The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees ...towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.
The trees observed are grown at Ofeherto, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple cultivars. Each of the cultivars were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. during this period the meteorological da...ta-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming cultivars start blooming at 10-21April. The cultivars of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.
The colour of fruits is considered to be an important quality indicator. Saleability greatly depends on how well covered the colour is of the specific type of fruits. It is a well-known phenomenon by growers that apples get nicer colours in one year while in other years the basically red and green colour cultivars can be differentiated only by ...morphological characteristic features. Cover colour is one of the phenometric variables and it is a well-known fact that significant differences can be experienced year by year. The experienced oscillation can be the cause of inappropriate water- and nutriment supply, however it can be the result of some kind of plant disease, extremely high or low temperature, setting rate above the average and outstanding fruit density. In the present examination it is postulated that the degree of cover colour is mostly influenced by day and night temperature. Therefore, our study aims to find out whether it is true or not. Cover colour belongs to those phenometric characteristic features, only the final value of which is taken into consideration; due to their nature of establishment or forming time it seems useless to follow closely the change in the time of vegetation. However, determining the start of colouring and knowing the dynamics of full colouring could carry very important information for growers. If it is possible to determine the curve describing the time change of colouring, we have a possibility to estimate it by means of enviroment variables. So it is also possible to model pigmentation in the future. Knowing this, colouring irrigation could be made more efficient in the future. For this, as a first step, it is inevitable to find out what the relationship is between the main meteorogical variables, namely day and night temperature and the difference between day and night temperature, and colour cover. In this study we summarize and show these interrelations.
Authors investigated the expression of the primigenic dominance in the flowering and fruit from open and self pollination of four apple cultivars ('Gala Royal', 'Golden Smoothee', Pink Lady' and 'Vista Bella') during two consecutive years in Western Hungary on three different growth inducing rootstocks (M. 9, MM. 106 and seedling). There were n...ot significant differences in the effect of the rootstocks on the flowering order in a flower cluster. Significant difference in the fruit set in open pollination was found among individual flowers in a cluster, mostly between the king bloom and the second flower. The rate of the fruit set from self-pollination was very low without any significant difference among individual flowers in the cluster.
Long term fertilisation trials were combined with storage experiments with 'Jonathan' apple trees and fruits to study influence of tree nutrition on quantity and quality of crop. The site of experiments is a typical Carpathian-basin environment with loamy silt soil, high lime content and arid summers. Conclusions has been drown from six years' ...set of data. Augmented levels of soil fertilisation increased cropping capacity of apple trees, however, the fruit load has not met with cropping capacity in every year. More the def cit came into view in crop load, less the fruit quality resulted in. The deficit in cropping capacity, however, could not have been determined with simple rates as fruit weight per trunk circumference or similar. Better determination was obtained where foliar nutrient contents were correlated to crop per tree figures. In general terms, the N and Ca content in leaves increased with yields when K and P content formulated reciprocally. When storage quality of 'Jonathan' apple fruits were related to crop load (kg/tree), influence of crop deficit became visible. As the crop load and foliar nutrient levels interacted, the fruit quality (number of disordered apples after 6 month of storage) subjected of both physiological phenomena. Higher determination degree were obtained when crop load was assessed together with single or multiple foliar analysis data.
The year of 2007 was critical for fruit growers in the region of Easter-Hungary. Several orchards were suffered frost damages. Significant frost damage was also happened in the orchard of Tedej Rt., which caused total fruit failure in the orchard. Our study was conducted in the integrated apple orchard (Malus domestics Borkh.) establis...hed on a lowland chemozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate how frost changes the mineral content of different apple species. Leaf samples were collected 100 days after full bloom both in 2006 and 2007. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium were measured in leaves. The absence of fruits caused a smaller accumulation of nitrogen and magnesium in leaves. Falling down of flowers and fruit sets hindered the translocation of the uptaken phosphorous, potassium and calcium towards fruit sets. Due to fruit failure the vegetative processes became dominant. Leaves larger amount of phosphorous, potassium and calcium stored. Besides the absolute element content, the ratio of the different elements was also determined. Majority of calculated ratios were removed from optimal values due to frost. Both absolute content of nutrients and their ratios pointed out that the frost damage significantly affected the uptake of nutrients and their storing processes.
Frost tolerance of pear cultivars was checked after artificial cold treatment in 2003-2005. Limbs collected during the endodormancy were exposed in a climatic chamber for 24 hours to —25; —28 °C, while those collected in the ecodormancy were kept at —15 and —18 °C. Frost damages of buds were registered according to a visually defined ...scale, then peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities and carbohydrate contents were checked in buds and spur-part below the buds. POD activity of untreated control in tissue below buds was higher than in the buds, which were increasing continuously during the endodormancy and decreased at the end of the ecodormancy. During endodormancy, cold treatment of —25 and —28 °C effected different changes of enzyme activity in buds of the cultivars. In the ecodormancy, enzyme activities increased after a cold treatment of —15 °C, whereas the activities decreased significantly after —18 °C. `Kaiser' — susceptible to frost — with its higher values of both enzyme activities marked out from other cultivars, which is correlated with its stress response. Changes in carbohydrate components — especially in glucose — of buds monitored well the different stress responses of tolerant and resistant pear cultivars induced by frost stress.
Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdor...fi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.
Nowadays, sour cherry buds can be seriously damaged by spring and winter frosts. Unlike other fruit species threatened by high frost damage, sour cherry cultivars have not been assessed for frost tolerance. The aim of .our survey was to establish the relative cold tolerance of the Hungarian cultivars after treatment in a climatic chamber, and t...o optimize the methodology formerly elaborated for the frost treatment of apricot. Fourteen cultivars of Hungarian sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were used in the experiments, which spanned the winters of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Our data were used to rank cultivars in two groups according to their levels of cold resistance. We also recommend critical temperatures and treatment times for the testing of sour cherry cultivar resistance to cold in climatic chambers.
The yielding potential and regeneration (i.e. germination of hidden buds) after pruning of the fruit-bearing shoots of different ages were compared in sour cherry cultivars pruned to spindle shape. The examinations were carried out in order to determine the optimal pruning strategy resulting in the highest long-term yielding of sour cherry cult...ivars with intensive crown shape (free and thin spindle shape). According to our results, there are great differences among the studied self-fertile sour cherry cultivars in yielding and regeneration, which are worthwhile to be considered in determining the method and degree of pruning.
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and ant...hocyanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.
In utilisation of sour cherry cultivars, the paradigm has gradually changed in the sense that fresh consumption gained much more attention than before on a worldwide scale. Consequently, much more attention is paid to the problems connected with the storage, i.e. preservation of fresh fruit for direct consumption. It is a genuine interest of gr...owers, traders as well as of consumers to be informed about the possibilities of preserving economically the fresh status for a longer period after harvest during the warm summer weather in addition to the lengthening of the harvest season by choosing cultivars of different dates of ripening. Recent results of purposeful experiments indicate that the storability of the fruit of 6 main Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is on the same level ('Érdi bőtermő, 'Debreceni bőtermő’, 'Újfehértói fürtos', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Éva', 'Petri'). The traditional conditions facilitated the maintenance of freshness over a 5-week-long period, and the loss of volume was less than 7%. During the first 2 weeks, there was no difference between the cultivars regarding loss of volume and decay, moreover, the effect of time elapsed after harvest and of adversities of transport was not significant. It could be stated that 2 week of storing is safely feasible. We need only 2 °C temperature and 90% of relative humidity. The relations of oxygen and CO2 of the atmosphere is less decisive than temperature alone. No essential difference has been registered between the storing in plastic trays versus plastic boxes either. A study was performed to assess the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) effect on Hungarian sour cherries growing in Iran (`Érdi bőtermő and ‘Érdi jubileum') shelf life. The harvested fruits stored at 0 °C under modified atmospheres (15% 0, and 10% CO2 and 75% nitrogen) for 6 weeks. Descriptive analysis showed that sour cherry stored in control condition had a higher deterioration rate than those stored in under modified atmosphere, which showed a lower rejection rate and a longer shelf life than those stored in modified atmosphere.
Description of new sour cherry cultivars and cultivar candidates bred in the Research Institute for the Fruit Growing and Ornamentals
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the fi...eld, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
In this study cost-profit analysis is carried out to up-to-date Hungarian sour cherry orchards. These orchards cover only 1 to 3 thousand hectares from the sour cherry territory of 16 thousand hectares. In a many-year-average a yield of 15 tons per hectare may be reached in up-to-date sour cherry orchards cultivated under high standard conditio...ns. Per hectare direct production costs take up of approximately 1000 thousand HUF, from which the major portion (60%) is accounted for the personal cost of harvesting. Regarding the above mentioned average yield and a selling price of 100 HUF per kilogram a revenue of 1 500 thousand HUF may be realized, which results in a per hectare contribution of 500 thousand HUF. To sum up, regarding the present extremely unfavourable selling price only reaching an average yield of 15 to 20 tons per hectare may lead to appropriate profit.
Preliminary field management studies were made to increase the population density of native early spring Osmia species (O. cornuta, O. rufa) at fruit tree plantations in Hungary. Initial bee activity around artificial nesting media and the population increase during consecutive years were much smaller at large commercial fruit... orchards under intense chemical plant protection than in small mixed fruit plantation with moderate or low pesticide usage. Osmias accepted all the four kinds of tested artificial nesting media (reed, bamboo rods, hardwood blocks and light walling blocks with drilled holes). Reed provided the best nesting conditions so it is suggested to be used in the practice. Calculations showed that under favourable conditions more than 50 to 100 thousand incoming flights (arrivals or landings) occurred in a single day around a single bee shelter and this makes enormous number of possible bee visits at fruit tree flowers. For this reason it is strongly recommended to put simple bee shelters filled with artificial nesting media into fruit orchards. Experiences show that the population sizes of Osmias increase during consecutive years without any specific additional maintenance except providing shelters and nesting media.
This review evaluated previous studies on the effect of pesticide use on flower formation and fertility of some fruit species. The study was divided into two parts. First part of the overview will evaluate the most commonly used fungicides on pollen toxicity and their germination ability under fungicide exposure on different fruit species. Effe...ct of fungicides on fruit set was also critically reviewed. Second part of the study summarised those few studies which determined the effect of some insecticides and acaricides on flower formation and fertility.
A short overview of bird control in sweet and sour cherry orchards — Possibilities of protection of bird damage and its effectiveness
White poplar is a native stand-forming tree species in Hungary, covering 3.1 per cent of the forested area. More than 70 per cent of the white poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube—Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of H...ungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising white poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones `1-1 425-4' (Populus alba x Populus alba), and 11 758' (Populus alba Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the 427-3' (Populus alba x Populus alba cv. Bolleana) and 422-9' (Populus alba x Populus grandidentata) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.