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Capturing how students' abilities and teaching experiences affect teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning
Published March 24, 2020
195-212

We developed an instrument to investigate the effect of students' abilities and teaching experiences on teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning of mathematics. In this pilot study, we used the instrument to measure the beliefs of 43 Indonesian math teachers and five additional teachers. Then, for further investigation, we interviewed thos...e five additional teachers. Results from the 43 teachers' responses to the instrument show that in contrast to teachers with less than five years of teaching, teachers with more than five years elicit significantly different beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning in different contexts related to students' abilities. Teachers' reports in the further investigation indicate that teaching experiences with high and low ability students in teaching mathematics could be a possible explanation of this contrast.

Subject Classification: C20

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Lehre der Trigonometrie anhand realistischer Aufgaben im Online-Unterricht
Published September 13, 2022
87-105

The aim of our study was to explore the effects of the active use of realistic exercises in the field of trigonometry. We taught a group of 14 pupils, who were in grade 11. The most of them told us they did not plan mathematics-related studies in the future. We included realistic exercises into our teaching plan, which covered the fields of sca...lar product, as well as the sine and cosine theorems. Our teaching experiment was done within the framework of online teaching. Effects on the motivation, performance and results of the students were taken into consideration. We also attempted to examine the effects of online teaching on motivation and whether the use of realistic exercises is worthwhile in an online classroom environment. Performance of the students showed a tendency of improvement when they were dealing with the material through realistic exercises even despite the teaching happened online.

Subject Classification: 97C70, 97D40, 97G60

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A constructive and metacognitive teaching path at university level on the Principle of Mathematical Induction: focus on the students' behaviours, productions and awareness
Published October 14, 2021
133-161

We present the main results about a teaching/learning path for engineering university students devoted to the Principle of Mathematical Induction (PMI). The path, of constructive and metacognitive type, is aimed at fostering an aware and meaningful learning of PMI and it is based on providing students with a range of explorations and conjecturi...ng activities, after which the formulation of the statement of the PMI is devolved to the students themselves, organized in working groups. A specific focus is put on the quantification in the statement of PMI to bring students to a deep understanding and a mature view of PMI as a convincing method of proof. The results show the effectiveness of the metacognitive reflections on each phase of the path for what concerns a) students' handling of structural complexity of the PMI, b) students' conceptualization of quantification as a key element for the reification of the proving process by PMI; c) students' perception of the PMI as a convincing method of proof.

Subject Classification: 97B40, 97C70

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Word problems in different textbooks at the early stage of teaching mathematics comparative analysis
Published October 12, 2020
31-49

In a previous research, Csíkos and Szitányi (2019) studied teachers’ views and pedagogical content knowledge on the teaching of mathematical word problems. While doing so, they reviewed and compared Eastern European textbooks of Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Croatia, and Hungary to see how world problem-solving strategies are presented in comm...only used textbooks. Their results suggested that teachers, in general, agreed with the approach of the textbooks regarding the explicit solution strategies and the types of word problems used for teaching problem-solving. They also revealed that the majority of the participants agreed that a word problem-solving algorithm should be introduced to the students as early as in the first school year. These results have been presented at the Varga 100 Conference in November 2019. As the findings suggested a remarkable similarity between the Eastern European textbook approaches, in the current study we decided to conduct further research involving more textbooks from China, Finland, and the United States.

Subject Classification: 97U20, 08A50

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Wichtige Momente aus der ungarischen Geschichte des Analysisunterrichts
Published October 14, 2021
57-76

Törner et al. (2014) paper gives an outstanding review about teaching analysis at high school level in (Western) Europe. We tried to extend this paper with some results from the Hungarian Math History (Beke and Rátz 1897-1924, after second World War 1949-1960, the current situation-first of all based on schoolbooks, and we also included an ex...periment from 1984-1989 by E. Deák, which was interrupted and partially forgotten). In summary, this paper deals with the turning points of the brief history of teaching secondary school analysis in the XXth century in Hungary, including some conclusions at the end.

Subject Classification: 97A30, 97C30, 97D30, 97E50, 97I20, 97I40, 97U20

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Group Work at High School According to the Method of Tamás Varga
Published November 4, 2020
167-176

The aim of our research is to develop students’ logical thinking. For this reason, Hungarian mathematics teachers need to be encouraged to try new methods which induce greater student involvement. Research all over the world prove that self-instruction or self-verbalizing has high effect on the learning process. This was one of the key elemen...ts of Tamás Varga’s experiment in high school. In our classroom experiments we are using a special cooperative method from Kagan among 14-18 years old students, called Sage and Scribe structure. We are looking for the answers to the following question: Does this method make mathematics lessons more enjoyable and more comfortable for students? Furthermore, we assume this structure could open the gate toward other collaborative and cooperative teaching technics.

Subject Classification: 97D40

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12
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Teaching performance testing
Published October 14, 2021
17-33

Performance testing plays a vital role in the verification of large scale software systems. It is used for testing the speed, responsiveness, capacity and stability of the investigated system. However, despite the significance of this topic, the effort invested in teaching performance testing in Computer Science is insufficient. The current pap...er shows, how the fundamentals of performance testing can be demonstrated to students both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint through step-by-step practical examples that are used in the industry. It is also discussed how a basic toolchain can be set up for performance tests using only free tools. With the presented examples, the reader will be able to take first steps in the performance testing area.

Subject Classification: 68M15

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Integrating Didactic Games in Higher Education: Benefits and Challenges
Published October 14, 2021
1-15

In our paper, we study the reasons for the introduction of didactic games and the way of their application in higher education, especially in teaching mathematics. After describing the main characteristics and needs of Generation Z students, we outline the advantages and drawbacks of gamification and game-based learning, followed by some new as...pects to their classification. The idea of device-based grouping arose because the most commonly used methods require IC tools. Gen Zs naturally accept gamified learning materials available on digital and mobile platforms, but we must not forget about traditional games either. In higher education, especially in the case of small-group teaching there should also be room for traditional, specialized didactic games, of which we focus on the benefits of card games.

Subject Classification: 97C70, 97D20, 97D40, 97U70

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17
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The tradition of problem-posing in Hungarian mathematics teaching
Published December 7, 2022
233-254

Based on the literature, Pólya was influential in problem-posing research. The present paper draws attention to a book written with Pólya's collaboration, which has not yet received sufficient emphasis in the problem-posing literature. On the other hand, Pólya's impact on mathematics education in Hungary has been significant, including the p...roblem-posing paradigm. Two works, published only in Hungarian, that rely heavily on problem-posing are highlighted. Furthermore, it is presented how problemposing appeared in the Hungarian Complex Mathematics Teaching Experiment (1962-78) led by Tamás Varga.

Subject Classification: 97D50

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What does ICT help and does not help?
Published September 13, 2022
33-49

Year by year, ICT tools and related teaching methods are evolving a lot. Since 2016, the author of the present lines has been looking for a connection between them that supports the development of mathematical competencies and could be integrated into Transcarpathian minority Hungarian language education too. As a doctoral student at the Univer...sity of Debrecen, I experienced, for example, how the interactive whiteboard revolutionized illustration in Hungarian mathematics teaching, and how it facilitated students' involvement. During my research of teaching in this regard, in some cases, the digital solution had advantageous effects versus concrete-manipulative representation of
Bruner's too.
At the same time, ICT "canned" learning materials (videos, presentations, ...) allow for a shift towards repetitive learning instead of simultaneous active participation, which can be compensated for by the "retrieval-enhanced" learning method.
I have conducted and intend to conduct several research projects in a Transcarpathian Hungarian primary school. In the research so far, I examined whether, in addition to the financial and infrastructural features of the Transcarpathian Hungarian school, the increased "ICT-supported" and the "retrieval-enhanced" learning method could be integrated into institutional mathematics education. I examined the use of two types of ICT devices: one was the interactive whiteboard, and the other was providing one computer per student.
In this article, I describe my experiences, gained during one semester, in the class taught with the interactive whiteboard on the one hand, and in the class taught according to the "retrieval-enhanced" learning method on the other hand.
I compare the effectiveness of the classes to their previous achievements, to each other, and to a class in Hungary.

Subject Classification: 97U70

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Teaching model-based testing
Published October 12, 2020
1-17

Different testing methodologies should play an important role in the education of informatics. In the model-based testing (MBT) approach, the specification of the system is described with a formal model. This model can be used to revise the correctness of the specification and as a starting point for automatic test generation. The main problem ...with MBT is however, that there is a huge gap between theory and practice and that this approach has a high learning curve. To cope with these problems, current paper shows, how the MBT approach can be introduced to students through a small scale example.

Subject Classification: P50

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Straight line or line segment? Students’ concepts and their thought processes
Published November 4, 2020
327-336

The article focuses on students’ understanding of the concept of a straight line. Attention is paid to whether students of various ages work with only part of a straight line shown or if they are aware that it can be extended. The presented results were obtained by a qualitative analysis of tests given to nearly 1,500 Czech students. The pape...r introduces the statistics of students’ solutions, and discusses the students’ thought processes. The results show that most of the tested students, even after completing upper secondary school, are not aware that a straight line can be extended. Finally, we present some recommendations for fostering the appropriate concept of a straight line in mathematics teaching.

Subject Classification: 97C30, 97D70, 97G40

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Willy Servais and Tamás Varga A Belgian Hungarian perspective on teaching school mathematics
Published November 4, 2020
29-38

Willy Servais and Tamás Varga had a major influence on the development of mathematics education during the 1960s and 1970s, both in their home countries and internationally. In 1971 they jointly published Teaching School Mathematics–A Unesco Source Book, a review of curriculum reforms that were under way in different parts of the world. The ...book, presenting several modern syllabuses as well as examples of classroom techniques and segments of teacher-student dialogues, provided an often consulted guide to the field of mathematics education. We re-read this book and in this way acquire a unique insight into the modernization efforts of school mathematics during the 1960s and early 1970s. We take this opportunity to discuss the sometimes partly divergent views of Servais and Varga on modern mathematics education as reflected in this book.

Subject Classification: 97-03

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Integrating elements of data science into high-school teaching: Naïve Bayes-classification algorithm and programming in Python
Published November 4, 2020
307-316

Probability theory and mathematical statistics are traditionally one of the most difficult chapters of mathematics to teach. One of the authors, Péter Princz has experience in teaching various topics via computer programming of the problem at hand as a class activity. The proposed method is to involve programming as a didactic tool in hard-to-...teach topics. The intended goal in this case is to implement a naïve Bayes-classifier algorithm in Python and demonstrate the machine-learning capabilities of it by applying it to a real-world dataset of edible or poisonous mushrooms. The students would implement the algorithm in a playful and interactive way. The proposed incremental development process aligns well with the spirit of Tamás Varga who considered computers as modern tools of experimental problem solving as early as in the 1960s.

Subject Classification: 97D40, 97D50, 97K50, 97K99, 97M60, 97P40, 97P50, 97U50

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Tamás Varga’s reform movement and the Hungarian Guided Discovery approach
Published November 4, 2020
11-28

This paper presents Tamás Varga’s work focusing especially on the Hungarian Complex Mathematics Education reform project led by him between 1963 and 1978 and the underlying conception on mathematics education named “Guided Discovery approach”. In the first part, I describe Varga’s career. In the second part, I situate his reform projec...t in its international and national historical context, including the international “New Math” movement and the “Guided Discovery” teaching tradition, something which is embedded in Hungarian mathematical culture. In the third part, I propose a didactic analysis of Varga’s conception on mathematics education, underlining especially certain of its characteristics which can be related to Inquiry Based Mathematics Education. Finally I briefly discuss Varga’s legacy today.

Subject Classification: 97-03, 97B20, 97D20, 97D40, 97D50

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Potential, actual and practical variations for teaching functions: cases study in China and France
Published November 4, 2020
157-166

This contribution is based on two major hypotheses: task design is the core of teachers’ work, and variation is the core of task design. Taking into account variation in task design has a profound theoretical foundation in China and France. Developing my PhD with two co-supervisors, in China and France, I wish to seize this opportunity for co...nstructing an analytic model of “teaching mathematics through variation” making profit of this theoretical diversity. This model distinguishes between potential variation and practical variation and is based on the process of transforming potential variation into actual variation, and of using practical variation for rethinking potential variation. The design of this model is based both on theoretical networking, and on case studies, in France and China. In this contribution, we will focus on a critical aspect in the two cases, from potential to practical variation.

Subject Classification: 97-06

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Report of the conference "Connecting Tamás Varga’s Legacy and Current Research in Mathematics Education": November 6-8, 2019, Budapest, Hungary
Published November 4, 2020
5-8

On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of the Hungarian mathematics educator, didactician and reform leader Tamás Varga, a conference on mathematics education has been organized in November 2019 and held at the Hungarian Academy of Science.

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Correction to Gofen (2013): "Powers which commute or associate as solutions of ODEs?", Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science 11 (2013), 241-254.
Published February 4, 2022
245

In the article "Powers which commute or associate as solutions of ODEs?" by Alexander Gofen (Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, 2013, 11(2), 241–254. https://doi.org/10.5485/TMCS.2013.0347), there was an error in Conjecture 1 (p. 250), and consequently..., in the References (p. 254).

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Realizing the problem-solving phases of Pólya in classroom practice
Published December 7, 2022
219-232

When teaching mathematical problem-solving is mentioned, the name of Pólya György inevitably comes to mind. Many problem-solving lessons are planned using Pólya's steps and helping questions, and teachers often rely on his heuristics even if their application happens unconsciously. In this article, we would like to examine how the two phases..., Making a plan and Looking back, can be realized in a secondary school mathematics lesson. A case study was designed to observe and analyse a lesson delivered using cooperative work.

Subject Classification: 97B10, 97C70, 97D40, 97D50

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0
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Teaching agile operation and leadership through linked university courses
Published September 13, 2022
1-32

Agile software development methods, especially Scrum, are commonly used in software development companies. For this reason, our goal was that our undergraduate students gain experience as Scrum development team members and our master's students as agile leaders. To this end, we had redesigned and linked an undergraduate and a master's course, a...nd launched the new course in the spring of 2021. The success of our approach was confirmed by a questionnaire survey of 86 undergraduate and 27 master's students. A/B testing was also performed. Our approach is a novelty compared to solutions where the Scrum Master is a course member, an instructor, or a university employee. In addition to being resource-efficient, it also offers master's students an unparalleled opportunity to develop agile leadership skills.

Subject Classification: 97U50

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Differentiated instruction not only for Mathematics teachers
Published February 4, 2022
163-182

The aim of differentiated development in a heterogeneous group of learners (DDHG) is to reduce school leaving without education, using an adaptive and innovative teaching-learning environment and using the most effective strategies, methods and techniques. Furthermore, this strategy helps in developing skills for learners and building cooperati...on between learners in heterogeneous classes through the use of the special, status-management educational procedure, and finally its strength is to sort the status ranking among learners, and to change the social structure of the class. Our goal is to figure out how to share best practices with teachers. One of the effective ways to renew teaching practice is through further training for teachers. As a trainer of the Logic-based subprogram of the Complex Basic Program (CBP) the author of the paper has experienced how well logic-based and decision-making strategies work in other subjects as well as in mathematics.

Subject Classification: 97D40

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Looking back on Pólya’s teaching of problem solving
Published December 7, 2022
207-217

This article is a personal reflection on Pólya's work on problem solving, supported by a re-reading of some of his books and viewing his film Let Us Teach Guessing. Pólya's work has had lasting impact on the goals of school mathematics, especially in establishing solving problems (including non-routine problems) as a major goal and in establi...shing the elements of how to teach for problem solving. His work demonstrated the importance of choosing rich problems for students to explore, equipping them with some heuristic strategies and metacognitive awareness of the problem solving process, and promoting 'looking back' as a way of learning from the problem solving experience. The ideas are all still influential. What has changed most is the nature of classrooms, with the subsequent appreciation of a supporting yet challenging classroom where students work collaboratively and play an active role in classroom discussion.

Subject Classification: 97D50, 97A30

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Manipulatives and semiotic tools of Game of Go as playful and creative activity to learn mathematics in early grades in France
Published November 4, 2020
197-206

This research develops resources to teach mathematics in French primary school by using the game of Go. A group of searchers, teachers and go players meet at university to produce teaching resources. These resources are implemented in the classroom. Then the group evaluate this implementation and improve the resources. The aim of this classroom... research is to study the opportunities of the game of Go to learn mathematics and to propose a teacher training course to implement the game of Go in French primary schools in accordance with the French syllabus. Game of Go appears as a manipulative and semiotic tool to learn mathematics at primary school.

Subject Classification: 97D50, 97U60

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Visualisation in geometry education as a tool for teaching with better understanding
Published November 4, 2020
337-346

In primary and secondary geometry education, some problems exist with pupils’ space thinking and understanding of geometric notions. Visualisation plays an important role in geometry education, and the development of pupils’ visualisation skills can support their spatial imagination. The authors present their own thoughts on the potential o...f including visualisation in geometry education, based on the analysis of the Hungarian National Core Curriculum and Slovak National Curriculum. Tasks for visualisation are also found in international studies, for example the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Augmented reality (AR) and other information and communication technology (ICT) tools bring new possibilities to develop geometric thinking and space imagination, and they also support mathematics education with better understanding.

Subject Classification: 97U10, 97G10

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Mapping students’ motivation in a problem oriented mathematics classroom
Published November 4, 2020
111-121

This research focuses on mapping students’ motivation by implementing problem-solving activities, namely how the problem-oriented approach affects the students’ commitment, motivation, and attitude to learning. As a practicing teacher, the author faced difficulties with motivation and sought to improve her practice in the form of action res...earch as described in this paper. Based on the literature, the author describes sources of motivation as task interest, social environment, opportunity to discover, knowing why, using objects, and helping others. The author discusses the effect of problem-oriented teaching on the motivation of 7th-grade students. In this paper, the results of two lessons are presented.

Subject Classification: 97C20, 97D40, 97D50, 97D60

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