cross section area (TCSA) with 51.3-63.1%, while control trees showed 48.3% trunk growth increase. Yields of control trees were lower in both years (5.9-7.2 kg/tree), than that of the fertilized trees (7.8-11.3 kg/tree). Treatments also increased the phosphorus (16-22%), magnesium (12-20%) and potassium content (3.5-18%) of the fruits compared to control treatments.

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Postharvest methyl jasmonic acid and hot water can reduce the internal breakdown and quality loss of apricot fruit at shelf life

The aim of this study was to investigate the postharvest effect of methyl jasmonic acid (MJ) and hot water on internal break-down and quality loss of apricot fruit under shelf life conditions. Cultivar Flavor cot apricot fruit were used to treat with water as control treatment, with 0.2 mmol/L MJ and with hot water 35 oC for 5 min. F...ruit were stored at room temperature and were examined every 2 days for internal break-down and quality loss. Results showed that treated fruits with MJ and hot water showed the lowest weight loss and the highest firmness during all assessment times. Control fruits showed losing of customer acceptance from the day 2 of shelf life and then decreased dramatically to approximately loss all the acceptance at day 8. The SSC showed sever reduction in untreated fruit after day 6 at shelf life. Total phenol content reduced and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) increased in all assessment times for all treatments. Meanwhile MJ showed the best values for phenol content and lowest PPO activity. The results supported the idea of using some elicitors like methyl jasmonic and hot water treatments to enhance shelf life of apricot fruit.

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Effect of postharvest sodium benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest sodium-benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars (’Topaz’ and ’Florina’). Assessments were made at three times during storage: 17 November 2019, 20 December 2019 and 23 January, 2020. During every assessment dates, each fruit was observed... separately, and determined the proportion of i) healthy fruits (%), ii) post-harvest fruit rot diseases iii) fruits with mechanical injury (%), iv) fruit with russetting (%), v) damage of codling moth and vi) Ca-deficiency symptoms. In addition, fruit weight (g) was measured at each assessment date. Sodium benzoate reduced the fruit decay and the proportion of healthy fruit was higher in this treatment compared to water treated fruit. This effect could be seen in all assessment dates and on both cultivars. Effects on other parameters were various according to cultivar and assessment dates. Loss of fruit weight was similar in both treatments and cultivars compared to control treatment.

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COVID-19 outbreak lockdown and its impacts on marketing of horticultural produces in Zimbabwe

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-2019) outbreak resulted to a global health problem. Lockdown was one of the common options suggested to curb the pandemic. Horticultural produces are perishable so delayed post-harvest marketing cause losses. This study aimed at evaluating the marketing of horticultural produces and farmers’ level of prepare...dness during the COVID-19 lockdown. A self-administered questionnaire was posted online from April 7 to May 7, 2020 the first month of COVID-19 lockdown in Zimbabwe (began on March 30, 2020). The study targeted horticultural farmers around Harare peri-urban and had 300 respondents. Data on sociodemographic, farmers’ behavior, awareness and attitude toward marketing and desire to minimize post-harvest losses was obtained. Frequency counts and percentages were determined. Chi-square tests on independent variables were done to test associations with demographics using SPSS version 8. There were significant (P<0.05) relations between awareness and attitude toward marketing, age and level of education. Demographic variable influenced the famers’ marketing behavior and attitude during COVID-19 lockdown. Most farmers reported highest (>35%) produce sale leftovers at the markets and spoilage during than prior the COVID-19 lockdown. The lockdown resulted to low sales and most farmers were unprepared for any crisis during the marketing stage of their production. The research contributed to an understanding of how a crisis situation influence marketing of horticultural produce and raises awareness regarding post-harvest losses. A qualitative study is recommended as a follow-up of this work.

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Growth and yield performance of garlic varieties under zero-tillage and tillage system

Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) developed four garlic variety viz., BAU Garlic-1; BAU Garlic-2; BAU Garlic-3; and BAU Garlic-4 were tested under two cultivation systems viz., zero-tillage and tillage to find out a suitable variety for zero-tillage system. This study was conducted following randomized complete block de...sign with three replicates. Results showed that planting system had significant influenced on growth, yield contributing traits and bulb yield of garlic. It was also observed that all the studied traits were higher in zero-tillage condition as compared to tillage system. There were significant variations noticed among the garlic varieties on plant growth and yield traits. However, in combination of planting system and variety, it was found that BAU Garlic-3 performed superior on plant growth and bulb yield of garlic under zero-tillage system. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that BAU Garlic-3 could be useful technology for cultivation of garlic in zero-tillage system.


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Assessment of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield components of two exotic okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) western urban of Sierra Leone

The experiment was conducted in an Inland Valley Swamp during the dry spell of 2017 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) three replications at the Kabala Horticultural Crops Research Centre (KHCRC) cropping site, Ogoo Farm of the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Freetown, Sierra Leone. Raised beds measuring... 5m x 1m (6 m2) with a 1m furrow between beds. Inter and intra row spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm with two rows per bed and two seeds per hills were directly sown. The treatments constituted NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 0, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha designated as T1, T2, T3 & Tand Two hybrids of okra were used as experimental materials obtained from Indo-American Hybrid Seed Company, India; Okra-WASA-HyOKR-1 and Okra-WASA-HyOKR-2. Seeds were treated with Thiram Poison for longevity. Result indicates T2 (25.2; 35.1 cm) and T4 (56.9 cm) treatments recorded tallest plant heights followed by T2 (24.0, 34.4 & 50.1 cm), while T1 (18.8, 28.4 & 33.3 cm) had the shortest plant heights at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting respectively. Similarly, T4 & T2 (38.9, 65.5 & 44.8 cm) exhibited the largest SG and T1 (21.7, 33.0 & 52.0 cm) the least values at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting. While, the widest and narrowest LA at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting was observed in T3 (131.3, 135.0 & 158.5 cm2) and T1 (120.8, 121.8 & 128.1 cm2). With respect to yield and yield components, the longest (22.0 cm) and heaviest (112.7 g) fruit were recorded by T3 followed by T2 (19.1 cm & 101.3 g) with T1 having the shortest (11.7 cm) and lightest (52.3 g). The width of pod in T3 (31.2 cm) was greater than the rest of treatments and as usual, T1 indicated the least value (14.6 cm) respectively. The average NP produced plant-1 was shown by T2 & T3 (4.0) with the least of fruit produced by T1 (2.0). Also, 100 seed weight, T3 (106.7 g) weighted the highest followed by T2 (103.3 g), while T1 (60.3 g) accounted for the lowest seed weight. Conclusively, the two materials are adaptable to the climatic conditions of Sierra Leone (Western area). Hence further evaluation required across vegetable growing zones.

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Rheological evaluation of industrial tomato in raw and processed condition

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the second most important vegetable with one of the biggest producing areas worldwide, and an increasing tendency in Hungary as well. To fulfil the growing demands of the industry the producers must use the most suitable genotypes for the given conditions. In the experiment six genotypes (‘He...inz 1015 F1‘,‘Heinz 9478 F1‘,‘Kecskeméti 407‘,‘NUN254 F1‘,‘Prestomech F1‘ and ‘Rustico F1‘) were evaluated for different quality parameters: fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (g cm-2), force needed to tear the skin (kg-1) and consistency of tomato puree (g*sec). According to the results, the ‘Heinz 1015 F1‘ and ‘Heinz 9478 F1‘ were the most suitable genotypes for industrial processing in the mean of fruit quality. Strong positive correlation between consistency of juice and fruit shape index (r=0.891) and firmness of berry (r=0.882) was confirmed. The results have proved the necessity of these quality parameter measurements, which are important for the evaluation of raw material.

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Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary

Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limit...ed knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

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Book review: Little Hungarian Fruit Growing

There is a part in the history of agriculture that deals with all the past issues of fruit growing, which also deals with the material and intellectual values of fruit species. Just as history is a science, so historical fruit-growing works in so many ways, so does frontier science…

Presumably, different issues are important to today...s fruit growers than those dealing with the past and historicity of fruit growing. The distinction between historical fruit production and the history of fruit production is justified because of differences in aims and methods. However, examining and explaining certain issues can yield economically useful results.

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