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Changes in the personal income tax system in Hungary (1988-2014)
Published August 6, 2020
23-33

Since its introduction, the Hungarian income tax system has been going through a continuous restructuring process. In my analysis I examine the main changes which have occurred in the Hungarian personal income tax system from the 1990s to the present day. I have also made a short international detour regarding the flat tax system as it seems th...at global trends also favor simplification. Flat-rate tax might interfere with the tax principle of equity, but it can ease
verifiability and the declaration of income for tax return and might help to decrease tax administration costs and tax evasion. The most successful reforms which resulted in the improvement of tax morale, transparency and increased tax receipts were the ones which involved the reduction of benefits and exemptions. I have examined how the annual changes in the personal income tax system will affect the tax burden of private entities.

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62
2708
EXAMINATION OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE TAX BURDEN ON ECONOMIC COMPANIES
Published August 21, 2020
1-7

Taxing a wide range of businesses is a signify major challenge in nowadays economic, social life. The topicality of the study is indicated by the fact that the Hungarian tax system has been transformed in recent years. We analyze by respect to tax benefits the extent of the tax burden at companies in the course of the research. The enterprise s...ector data are examined from three sides whereby we search for statistically verifiable relationships between the pre-tax profit, the tax benefits used and the tax payable. We investigate what regional and settlement differences can be located in the tax burden of businesses. Tax revenue appears to be highly concentrated by territorial distribution. The question arises to what extent the development of the region influences the proportion of the tax benefits used. In our results, there is a significant difference experienced in the corporate tax burden on enterprises of settlement.

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131
332
The significane of environmental taxes used for mitigating the environment harmful impacts of road transportation
Published August 21, 2020
47-53

Logistics is one of the most important economic sectors of the European Union, with nearly 1.134 million companies engaged in the field of transportation in the EU. The global logistics market is expected to show further expansion in the forthcoming years. On the other side stands global warning which is one of the greatest problems for the tim...e being. The European Commission has announced a cross-sectoral investment programme worth more than 10 billion euros (nearly 3,200 billion Hungarian forints) for the planning, development and implementation of low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies to improve Europe’s global competitiveness. The common data base of OECD and the European Environment Agency (EEA) currently lists 375 environmental taxes and approximately 250 environmental fees or charges in the OECD countries. Among the EU member states, Sweden, for example, introduced a tax system which includes the essential elements of eco-tax more than 10 years ago. Hungary has several of such tax types, such as the excise tax on fuel, the energy tax, the energy suppliers’ income tax or the vehicle tax.

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66
89
The Fat Tax in 2011 and in 2012
Published August 6, 2020
40-47

Approximately 119 million of the US population, that is 64.5 percent of the adult US population are either overweight or obese. 17.5 million young, obese people live in the European Union. The proportion of overweight or obese people is higher than 60% in Hungary. It causes a dramatic increase in health expenditure. Possible solutions include t...he introduction of a fat tax. Hungary introduced the fat tax in 2011. The rate of fat tax has increased in 2012.

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13
12
Theoretical and Practical Problems of Local Tax
Published August 6, 2020
15-20

The local tax revenues constitute a considerable item in the budget revenues of the Hungarian economy. My paper gives an insight into the local tac policies of some Eu Countries, and also into the Hungarian local tax revenue opportunities. Besides the theoretical approach I describe the role of local taxes in the budget of the town of Szolnok.<.../p>

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59
85
AWARENESS OF THE ADVANTAGES OF VOL-UNTARY MUTUAL FUNDS ACCOUNT
Published August 21, 2020
13-20

Building upon the results of my dissertation, in the course of my research I studied that how households know and take advantages of tax benefits of Voluntary Mutual Funds. It is im-portant to find out the reasons why it is losing its relevance and why the households are not making better use of the related government grants. In my present arti...cle I discuss the ac-quaintance of Voluntary Mutual Funds Account, with its advantages and disadvantages. Also the functions of households in the Budget, or in other words, what unexploited opportu-nities are there, that are worth utilizing in every household with the appropriate financial knowledge. I examine the answer to the question to how the households could be influenced, or influenced better to take advantage of several government grants, or to do that more effi-ciently. In the interest of this it is necessary to develop people’s financial culture on the ap-propriate level. Government regulations are not enough. It cannot reach its aim properly, if there are problems with the flow of information in the course of coding or decoding, prevent-ing the appropriate communication.

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60
95
Aids of the civil society organizations
Published August 6, 2020
13-18

During our research we examined the position of civil society organizations. We collected various forms of civil union aids and we gathered the concepts and crules of fundraising. We were curious about what are the main sources of revenue, especially for the civil society organizations, that are located in Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok county; which are... the most common fundraising strategies; how permanent donation is typical these days; and the proportion of the 1 percent offered from the personal income tax in the income sources. The Hungarian experience shows that the smaller organizations can rarely apply for support. Even if they can apply for a grant, the implementation or transact meet with difficulties. This is why we think, that the government is able to change that with a reform of the granting system, giving help for the non-governmental organisations in need.

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43
130
The Encouragement of Household Savings
Published August 6, 2020
61-70

Savings are important not only for the individual, but also for the macro economy because the macro economy can only finance expansion investments from savings. Savings constitute an important element in the development of lending activity. However there is a connection between the development of income and savings. Our research team examined t...he importance and the role of savings and self-care for households considering the current difficult economic and financial situation. Currently a primary research is being carried out in the form of a questionnaire in the course of which households are asked about their saving habits and assets structure.

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24
21
Foreign trade possibilities of the Fruit – Vegetable sector in the future
Published August 6, 2020
102-112

Hungary can be considered as a small, open economy, therefore the domestic market doesn’t provide enough possibility to sell the grown and produced agricultural products, exportation is vital. In the year of 2010 Hungary had trading activity on the field of agricultural products with 151 countries, which has grown to 164 countries by 2013. Ac...cording to the Strategy of the Fruit- Vegetable Sector the production target is 3,5 million tons for the year of 2020. This target has already been reached in 1990, since then the average production is 2 – 2,5 million tons yearly. We can increase our foreign trade only if the properly classified, carefully packed products can be delivered in the requested quality on the contracted time. Perhaps this is the most sensitive territory where the Hungarian producers are falling back from the international trends. Due to the lack of cash and capital the technological and technical development of the is missing, the trade channels are getting more and more narrow, which will lead to loosing of the market. Nowadays the main problem of the Hungarian Vegetable-Fruit sector is the diminishing quantity of marketable goods, despite of the fact, that the sector could remain a net exporter. The presence of the black market is overwhelming in Hungary which makes the sector vulnerable and hard to regulate. Despite of several good examples and successful enterprises it is still true that the majority of the producers are lacking the needed technological, marketing, management and trade knowledge. They insist on using their obsolete methods, and not willing to learn and change. There is a problem in the forecast of the expected yield. The Vegetable-Fruit sector is the
most export driven part of the Hungarian agricultural sector as it is selling more than the 50% of all production abroad. In order to be sustain this share it would be fruitable to have a more favorable tax policy and the revision, cancellation of the „Primary producer” system. In each case the main problem is that there is no common base and trust between the trader, producer and management. This is why it might happen that a member of the TÉSZ is willing to sell his product outside the system, because this way he thinks to have safe income. As the organization doesn’t have a safe base of products for sale they can not develop the market and if they have no safe market, due to the missing trust there will be no safe base of products for sale, and the circle is closed and the whole problem starts again.

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51
95
Financial Planning in Diff erent Household Life Cycles
Published August 6, 2020
5-15

Households are characterised by diff erent life cycles with diff erent income structures and expenses. They have to be considered and planned in ti me, so that their fi nancial background can be ensured. Regarding effi ciency households are able to make their opti mal choices from diff erent alternati ves on the basis of their own system of obj...ecti ves. In many cases households are unable to make these eff ecti ve decisions, which is usually due to the low level of their fi nancial culture. There are certain points in people’s lives when it is useful to have a large amount of savings. One of these points is the old age when people cannot earn a suffi cient amount of money. The other one takes place when someone starts his or her career or a family and when they make a living so as to be able to support themselves. One alternati ve of household life cycles is to set up their own business and operate it. Even during the operati on of  interprises we can diff erenti ate several life cycles. Households taking up enterprises are usually able to plan the necessary fi nancial background to launch their businesses and to prepare business plans for a profi table operati on as well as adjust them to changes, which is not an easy task. In our research we write about savings and we describe their roles in given life cycles. This writi ng includes some important elements of our research.

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14
60
REJTETT GAZDASÁG ÉS A COVID-19 JÁRVÁNY ÖSSZEFÜGGÉSEI
Published November 18, 2020

BeHidden, black, untaxed or shadow economy, all terms mean the same thing, but even though we have several words about the phenomenon, many people do not know what it is, its extent and there are no exact values about how the black economy is developing in Hungary. A black economy is, in short, the part of the economy after which no tax has bee...n paid, so for example, the activity that takes place or the employment takes place in black is unofficial. We talk a lot about it, and the government is also making more and more efforts to whiten the economy. As a result of a number of measures taken, there are rumors that the shadow economy has been reduced. What exactly is a hidden economy? To what extent is the tax-free economy in Hungary? Can the existence of the black economy be completely abolished, can the economy be completely bleached? I am looking for answers to these questions within the framework of this scientific article. What is the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the hidden economy and what responses might the government have?

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The Introduction of IFRS at the Level of Individual Reports
Published August 6, 2020
140-143

In recent years, there is a need for public limited companies registered in stock exchange not to do bookkeeping according to the Hungarian Accouni ng Act and prepare their annual reports in accordance with it. Instead of it, prepare consolidated annual fi nancial statements under IFRS. This could lead to a signifi cant reduci on of administrai... ve burden, as management makes every business decision based on IFRS instead of the Hungarian Accouni ng Act; especially in cases
where the determinai on of the corporate income tax is based on fi nancial statements prepared in accordance with internai onal standards.

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59
207
The Impact of Corruption and Hidden Economy on the Operation of the SME Sector
Published August 6, 2020
141-151

Corrupti on is a complex phenomenon related to hidden economy, which is also a barrier to economic development and hinders the outbreak from the crisis. Corrupti on is becoming a more sophisti cated instrument of hidden economies and is present in every country parallel to the ever intense accelerati on of our globalized world. Its extent depen...ds on, among other things, economic dispariti es, social deformati ons, unequal burden-sharing, the rather ingenious forms of tax evasion, social morality, the country’s economic development, controlling mechanism and, more importantly, the subtle relati ons of economic crime with the prevailing powers. Hidden economy and corrupti on are interrelated phenomena. Uneven economic development, unemployment, social insecurity, contradicti ons of the legal regulati ons, and lack of transparency all provide an incenti ve to the violati on of ethical business practi ces, the exploitati on of the benefi ts of economic crime, the reinvestment of such profi ts into the business sphere and the appearance of corrupti on in the politi cal decision-making. Corrupti on is a social symptom, a subsistence constraint, a deviant form as well as a status security instrument, the mild (moral) judgment of which encourages parti cipati on in the hidden economy and economic crises. If the state or the politi cs seeks to infl uence the development of the economy and assumes excessive responsibility or procurer function, it diminishes the principle of public burdens and supports the expansion of corrupti on and the operati on of hidden economy at the sametime.

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69
144
Is there a Way out? Assessment of the Situai on of the Hungarian Poultry Sector?
Published August 6, 2020
26-34

The topic of our presentai on is the assessment of the current situai on of the Hungarian poultry sector. According to a forecast issued by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), of all types of meat, poultry meat produci on may expand to the greatest extent over the period of 2011 to 2020. The quesi on is whether it is possible fo...r Hungary to take advantage of this favourable situai on. We will outline the history of the poultry sector since the transii on period, the impact of the accession to the European Union and the current situai on and the problems of the sector. We will discuss the sector’s compei i ve disadvantages (drop in exports, growth of imports, technological backwardness, lack of sector strategy, underdeveloped integrai on etc.). We will also include other factors that make the situai on of the sector harder (energy prices, feed prices, tax system, black economy, etc.). Finally, we will examine the possible strategic steps to improve the situai on of the sector.

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68
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The Auditing System in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
21-30

The auditing work goes back several decades in Hungary. Following the change of the political and economic regime the professional auditing of tax returns of companies and the discovery of mistakes and deliberate errors became necessary in the emerging market economy. Auditing - apart from the supervision of enterprises - includes the examinati...on of the utilization of competition resources and the authentication of accounts. The auditors strive to ensure the purity
of entrepreneurial public life. It is an important fact from the point of view of judging this work that the auditors are not official people, they do their work as entrepreneurs and are liable for its accuracy with all their assets.

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67
399
HELP! What should i do? -the lack of financial knowledge in hungarian households
Published August 6, 2020
116-121

Financial planning, the propensity to save and self-caring habits effect not only the households' financial management, but they effect the economical, political, social and cultural situation of the whole country. The intellectual skills of hungarians are undeveloped, which stems from the lack of financial literacy of individuals. More and mor...e people realize the need for economic and financial knowledge since the 2008 economic crisis, and that the development of financial culture is essential. In our research we examined, how the financial awareness and the willingness to save of individuals and households can be influenced.

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Financial Management, the Savings of Life Cycles in Everyday Life
Published August 21, 2020
40-49

‘Money rules the world’ (BALYÓ, 2004, p. 3.) – it is an often used slogan which really determines our life. From an early age we realize how essential money is for us. It accompanies all our life. The quality of our life depends on how we can deal with our budget to be able to put aside as well. We can buy all the necessary items for eve...ryday life but we have to manage well in order to be able to achieve our objectives, too. During our life our individual and common goals are also essential. The right and appropriate decisions have a great share in using our money. There is outstanding importance of being conscious, sober-minded, and precise and up-to-date during planning. We have to take into consideration the opinion of all the family members. Decisions need to be made together if possible. In this study we would like to emphasize the role of self-care in different life cycles as well as show the result of our related primary research.

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