Vol 27 (2021)
Sour cherries developed in the northern hemisphere, an alloploid hybrid of dwarf sour cherries (Prunus fruticosa) and bird cherries (P. avium), born in the confluence of the two species. However, the ecological and, above all, cold tolerance of the ancestor of cultivated sour cherries is higher than that of wild cherries (De C...andolle, 1894; Rehder, 1954; Terpó, 1974; Iezzoni et al., 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). The cultivation limits are in the northern hemisphere 38-44. degree. The Carpathian Basin, the Balkans and Asia Minor are considered to be the main birthplaces for sour cherries. The genetic and morphological diversity of sour cherries is greater than that of the basic species (Iezzoni et al. 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). In the study, 472 sour cherry cultivars were compared based on 7 relative ecological indicators and 3 biological values. Compared to other Prunus species, we mostly found less variability in sour cherries - not counting their salt tolerance (SB). The partial similarity between open pollination (OP), frost tolerance (FR) and disease resistance (DR) - partly true in terms of varieties, but also reflected the effects of purposeful breeding and selection. The cultivars together - in comparison, showed balance, but in the highlighting, the differences of the 3 cultivar groups became significant. Indeed, the differences between the species of the former Hungarian cultural flora are clearly different (Surányi, 2004), which is also the case when comparing a large number of apricot (Surányi, 2014), plum (Surányi, 2015) and peach (Surányi, 2020) varieties.
Nutrient management is a determining element of the technology in fruit production. Significance of foliar fertilization has been increased continuously over the last years, as it can improve directly the vegetative and generative performance of the trees. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer... (Bistep) with 1, 3, and 5 l/ha dosages on the yield and fruit quality parameters in an apple orchard during 2016 and 2018. According to our results, crop load increased with 29% in the third year of the experiment with the application of 5 l/ha Bistep treatment compared to the control treatments. Fruit weight was also improved in each year, as values of fruit weight in all treatments were higher than the control one (3.0-13.0% growth). Fruit surface color increased with 2-18% due to the foliar fertilizer. During the three years, leaf length was 9.5-9.9 mm on the control trees, as 9.8-10.4 mm was measured on the fertilized ones. In conclusion, yield and fruit quality can be improved in apple orchard using a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer.
Twenty-one hot pepper genotypes comprising of local (15) and exotic (6) types (C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense) were characterized for selected fruit traits after propagation in a glasshouse at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo in Central Uganda using a completely randomized design with... three replicates. Ripe fruits were harvested and analyzed; traits evaluated were all significantly different at P<0.05 with variations in quality attributes. The genotype OHA-B305-10 had the highest ascorbic acid content (128.86 mg/100 g) and is recommended for improvement of both local and exotic genotypes targeting the fresh market. Genotypes CAP0408-12 and UG2 WE0511-22, with highest total soluble solids (16.17 ºBrix) and dry matter content (28.59%), respectively should be used in improvements for industrial use or processing to products such as chilli powder or flakes. BRS-M205-04 with highest titratable acidity (1.04%) can be used in enhancing shelf life of genotypes with low titratable acids as well as for the fresh market. In spite of the intraspecific relationships among genotypes, significant differences were observed in their quantitative traits. These genotypes will, therefore, be useful in improving the quality of hot pepper fruit in Uganda.
The cultivated plant climate association in agricultural yields is getting expanded consideration with regards to changing climatic conditions. Abiotic stressors can lead to morpho-anatomical, physiological, and biochemical alterations in harvests, resulting in a significant loss of profit. A comprehension of ecological elements and their commu...nication with physiological cycles is critical for improving agricultural practices. Drought stress is among the main natural factor affecting plant development, growth, and yield measures. Assessing the impact of environmental change and atmospheric variability on tomato crop output will require a thorough understanding of this stress element. The physiology, development, improvement, yield, and quality of the tomato crop are all affected by dry season stress. This mini-review essay presents the most prominent features about the effects of drought stress on tomato crop plant physiology and production, with specific highlighting for the complex relationship between drought stress, and nutrients uptake.
A field experiment was conducted at Dormaa Ahenkro, Ghana, to determine the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment treatment comprises of sole application of poultry manure (PM), NPK 15:15:5, the combine...d application of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer (PM+NPK) and the control (no fertilizer). Data was collected on the number of leaves, stem girth, plant height, head diameter, head weight and edible head weight. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among all the treatments. The combined application of PM+NPK recorded the highest values for all the parameters measured. From the results obtained farmers should consider the combined application of PM and NPK to maximize yield on their farm.
F1 populations of half diallel cross were considered for this investigation. Phenotypic component of variation (s2P) was higher than genotypic (s2G), interaction ((s2I) and within error (s2w) components of variation. Trait bulb weight showed the h...ighest values for s2P, s2G, s2I and s2w. The noticeable amount of phenotypic, genotypic, interaction and within error covariation was found in the combination of BW×BY, possibly indicating wide scope of selection for this pair of characters. Genotypic correlations were higher than the respective phenotypic correlations. This situation was also marked in the path coefficient analysis. Bulb yield/plot showed highly significant and positive correlation coefficient with other characters both at phenotypic and genotypic levels. When all the nine characters were included in an index, it exhibited the highest genetic gain as percentage. When a combination of two or more characters was studied in a function, the efficacy was higher than that of direct selection for bulb yield. The combination of five, six, seven or eight characters showed higher percentage of expected gain. Due to significantly correlated with BY and having high positive direct effect at phenotypic level characters viz., LL, BW, PH and NLs is considered as primary yield components. Again combinations of these four characters gave the commendable expected genetic gain of 330.7290% may be considered as important selection index for this material.
Sources of fertilizer are one of the major factors influencing baby spinach leaf texture, sweetness, bitterness and after-taste. However, the effects of fertilizer sources on baby spinach growth performance and consumer preferences are not known. A survey was carried out at the Seke Teachers’ College (SKC) community, Zimbabwe to determine the... consumer preferences on the baby spinach grown on the organic fertilizer (cattle, poultry and goat manures) as well as on control inorganic fertilizers (7% N, 14% P, 7% K). The study used 32 females and 30 males as panellists for sensory evaluations. Organoleptic tests were performed for the baby spinach leaves using a panel of 62 testers. An interval line scale (16 cm long) was used to measure the liking for sweetness, colour, bitterness and after-taste. A 9-point hedonic scale was used to decide the overall preferences. Organoleptic tests showed significant differences (P<0.05) in appearance and taste between the inorganic and organic fertilizers used. The baby spinach leaves grown on organic fertilizers was preferred more compared to that grown on inorganic fertilizer (control). Therefore, it is recommended to use organic fertilizers in baby spinach production in order to satisfy consumer preferences.
In Zimbabwe, smallholder cultivation of leaf rape is of considerable importance due to the increasing demand for the leaf vegetable from the rapidly increasing urban populations. A two-season field trial was conducted in the Agricultural Practice Experimental Plots of the Midlands State University in central Zimbabwe. The objective of the stu...dy was to establish selected biometric responses of leaf rape to N fertilizer rates and time to first harvesting. Increasing the rate of N fertilizer application considerably improves the yield of fresh rape leaf; LAI and concentration of leaf nitrate. Delaying rape leaf harvest after N fertilizer side dressing can be used as a strategy to boost rape leaf yield for vegetable markets with high single delivery demand. When harvesting is deliberately delayed after N fertilizer application rape LAI are significantly increased. Delaying the first leaf harvests by 7; 14 and 21 days after N fertilizer side dressing amendments increases the content of nitrate in fresh rape leaves. Fresh rape yield can be more accurately predicted by values of rape LAI. Nitrate concentrations in fresh rape leaf is a poor predictor of rape yield under field conditions.
Black poplar mushroom, Agrocybe cylindracea deserves special attention, due to its medicinal properties. Water and alcohol extracts from fruiting bodies of the fungus have an anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, cholesterol and triglycerides blood level lowering abilities. This mushroom is rich in proteins and vitamins, mineral elem...ents and low in fat. The aim of the experiments was to determine effect of a substrate supplementation with CaCO3 on mycelial growth, yield, morphological features and storability of fruiting bodies of four strains of A. cylindracea (DC.) Marie. The amount of additive to sawdust substrate affects rate of mycelial growth and yield of investigated strains. A. cylindracea mycelial growth was not affected by addition of CaCO3 to substrate, however a significant effect of this additive was found on yield, which was the highest with CaCO3 addition in an amount of 8 g/100 g of substrate. Carpophores characterized with the largest caps diameter, and the largest individual mass obtained of substrate enriched with CaCO3 addition of 8 g/100 g of substrate. In addition, it was found that supplementation with CaCO3 affect storability of A. cylindracea. The lowest weight loss of fruiting bodies after 3 and 7 days of storage was found with addition of CaCO3 to substrate in an amount of 4 g/100 g of substrate.
Several plant bug species (Miridae) are important pests of crops and vegetables, thus monitoring them is of essential importance for effective pest control. During the current, preliminary study synthetic plant volatile combinations were tested in field conditions in Hungary in alfalfa fields. Beside semiochemical baited traps, sweep-netting wa...s also performed. In the experiments three plant bug species were found in higher numbers: Adelphocoris lineolatus, Lygus rugulipennis and L. pratensis. As a novel, interesting finding L. pratensis was attracted to phenylacetaldehyde baited traps. For all species, both males and females were trapped in all combinations. Sweep-netting and semiochemical baited traps showed different efficacy in case of the three species, as sweep-netting catches were highly biased for A. lineolatus, which indicates the higher efficacy of this method as compared to the tested semiochemical-baited traps. On the other hand, semiochemical baited showed better performance for L. rugulipennis and L. pratensis. For these species none of the tested combinations performed better than phenylacetaldehyde baited traps. The potential implication of results in view of monitoring are discussed.
Silicon (Si) has long been considered as non-essential element for plant’s growth and production. Numerous efforts are being made for the discovery of its beneficial effects with large scale studies laying foundation for new findings and hypotheses. Therefore, Si has been suggested to be a quasi-essential element due to its positive effects a...gainst biotic and abiotic stresses alike. Though Si is the second most abundant element in the soil profile, its availability to plants is limited to the form of monosilicic acid only. Besides, plants’ ability to take-up Si and use it in their physiological processes also depends on the available transporters associated with it. Thus, the present review covers uptake and transport of silicon in plants as well as Si mediated physiological processes, including mechanisms underlying induced tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses with a particular emphasis on horticultural species.
The study on the diameter and volume increment of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand (age 10-27 years, yield class II) have shown that in comparison to the periodic annual increment of the breast height diameter of tree in height class I, trees in height class II have reached 83.3%, while in class III only 43.9. The same rela...tions for volume were found 59.0% and 24.5%, respectively. The mean values of the whole stand were close to those of height class II. According to the distribution of the periodic annual increment of volume between 10 and 27 years of age, 50% of the values were between 2.00 and13.88 dm3, 73% were between 2.00 and19.82 dm3, and 96% were between 2.00 and 37.64 dm3. The range of 13.88–19.82 dm3 had the highest occurrence (24.5%).
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of varieties, different light conditions (short day, long day, natural short day with light pollution), and different growing media (perlite, peat-free, peat-based, aeroponics system) on Rudbeckia hirta plant production under controlled conditions (greenhouse). The morphological effects...of each treatment (photoperiodic lightings and media) on different Rudbeckia varieties determined at 11 weeks-old ’Napfény’, ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ and 16 weeks-old ’Napfény’. Plantlets received 12 hours daylight did not initiate flowers, remained stage of the leaf rosette in case of all varieties. The 14 hours light treatment in the aeroponics system and the same treatment in perlite and control (natural short day with 14 hours light pollution) plantlets had developed inflorescences or flower buds. The inflorescence axis of ‘Napfény’ was appeared at 13 weeks under long-day conditions, with 1.7 (perlite) - 2.7 (aeroponics) flower buds in 16 weeks. ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ varieties developed inflorescences at 8 weeks, 14 hours aeroponics system resulted in the most of flower buds (’Toto Gold’: 6.5, ’Autumn Colors’: 3.25,’Prairie Sun’: 4.8 flower buds) at 11 weeks. Long daylight manipulation could be minimized crop times and achieved flowering potted plants at 11 weeks. The peat-based and peat-free media effect was observed on ‘Autumn Colors’. The number of leaves of peat-free ‘Autumn Colors’ transplants (16.8-20.3) was significantly higher than peat-based media (13.5-15.5). Other morphological parameters were not affected by the media treatments.