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Spatial distribution of selected soil features in Hajdú-Bihar county represented by digital soil maps
Published September 17, 2016
203-213

With the ongoing DOSoReMI.hu project we aimed to significantly extend the potential, how soil information requirements could be satisfied in Hungary. We started to compile digital soil maps, which fulfil optimally general as well as specific national and international demands from the aspect of thematic, spatial and temporal accuracy. In additi...on to relevant and available auxiliary, spatial data themes related to soil forming factors and/or to indicative environmental elements we heavily lean on the various national soil databases. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques is gradually broadened. In our paper we present some results in the form of brand new soil maps focusing on the territory of Hajdú-Bihar county.

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181
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Interpolation and 3D visualization of soil moisture
Published December 31, 2017
23-34

Adaptation to climate change demands the optimal and sustainable water management in agriculture, with an inevitable focus on soil moisture conditions. In the current study we developed an ArcGIS 10.4. platform-based application (software) to model spatial and temporal changes in soil moisture in a soy field. Six SENTEK Drill & Drop soil mo...isture sensors were deployed in an experimental field of 4.3 hectares by the contribution of Elcom Ltd. Soil moisture measurement at each location were taken at six depths (5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 cm) in 60-minute intervals. The model is capable to spatially interpolate monitored soil moisture using the technique. The time sequence change of soil moistures can be tracked by a Time Slider for both the 2D and 3D visualization. Soil moisture temporal changes can be visualized in either daily or hourly time intervals, and can be shown as a motion figure. Horizon average, maximum and minimum values of soil moisture data can be identified with the builtin tool of ArcGIS. Soil moisture spatial distribution can be obtained and plotted at any cross sections, whereas an alarm function has also been developed for tension values of 250, 1,000 and 1,500 kPa.

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248
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Examination of the heavy metal uptake of carrot (daucus carota) in different soil types
Published December 31, 2009
56-70

In this paper the heavy metal uptake of carrot (Daucus carota) is studied in sample areas with
different soil types. Our aim is to examine how the different soil types possessing different
characteristics affect the heavy metal uptake and distribution in the plant. Correlation analyses were
carried out in order to determine which of th...e total heavy metal concentrations and soil characteristics
(pH, CaCO3-content, humus content, granulometric composition) play the most important role in the
uptake of the Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn and in the metal distribution in the examined plant. Soil and
plant samples were collected from 5 different Hungarian areas in July, 2008. In the cases of soils with
different soil characteristics, the examined plants are supposed to give varied physiological responses.
During the examination we proved that the genetic type and the heavy metal content of the soil do not
significantly affect the heavy metal uptake of carrot. The granulometric composition of the soil has
the most considerable effect but this factor only affects the rate of the metal uptake in 50% of the
examined heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Zn).

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Accuracy assessment of different soil databases concerning WRB reference soil groups
Published May 2, 2016
1-12

As a result of international cooperation, the conditions of data access and data usage have been significantly improved during the last two decades. Also, the establishment of web-based geoinformatic infrastructure allowed researchers to share their results with the scientific community more efficiently on the international level. The aim of th...is study is to investigate the accuracy of databases with different spatial resolutions, using the reference profiles of LUCAS topsoil database. In our study, we investigated the accuracy of World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) Reference Soil Groups (RSG) groups stored in freely accessible soil databases (European Soil Database (ESDB), International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC)) in Hungary. The study concluded that the continental scale database tends to be more accurate. We used the Kappa Index of Agreement (KIA) statistical index to evaluate accuracy. The European and the international databases showed a value of 0.9643 and 0.3968, respectively. Considering the results, we can conclude that the spatial resolution has a relevant impact on the accuracy of databases, however, the study should be extended to the national level and the indices should be assessed together.

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145
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Comparison of soil moisture indices and field measurements in hilly agricultural lands of SW Hungary
Published July 14, 2021
50-57

The retention of surface runoff and the preservation of soil moisture are among the most important water-related ecosystem services. In addition to field monitoring, advanced remote sensing techniques have been devised to reveal soil moisture dynamics on agricultural land. In our study we compare two soil moisture indices, TWI and SAVI, in thre...e agricultural areas with different land use types. The SAVI has been found suitable to point out spatial variation on the moisture conditions of the vadose zone.

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142
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Field pedological characterisation of two transects along the inner and outer sides of a sixty years old Tisza dike - a contribution to the problem of primary and secondary alkali grasslands
Published December 31, 2009
87-112

Two transects were studied by field pedological investigations and soil bulk electrical conductivity measurements in order to understand the effect of a 60 year old dike along the Tisza River on soil formation and vegetation composition. There were no great differences in the soil properties. The soil is more saline and wetter inside the dike a...nd vegetation reflected this environment. We hypothesize that the increasing build up of the riverbed might contribute to the contrast in soil and groundwater salinity between the area inside and the area outside the dike, similarly as conceptualised by Kuti (1989) for the Danube area, but at a much smaller distance.

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Estimating soil loss from a watershed in Western Deccan, India, using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation
Published April 19, 2016
13-25

USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) is the original and the most widely accepted soil loss estimation technique till date which has evolved from a design tool for conservation planning to a research methodology all across the globe. The equation has been revised and modified over the years and became a foundation for several new soil loss model...s developed all around the world. The equation has been revised as RUSLE by Renard et al. (1991) and is computed in GIS environment. The Revised equation is landuse independent which makes it a useful technique to apply in a variety of environment. The present paper is an attempt to estimate soil loss from a semi-arid watershed in Western Deccan, India by employing RUSLE. The region is a rocky terrain and sediments are restricted to only a few localities. The result indicates that the region is at the threshold of soil tolerance limit.

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203
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Heavy metal loads in the soil of Debrecen
Published December 31, 2007
57-67

Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil
of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects
of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy
metal content of the soils hav...e been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.
Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the
sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the
flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the
forested area of the Nagyerdő were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the
soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, CalciumCarbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution) on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the
soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy
soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds,
recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

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Case study for estimation of the amount of contaminants stored in soil in an industrial area
Published October 7, 2021
1-11

One of the main sources of contaminants in the soil is industrial activity which has become one of the major environmental problems of the last few decades. The development of geoinformatics as well as the introduction of standards and regulations has led to a decreased risk of soil contamination and the cost-effective optimization of remediati...on activities. Based on the above, the aim of our study is to demonstrate the geoinformation processing of the remediation performed in an industrial area located in the Great Hungarian Plain, with special regard to the estimation of the amount and spread of the contaminants accumulated in the soil. In order to reveal the lithological and hydrogeological properties of the investigated area and the environmental status of the underground areas, we performed a large number of shallow land drillings (115). During the field sampling, 1000–1500 grams of samples were collected from the drill bit and were processed in an accredited laboratory. Based on the concentration and volume models created it can be concluded that with the estimations performed via modeling, we were able to locate the most critical areas from the standpoint of contamination. It was revealed that the focal point of the contaminants accumulated in the soil was in the central part of the investigated area. Furthermore, the model demonstrated the effect of lithological factors, since contaminants tend to accumulate more heavily in cohesive soils compared to porous rocks. The extent of contaminant concentration in the aquifer increased with decreasing depth; however, after reaching the floor clay the extent of contaminant concentration began to decrease. The lithological layer closest to the surface contained the most contaminants.

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Soil aggregate stablity, organic carbon and plant available nutrient contents (N,P) in soils of prehistoric mounds after abandonment of cultivation
Published May 4, 2015
42-50

Prehistoric mounds are valuable archeological and nature conservational sites of the Hungarian lowland. However, due to the machinery cultivation most of them were plowed during the 20th century. After setting new legislative frames of their preservation, former cultivated mounds were abandoned and spontaneous regeneration processes of vegetati...on and soil could initiate on the ex lege mounds. Four mounds situated within the National Park of Hortobágy were investigated after their cultivation were abandoned, regarding their most important soil properties such as aggregate stability, bulk density, nitrogenous and phosphorous content, pH, organic carbon content and secondary carbonates.

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107
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Human health risk assessment: a case study of heavy metal contamination of garden soils in Szeged
Published September 26, 2009
11-27

The soils of the big cities, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by
heavy metals. The surroundings of the roads with heavy traffic as significant metal emitter source can
be contaminated by heavy metals. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads
can be potential risky for people sin...ce unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into
organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden.
Most metals are well-known to have toxic characters but we have known little what extent these
metals exert influence on people living directly along road with busy traffic. During our research,
metal contamination has been investigated in the gardens near the roads with heavy traffic in Szeged
by measuring of metal contents in soil and plants samples. Enrichment factor has been calculated with
the help of control soil samples far from roads having heavily traffic. Besides determination of the
metal content of soil and plant samples, soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility has
been examined in order to characterize the buffering capacity of the studied soils. The health risk
quotients have also been determined to evaluate human health risk of the contaminated soils.

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19
Spatial and temporal pattern of soil pH and Eh and their impact on solute iron content in a wetland (Transdanubia, Hungary)
Published December 31, 2008
34-45

Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils.
The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil and
vegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation) and the pH,
Eh of soils and solute iron in a hea...dwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have
been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia,
three patches and two species), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), common nettle (Urtica dioica). The
spatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography,
climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the
shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR). Root
respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured
individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown
seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions) and higher pH values
were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants
causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an
essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effects
through plants on wetlands.

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Modelling the effects of long-term urban land use change on the water balance
Published December 31, 2008
143-159

The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and
the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of
current and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the
increasing intensity of soil usage, ...in many urban landscapes the soil conditions has deteriorated. The
natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by
land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, the
decline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies.
In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly
how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use
change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve our
general understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term water
balance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid
to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

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Landuse/landcover change process in a tropi¬cal semi-arid zone: case of two rural com¬munes (Chadakori and Saé-Saboua) in Maradi region, Republic of Niger
Published November 22, 2019
1-12

The study aimed to analyze the process of Landuse/Landcover change of two rural communes (Saé
Saboua and Chadakori) of Maradi region (Republic of Niger) over the past 28 years (1986 – 2014),
through landscape structure analysis by diachronic cartographic approach and landscape indices. Mixed
classification of temporal series of Land...sat images led to identifying six Landuse/Landcover (LULC)
classes, namely ”cultivated land under shrubs and trees”, ”cultivated land under trees”, “continuous
cropland”, ”fallow/pasture land”, ”forest reserve”, and ”settlement”. The composition and structure of
the studied landscapes have greatly changed from 1986 to 2014. The class ”cultivated land under trees”
was the landscape matrix in 1986 with 38.65% of landscape total area but in 2001 and 2014 the class
”continuous cropland” became the landscape matrix. The changes also affected the ”forest reserve”
which was transformed to smallholder agricultural land from 1986 to 2014. The area occupied by
classes ”cultivated land under trees” changed from 38.65% in 1986 to 8.78% in 2014; and from 1986
to 2014, the area occupied by ”fallow/pasture land” has decreased of about 16%. The decrease in these
classes was in favor of ¨continuous crop land¨, ¨settlement¨ and “cultivated land under shrubs and trees”
which respectively gained 38%, 0.3% and 8.15% of their areas in 1986. The results of this study reflect
the problem of access to land and even land saturation in semi-arid region, a consequence of strong
population growth. They also contribute to a better rethinking of agricultural practices in order to initiate
adaptation and resilience strategies for the population facing food insecurity and poverty.

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157
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Heavy metal content of flood sediments and plants near the River Tisza
Published December 31, 2008
120-131

The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the
source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,
aquatic environment etc.) but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards,
pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can ...be found here. They play a significant role in the life of the
people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the
river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of
them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we
study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain
and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical
distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studied
area does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of
metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals
in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality
of flood.

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Geographic features and environmental consequences of coffee tourism and coffee consumption in Budapest.
Published July 14, 2021
10-15

As a survey by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2019) confirms coffee is consumed in 83% of Hungarian households, thus our country can be considered to be one of the major coffee drinking nations.   At the end of the 19th century and the turn of the twentieth Budapest with its internationally famous and unique coffee culture ...was known as the coffeehouse capital. Post-modern tourism revived this tradition and coffee became once again a favourite consumer item while cafés turned into scenes of community life. The latest stage of the coffeehouse renaissance was partly due to the increasing role of American type café chains including McCafé, Starbucks, California Coffee Company etc. and the drop in the price of the Arabica coffee. Our research focuses on the impact of this new type of coffee consumption wave on the coffee habits of Hungarians. The American café chains have become widespread in Europe and their ability to keep the price of coffee low worldwide demonstrates significant market power. While coffee consumption has several benefits from a physiological point of view, its environmental impact is detrimental to the planet. Coffee cultivation contributes to the destruction of rainforests, the changing of the soil and last but not least results in a high amount of solid waste due to the popularity of coffee capsules. Our treatise explores these concerns as well.

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219
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Heavy metal concentracions in the soils and vegetation of the Béke-cave watershed (Aggtelek-karst, Hungary)
Published December 28, 2015
51-58

Our research took place on karstic area in Aggtelek National Park in Hungary. The heavy metal content of soils with three different texture and in the plants of the natural vegetation (oak- , hornbeam-, corn leaves, greenery) were studied. Ratio of total (acid soluble) metal contents and bioavailable metal contents of the soils were calculated.... Based on these results we determined the mobility of the metals in different soils. Used the metal contents of the soils and the vegetation we set up a sequence of the mobility of the metals between the soil and the most frequent plant species.

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145
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Flood model for the Bódva catchment
Published June 8, 2015
12-26

In term of floods the current area of Hungary has extensively been endangered. Modelling of flood processes – mainly following the hydrological events in the riverbed – has recently been developed. As far as protection dykes provide protection of the inhabited and agricultural areas, the flood models can run with acceptable preciseness. How...ever, when dykes cannot withstand against the increasing load and a dyke burst occurs, fast and efficient protection measures shall be taken in the protected areas. The dynamic 4D Flood model presented in this paper makes possible a fast modelling of dyke burst occurring in the protected side and spreading of water mass, based on real parameters. For this reason the features of protected area shall be recognised, for example topology of creeks, features of agricultural and inhabited areas, parameters of roads, railways, rainwater drainage, buildings, natural conditions (soil parameters, meteorological characteristics, etc.). The results satisfy the comprehensive demands of the Directorate General for Disaster Prevention of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. In case of dyke burst, the completed Flood Model can run the expected events of the next hour in a few minutes. This time is enough for the specialists to bring operative decisions to protect the inhabitants and avoid material losses.

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116
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Characterization of urban aerosol sources in Debrecen, Hungary
Published December 31, 2008
109-119

Debrecen is an average middle European city from the point of view of aerosol pollution. Its location
makes the city an ideal place for observing aerosol transport processes. Systematic investigation of
atmospheric aerosol of the east-Hungarian region has been performed in the Institute of Nuclear
Research of the Hungarian Academy of S...ciences for 20 years by accelerator based elemental
analytical technique. As a complementation of this research we observed the size distribution and
short-term time variation of the elemental component of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-PM2.5) urban
aerosol in the frame of sampling campaigns during 2007 and 2008 in a downtown site of Debrecen.
Meteorological parameters were also recorded parallel to the aerosol sampling. Elemental
concentrations (Z ≥ 12) were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical
technique at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications (IBA) of the ATOMKI. On the obtained
database six sources of the urban aerosol were identified: 2 types of soil, domestic heating, sulphate
originating from long range transport processes, an unidentified source enriched with chlorine and
traffic. Emission episodes were also observed. The short-time variation of urban aerosol combined
with meteorological data and with mass size distribution serves as a basis to reach a better
understanding of the aerosol sources in receptor areas, to select local emission and long range
transport episodes, to follow the evolution of aerosol, and to make a better estimate on the health
impact.

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Wind damage on trees following hurricane Sandy and implications for city landscaping: Glen Ridge - Montclair towns, New Jersey
Published May 28, 2013
1-11

Glen Ridge is a small municipality in the Northern New Jersey with a significant number of huge trees lining majority of its streets. The trees have been subject to a wide range of natural and artificial stresses, one being the strong wind associated with superstorm Sandy. On 29th October 2012, a windstorm of extreme intensity struck the Trista...te region and brought havoc to the tree population including those in Glen Ridge. A survey was conducted immediately after the storm to collect quantitative information on fallen tree population. The study aimed at understanding the spatial extent of wind damage on trees with reference to location, trunk diameter and soil characteristics. A total of 51 fallen trees with a mean trunk diameter of 100.4 centimetres along streets in study area were surveyed. High damage was noted on trees in Glen Ridge (29 trees) while streets transitioning to Montclair had 22 fallen trees. Majority of the surveyed trees were found on USBOO soils (49%), which are characterised as disturbed urban soils with Boonton substratum-Boonton complexes. BowrB soils had 27.5%, Boob 13.7%, BowrC 7.8% and USDUNB 2.0% of fallen trees. A need for city wide tree inventorying and species mapping is identified as a management implication to further enhance the historical value of the city. Other measures are discussed with a view of engaging appropriate local management partnerships and coordination frameworks to play a role in protecting the remaining large trees.

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