Holb, I. J. (2016). Mechanical and physical control in apple orchards as preventative fungal disease management. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 22(1-2), 19-21. https://doi.org/10.31421/IJHS/22/1-2./1178
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In this minreview, mechanical and physical control against apple fungal diseases among non-chemical control approaches were summarized. This overview listed five groups of mechanical and physical control methods: pruning, removal of inoculum sources, shredding of leaf litter, burying of inoculum sources and flaming of leaf litter. These methods were shown to reduce succesfully infection potential of inoculum sources in orchards and these non-chemical control measures are one of the most essential approaches for preventative fungal disease management. However, most of these methods are not widely spread in the apple-growing practice due to relatively low control efficacy, medium to high labour costs and/or time limits during the season.