Published September 2, 2009

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7-10.
Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars and ...selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.
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11-16.
Results of our experiments prove that pear is more or less sensitive to the reduced bee pollination period. However, the reaction (or the sensitivity) of cultivars may be different to the reduced bee pollination. Most cultivars produce much less yield under reduced bee pollination or no yield with the exclusion of bees but in the case of some cult...ivars total exclusion of bees does not prevent the yield formation and what is more sometimes reduced bee pollination can be resulted in somewhat higher yield than open pollination. Typical reaction, however, is a significant yield reduction with reduced bee pollination. Pear seems to be somewhat less sensitive to the partial reduction of bee pollination period than apple or quince. The first half of the flowering period seems to be more important in yield formation because usually higher yield was resulted when pear cultivars received open pollination in the first than in the second half of the blooming period. Based on our experimental results no definite relationship between parthenocarpic capacity of cultivars and the yield under reduced bee pollination can be established. So reduced bee pollination does not seem to contribute the parthenocarpic fruit formation in pear.
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17-23.
The aim of our research was to identify the role of weather parameters in the development of the start date and length of blooming. In order to achieve this, we examined how meteorological conditions of a particular year influence the start date and length of blooming in different years (dry, wet, cool, hot, sunny, cloudy). The meteorological para...meters were the following: maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, precipitation, length of sunlight, difference of daytime and nightime temperatures, potential evaporation-PET, Huglin-index,Winkler-index, climatic water balance which can be calculated as a difference of precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study we wanted to find out whether early start of blooming results in a longer blooming period or if there is a generally faster blooming period when blooming starts later. Based on the results we can say that early start of blooming resulted in extended blooming period for three sour cherry varieties at the examined production sites. The start of blooming showed the closest relation with the difference of average daytime and nightime temperatures of the 30-day period prior to blooming. Significant relation was also detected with the thermic indexes as well as with maximum temperatures, climatic water balance and the degree of potential evaporation.We examined how weather 30 days prior and during blooming influenced the length of phases. Results showed that precipitation prior and during blooming is in significant relation with the length of blooming. We detected significant relation between daytime and nightime temperature differences and the length of blooming. The nature of the relation indicates that blooming periods were shorter in case of increasing temperature differences.We found that shorter blooming lengths occurred when maximum temperatures averaged between 13.5–14.5 ºC 30 days prior to blooming when examining the relation between blooming length and maximum temperature. If the average of maximum temperatures was below 13 ºC or exceeded 15 ºC during this period, then we could calculate with a blooming period longer than ten days. We proved that little precipitation and high temperature accelerates physiological processes, therefore we could calculate with an accelerated blooming and shorter blooming period.
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25-31.
Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘...Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.
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33-36.
Fruit set and fruit drop rates of 9 sour cherry cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Éva’, ‘Petri’ ‘Oblocsinszka’, ‘Pandy 279’ and ‘Csengôdi’) of eight years-old trees grown in Újfehértó, located in the Eastern north part of Hungary which grafted ...on Prunns mahaleb have been studied. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among cultivars. The average percentage of fruit set was 18.3%, which the ‘Oblacsinszka’ by 32.6% the highest fruit set, while ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ is very similar to ‘Pandy279’ showed lowest (12%) fruit set. Seasonal changes of fruit set and drop shows that there are four abscission peaks. The first fruit abortion wave appears during second week after pollination Thereafter, the second and third dropping period was found during the third and forth weeks after pollination. The forth abscission happened on the forth week after pollination. The highest fruit drop happened on ‘Pandy279’ (92.4%) very similar to ‘Éva’ (90%) while the lowest fruit drop observed in ‘Oblocsinszka’ (71.5%)
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37-43.
Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 and 2...009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.
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45-51.
Authors investigated sunburn incidence of apples on the combinations of three different growth inducing rootstocks (M.9,MM.106 and seedling) and five varieties (‘Smoothee’, ‘Golden Reinders’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Jonagold Jonica’). Symptoms were classified as sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunbu...rn. The frequency of symptoms was recorded at various parts of the canopy (N, E,W, S, and lower canopy, upper canopy) and on the cluster (terminal, lateral). Cultivar susceptibility varied between 0.30 and 5.65% on M.9 rootstock, ‘Granny Smith’ seemed to be the most susceptible cultivar whereas relatively low percentage of damaged fruit was observed for ‘Gloster’. On MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, damage level was significantly lower than on M.9. Remarkable differences were not observed in the share of the three sunburn types between cultivars. The most common symptom observed was sunburn browning. Far less fruit was affected by sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. Photooxidative sunburn symptoms were not found on ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Gloster’ fruits on MM.106 rootstock. Latter cultivar did not show sunburn necrosis symptoms either. With increasing growing vigor of the rootstocks the share of sunburn browning increased. Fruits with sunburn symptoms were found in a great majority on theW quadrant of the trees. This was true for all cultivars. Remarkable differences in the location within the canopy of affected fruits between the three types of sunburn were not observed. Specific distribution of sunburned fruit was observed along the vertical axis of the canopy, too. Most of the damaged fruit were found in the upper canopy. This is particularly true for trees on vigorous stocks such as MM.106 and seedling. On M.9 rootstock, depending on cultivars 5.9 to 38.9% of sunburned fruit was located in the lower canopy. Most common symptom in the lower canopy was the sunburn browning, however symptoms of sunburn necrosis were not found at lower canopy level. Low rate of photooxidative sunburn was observed such lower canopy conditions. Sunburn incidence was very similar on king or side fruit. Significant differences were not found in the share of each sunburn types between fruit positions on the cluster. This was not influenced by rootstocks either.
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53-56.
Remote sensing of fruit tree micro environment plays a major role in both horticultural and soil mapping applications. In frame this study presented a novel method to survey the spatial distribution of physical and water management properties of soils. The examinations were carried out at an intensive experimental apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag.... The examination site is the part of the Experimental Pomology plantation of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agronomy. Particle-size distribution, plasticity according to Arany, metal content by XRF spectrometry, soil physical parameters, acidity, electric conductivity of soils, were measured to obtain appropriate information on the physical properties of the soil. Based on the results, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were characterized where soil loosening should be implemented in 0,3–0,4 m depth. Spatially precise soil physical barriers were determined for applied micro-irrigation system. Based on the micro-element content and pH, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were selected where melioration and micronutrient fertilization is needed. These detailed data sources also applied to calibrate the applied airborne hyperspectral images to extend spatially these point based information.
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57-60.
The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and plant... samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.
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61-63.
The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit existbetween organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and V...itamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.
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65-67.
The two worldwide accepted environmentally freindly production systems are integrated and organic. The two systems shows considerably differences in several practical production technology elements. These effects come forward in generative processes (e.g. flowering, fruit setting) and vegetative features (e.g. growth). The aim of our study was to ...study the effect of pruning intensity on growth features of cultivars in integrated and organic apple production. In early spring of 2009, we determined two pruning intensities (strong and week) on six scab resistant and tolerant cultivars. Strong pruning resulted in stronger shoot growth for all cultivars compared to weak pruning. It is obvious that pruning intensity had more effect on vegetative performance than conditional differences originates from integrated and organic production.
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69-70.
Ecological or biological growing techniques are generally recognised as actual trends in agricultural production. The objective of our experiments is a comparison of apple fruits grown alternatively by integrated versus ecological technology. In a collection of varieties, the possibility of the experiment was feasible. At the same time, a comparis...on of the popularity of existing varieties was also actual. The organoleptic consumer’s tests rated the varieties, and the comparison with instrumentally raised “objective” data could be compared with the subjective ratings, which did not coincide with each other. This phenomenon was revealed in the rating of acid-sugar harmony, where the internationally used quality index of Thiault produced a different range of the samples then the consumer’s test. The same contradiction was observed between ratings of firmness and the data raised by penetrometer.
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71-74.
Research in sweet cherry production is intensely stimulated worldwide. The programs started also in Hungary to develop technologies and to find suitable varieties for the purpose of intense cultivation. It means that dimension of crowns should be smaller, with higher number of plants per hectare. Understocks, which let grow the trees slower, are s...carce in this species. On the one hand, the braking effect of the respective stocks is insufficient, they get old pretty soon, loose ramification, yield too small fruits and do not comply with the aims of intense cultivation. Experiences prove the necessity of stocks for intense culture, which are vital, growing, easily regenerating, and freely branching. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb), a strong growing stock, is still suitable. Further improvement is expected from the contribution of technological elements and the choice of variety. In the present paper, a 9-year old plantation is shown with trees trained to (slender) spindle, and the yield and fruit quality of the year 2009 has been analysed with 6 varieties involved.
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75-78.
Still a large amount of pesticides and spary applications are used in environmentally friendly fruit production systems; therefore, the aim of our study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against a key apple disease (apple scab), and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against apple scab..., powdery mildew and coding moth in integrated and organic apple orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against apple scab. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly scab incidence in the integrated field. However, scab incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.Mildew incidence was low (below 5%) in both integrated and organic spray programmes. Mildew incidence on both shoots and fruits increased significanly in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard. Incidence of codling moth damage was affected the most by standard vs. reduced spray programmes. Though incidence remained below 10% in the integrated plots, the incidence was significantly higher in the reduced spray programme compared to the standard programme. Similar results were obtained for organic spary programmes, but the incidence was 10 times higher and the differences among the two programmes were larger.,
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79-85.
The profitability of the Hungarian apple production considering firms producing on high standard is not lagged behind significantly from that of German firms, moreover in certain cases it reflects a more positive situation. It is unfavourable, however, that this statement is true only for 8 to 10% of our whole apple plantation surface. The results... of the investigations highlighted the fact that in comparison with Germany our farm business advantages manifest in three factors: in 70 to 80% lower wages, in 15 to 30% higher investment and subsidy intensity and in the fact that at present we cannot neglect the ice safety system which is rather expensive. By the increasing wages, the narrowing subsidy opportunities and incidentally the appearing harmful weather phenomenon, these advantages may be continuously ceased. Our definite disadvantage appears in the level of marketing price, considering the fact that producers in Hungary realize 30 to 35% lower marketing price, which is in connection with the probably much lower level of organization among farmers, in the market and in the logistical background.
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87-90.
The lack of information is often cause of the insufficiency of attributes being developed and appears on the new commodity characterising its utility. Neither own nor other information is presented. For improving this handicap, we endeavoured to praise apple products grown by biological methods and explain their properties as taste, skin, colour, ...consistency, and size. In addition, we explore the relation between general impression and the individual properties. The scrutiny starts with collecting of primary data on 9 samples taken from biologically grown apple varieties kept over 60–90 days in a store and offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionnary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive judging the preferences in consumption of fruits.
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91-98.
The present study deals with the actual situation of the Hungarian apple production in order to outline the chances of the future and the trends of the development to be anticipated. The general conclusion is accepted that on the long run Hungarian apple production ought to be reorganised. The conditions of keeping the position on the internationa...l market are outlined. The main concern is the aging of the plantations, i.e. 40%of them being more than 25–30 year old, and produce apple being suitable for processing only. Organisation of growers is rudimentary, export markets are limited, and buyer’s market is everywhere dominant and is getting more severe. All those circumstances anticipate the reduction of the apple growing branch from the present 35 000 hectares to 15–20 000 hectares within a period of less than 10 years.
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99-103.
Long term data of hail events of three meteorological stations (Budapest, Debrecen and Szeged) were investigated. The hail event frequencies show significant differences in the time period 1901–2000 when the first and the second half of the century are compared. The frequencies of hail events are higher in the first half of the century in case o...f Debrecen and Szeged while it is higher in the second 50 years for Budapest. None of the frequencies of hail events in between 2001–2008 are significantly higher, though the average of precipitation fell during these events is higher except for Szeged. We have found that the results about the monthly distribution of hail events differ from the ones in the literature; the ratio of hail events is significantly less in the vegetation period.
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105-112.
Experiences of the last decades showed univocally that the climatic changes, especially the warming up, influenced clearly the phenology, i.e. speed of growth and development of plants. To check the effects, the phenological studies became a topic of special interest. Our research has been performed at Újfehértó, the Research Institute of Fruit... Growing and Extension, where the respective database accumulated observations during the period 1984–2005, where the meteorological data as well as the parallel phenological diary referring to the varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’ during the period 1984–1991 have been utilised. The method of calculating the sum of daily mean temperatures, “degree days”, is based on the observation that the plants are able to utilise cumulatively – in growth and development – the temperature above a set basic temperature. Our phenology model examined the correlation between the sum of degree days and the date of sprouting (budburst). The basic temperature has been determined by optimization, above which (threshold temperature) the accumulation of daily means was most active, or alternatively, below which the daily means are most sensitively expressed in the phenology. The model has been extended to the calculation of the end of rest period (endodormancy) – by optimization as well. Our phenology model will be suitable for two main purposes: for estimating the time of budburst for the Hungarian region during the next decades calculated on the basis of regionally downscaled climate models; on the other hand, by applying our model, the risk of damage caused by spring frosts could be estimated more exactly than earlier.
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113-118.
A momentous inference of heat waves is the economic effect. The main demage after the human problems will caused by theese extreme events in agriculture. For example a long hot peiod without any percipitation can exterminate not only the annual yield, but also it can demage or in extreme situation it can destroy the whole orchard. Especially endan...gered most of the fruits, because an extreme summer with high temperature which usually goes hand in hand with an arid period can modify growth of the plant. Our investigations show that according to the most widely accepted climate change scenarios heat waves are expected to be essentially longer and hotter than in the past. It might happen that events we now define as heat waves last through entire summer. Although it will not be general, the length and intensity of present heat waves could also multiply. Based on data provided by some global circulation models, we might be face an event that exceeds the hottest heat waves of the 20th century by as much as 12 °C. This study also offers a survey of the methodology of heat wave definition. Besides traditional calculations, we present two unconventional methods by introducing minimum and maximum temperature heat waves. We show in what points this approach is different from those usually adopted and what extra information it may offer.As an extension of the usual studies, with considering the length of events, we analyse the development of two variants – temperature and duration – and, as a result, classify the extreme heat events according to both length and intensity.
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119-122.
Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life. T...he development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.
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