Vol 7, No 3 (2014)

Published September 8, 2014

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Articles

The Criminal Code and nature conservation
6-12

In my study of the XX. Jubilee International Student Conference on the Environment and Rural Development Programme fittingly made a complation in which the values of conservation and environment-focused collegaue, I wish to offer an insight into the changes in the Criminal Code, in which the position of the legislation, I present to the reader.... In the interpretation of the law is an appropriate description of the former Minister's legislation and I reveal to the reader to more easily understood and behaviors penalties for crimes related to the individual nature.

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Aids of the civil society organizations
13-18

During our research we examined the position of civil society organizations. We collected various forms of civil union aids and we gathered the concepts and crules of fundraising. We were curious about what are the main sources of revenue, especially for the civil society organizations, that are located in Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok county; which are... the most common fundraising strategies; how permanent donation is typical these days; and the proportion of the 1 percent offered from the personal income tax in the income sources. The Hungarian experience shows that the smaller organizations can rarely apply for support. Even if they can apply for a grant, the implementation or transact meet with difficulties. This is why we think, that the government is able to change that with a reform of the granting system, giving help for the non-governmental organisations in need.

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The opportunity of the agricultural training in the southern parts of Heves county
19-23

The role and significance of education and vocational training are unquestionable. It is essential for the development of the region to have educated residents. Skills that can be acquired on compulsory and optional courses are important for agricultural activities. It is visible from the data of the 8 observed settlements that the number of su...bmitted applications is low and most of the submitted applications are related to compulsory trainings. The increase of the number of people participating in the training could have a significant role in the development of the region since it would result in extra income as a complementary activity.

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The Perspectives of Theological Thinking in Ecologically Driven Food Consumption Ethics
24-28

Analysis of the complex environmental effects of food production and consumption points to the need of examining the ethical side of these issues. The study is is looking for possible answers to the questions 1.) what connections theology and theological ethics have to the current ecological crisis in a historic perspective, 2.) what emphasis e...ating, food production and consumption receive in ecotheological ethics, and 3.) whether contemporary theology is able to offer approaches which are acceptable and inspiring for audiences from a wider ecoethical background.

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Is migration hindering or assisting economic development? An analysis of international experiences
29-34

The economic and political transition taking place in Central-East Europe has brought about a lot of changes the consequences of which make an impact – among others – on the working conditions, income levels and general living conditions of the population. These changes helped to open up the economy as well as society and made it possible t...o enjoy a feeling of freedom in several realms of life. The question is how the individual is able to exploit this freedom in his own life situation? Of the possibilities brought by the EU accession in 2004, internal migration is getting more and more significant. Is this a new phenomenon characteristic of only Europe and why has it increased so much in the past decade? The issue of emigration must be tackled from several aspects of which I will focus on three in my present paper. These are the necessity of finding employment abroad, the options of the individual worker and the policies of the host country in assisting settlement of the immigrant. Earlier this year, with the help of a TEMPUS grant, I had the opportunity to take a study trip in Belgium specialising in this topic. I would also like to share the experiences of this one-week program with you.

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The comparison between the environmental performance index of the wood-gas as an alternative fuel and the life cycle assessment rate of the lpg, and gasoline-powered vehicles
35-44

This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment of the wood gas powered car. I have compared the results with the data of the gas powered cars. The wood gas powered cars will be presented from their invention up to this day. I will describe in detail the chemical composition of different types of trees, the heating value and the reaction equation...s of gasification. I have made a cost analysis and I have concluded that if wood gas is used as petrol, the costs can be reduced significantly.

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The regulation of water pollution in public international law
45-51

The article aims to enlighten the significance of freshwater protection against pollution in international law. It focuses on the relevant legal sources, such as the rules of the International Law Association, the UN Watercourses Convention, as well as the principles of international environmental law. Furthermore, it highlights the relationshi...p between freshwaters and the state of the marine environment.

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Vermicomposting of communal sewage sludge
52-60

The proper management of communal sewage sludge is a priority aim in today’s environmental protection. Among the possible technologies one environmentally sustainable sludge treatment technology can be the vermicomposting of communal sewage sludge. Before the successful operational level vermicomposting is absolutely necessary to investigate ...the process of vermicomposting in laboratory controlled conditions. In our studies vermicomposting of communal sewage sludge was carried out by comparing two earthworm populations in laboratory. During 6-week experimental period the temperature (with soil thermometer) and the redox potential (with ORP portable device) were measured every other day. The weekly, measured, basis parameters were the compost visual appearance, color and smell, pH (H2O), dry matter content, organic matter content, EC (conductivity), from which the total salt content can be calculated, total nitrogen content, phosphorus content (P2O5), potassium content (K2O), calcium and magnesium content, humus content (H%), determining the humus quality according to Hargitai’s method and dehydrogenase enzyme activity. It can be concluded from the results that the vermicomposting of studied communal sewage sludge has started and keeps going. The basic physical and chemical parameters (e.g. temperature, humus quality and quantity) support the changes. The results of humus quality and quantity which are priority variables of agriculture use show average increasing despite the initial recession. The changes of the important chemical parameters (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in nutrient management were developed favorably. In our presentation the previous laboratory results are described.

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The possibilities of companies how to reduce their emmisions
61-68

The sustainability and its key element, the environmental awareness has been known for decades, however in general can be said that in the decision making the short term economic profit is still more dominant both on the individual and company levels. In last few years the rapid growth of CO2 emission is now not just risking the human life but ...the flora and fauna is in heavy danger. The concerns pay more attention on their short-term profits instead of the environmental protection. First of all with the change of the leadership attitude can reach the environmentally conscious organization that can support the reduction of the emissions, so the improvement of the atmospherical CO2 concentration. In my study I’m going to present what possibilities do the companies have to reduce their emissions and how these improvements could be harmonized with the profit interests (with the reduce of electricity-, water-, and gas consumption).

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Determination of three small streams’ chemical water quality in Budapest
69-75

The location and development of cities has been influenced basically by various environmental factors. However, the relationship is bilateral, because not only the environment can affect the city, but the city can affect the environment in different ways, depending on recovery. This is especially true in the case of large cities such as Budapes...t where the different geological, geomorphological, hydrological, soil and bio-geographical conditions can be changed in very small areas, which implies that land use can be also modified as well. The aim of our study was to determine the chemical water quality of three small streams in Budapest which have same water flow and compare the field and the laboratory test results. Between many natural characteristics of these streams similarity is evident, however, several differences were found between the watersheds in terms of human land use. Statistical data analysis was performed as well, which was the aim to explore the relationship between the parameters. Overall, according to our study it can be concluded, the small streams have similar water chemical properties, but some parameters need special attention in the future, because the investigated small streams can be categorized into polluted and sometimes heavily polluted category.

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Examination of the heavy metal contant in urban soils in district XI. in Budapest
76-83

The soils contaminant content is influenced mostly in the cities by antrophogenic effects, such as building operations, vehicular traffic, inefficient saverage or drainage problems, when different materials add to the soil. These materials location and movements are changing continuously in soils. The pollution degree depends on the distance fr...om the surface, the composotion of the soil, the effect rate, the thickness of soil, the composition and proportion of soil-forming minerals. In our study the heavy metal contant in urban soils was examined in district XI. in Budapest, based on different chemical and mineralogical properties of soils.

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Modeling of the absorptive refrigeration systems run by geothermal energy
84-90

The aim of the article is to demonstrate an engineering solution which may promote the exploitation of the potential of renewable energy resources, and may provide cheap energy production for rural industries.

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To test the environmental load of the diesel engine with the use of fossil and alternative fuels
91-99

The aim of this contribution is to define the effects of a new alternative diesel fuel mixture. Comparative measurements were carried out, by using normal diesel fuel, and alternative mixture. Vegetable oil and normal diesel were used to fabricate the new oil mixture. In this study the measurements and the analysis of the results will be presen...ted. To compare the effect of the two fuel, diagrams were used.

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Thoughts about the environmental flow – in terms of Dráva
100-106

The importance of sustainability in today’s water management is unquestionable. Therefore, it is also recommended to apply the principle of sustainability in river management, such as it is the aim of the ongoing Ancient Dráva project. The term, environmental flow, intends to comprise a complex methodology not only from biophysical but also ...from a social angle; considering the different aspects of each method. Our target is to determine a possible holistic method which could be applied to the Dráva and its hungarian floodplain in oder to find a possible solution to the reconnection of the oxbow lakes into river mechanism. Our research is mainly based on hydrological data (Qmin, Qmax, Hmin, Hmax), but we will consider the special needs of the ecological environment, too.

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Scenarios of global climate change in Europe
107-115

One of the latest new directions in futures studies is interactive simulation modeling. This type of modeling is able to create complex alternatives for the future. This methodological research trend entirely fits this study. It shows how the interactive climate model is scientifically developed. Using the Java Climate Model, it is possible to ...display the social and the economic consequences of climate change. Using this model, analyses of comparative climate change scenarios can show the possible effects of economic policy on the environment in the short and long term. It also provides data on various regional levels. This study shows two possible non-extreme alternative scenarios for the European continent’s economy and climate, and their consequences. A study has been done by the author recently, showing two extreme alternatives, focusing on the best and worst options, respectively. These new alternatives presenting in this study, however, give realistic options for professionals.

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HELP! What should i do? -the lack of financial knowledge in hungarian households
116-121

Financial planning, the propensity to save and self-caring habits effect not only the households' financial management, but they effect the economical, political, social and cultural situation of the whole country. The intellectual skills of hungarians are undeveloped, which stems from the lack of financial literacy of individuals. More and mor...e people realize the need for economic and financial knowledge since the 2008 economic crisis, and that the development of financial culture is essential. In our research we examined, how the financial awareness and the willingness to save of individuals and households can be influenced.

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The development of an agricultural trade portal and the marketing of the Social Media
122-126

In conclusion, it can be said that with the rise of the Internet/Mobile Internet and the advent of smart devices, it is only possible to keep pace by being visible online. In my opinion, with the use of Social Media a sustainable sales growth can be achieved at minimum cost both short and long term. With the help of Google Analytics, we are alw...ays up to date with the success of the company's marketing campaign. Finally, I want to develop a mobile version, Facebook application or renew the web store.

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Strategy of international hotels as the factor of development of tourism in russia.
127-134

The international tourism, globalization and other factors created the soil for emergence of the international hotel chains – the largest players in this market, which strategies we have investigated by means of maps of strategic groups. Certain intermediate conclusions were already drawn, we will highlight once again importance of research o...f players of such scale – in many aspects they will define development of the market of hotel services in the future.

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The key to rural development, startup - a new and innovative environmental solutions business search engine
135-142

In the 21st century is a difficult task that just completed a tertiary education institution whether it can be college or university. The theoretical part of the school to learn their profession, but it is possible that the future work over the years to acquire the practice. Environmental and agricultural development specialists’ undoubtedly ...great expertise, which is great emphasis on research, and the resulting innovation that is present several areas. With the new technologies work more effective, energy efficient and become more conscious. By a recent graduate professionals startup business can achieve even greater success, not only in his country but also abroad supports not only the Hungarian economy by this, but also enhances the reputation of the country. Institution of higher education in the region Szolnok completed by 100 persons completed a quantitative research, which is very interesting information can be obtained.

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International agreements in the area of tourism
143-148

It is not a secret that tourism plays an important role in the development of not just any specific country but the global economy in general. It also promotes urban development in such sensitive areas as coasts and islands, increased water consumption and waste production, fragmentation of habitats and loss of biological diversity. Tourism ind...ustry is also one of the reasons behind higher demand for transportation, particularly those types that damage the environment most – personal vehicles and aircraft. “In 2005 in Europe, about 59% of the tourists arrived to their destination by car, 34% by airplane”. According to UNWTO International Tourism Barometer, the international tourism was growing at the rate of 5% in the first nine months of 2013. The key driving force behind this growth is Europe (mainly Central and Eastern Europe) and Asia-Pacific region. Thus, tourism, while playing a truly significant role in the global economy, at the same time causes major damage to the environment. Hence the urgent need to eliminate negative consequences of tourism activities. This can be done by promptly regulating the activities of agents in this area. However, due to the global value of tourism, this process requires not just the local regulators getting involved, but joint effort by many countries. Therefore, international agreements between countries as the primary regulators of tourism activities are becoming increasingly important.

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Results of a participatory action research in Mezőcsát, in the Northern part of Hungary
149-158

Participatory action research could be a tool for strengthening rural areas, it could help the process of integrated rural development based on endogenous resources. This is a good method for rethinking the local and the wider interests and relationships in a changing social and economic environment. As a result there could be a practical solut...ion at the end. This research can generate new interaction between local people, thus ensuring better communication and more successful cooperation. After introducing the tools of participatory action research this paper presents the first steps and results of a participatory action research which has started in Mezőcsát in the Northern part of Hungary. The aim of the research is to find real solutions to real problems (eg. unemployment) defined by inhabitants. Outcomes of this research are a stronger community in Mezőcsát and mapping a possible enterprise built on local resources.

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The examination of the representation of the landscape in the domestic rural development documents
159-168

The author of this article carries out researches on that, how a planning approach from the landscape perspective could support the rural development planning. As a part of the research process the author reviewed the rural development plans on national level from 1999 and on the local level in four pilot areas in the last planning period. As a...n outcome of this review it was found that the landscape is one of the main categories and an often used concept of the rural development planning both on national and on local level in Hungary. However, as the documents reflected, the interpretations of the concept „landscape” are very different, so it needs to be clarified and unified. Nature, society and culture, as well as economy manifest themselves in the landscape. The documents in question deal with landscape mostly as it were only a visual, natural phenomenon. Therefore, following the horizontal principle of sustainability, it seems to be a good approach to develop a planning system, which is able to treat landscape as a whole (nature, society, culture including economy). However, the landscape diversity points out the constraints of application of a general planning method in rural development. The other main outcome of the review is that there is a conflict between the complex national objectives and the mosaic-like projects carried out on the local level. A solution can be an organic application of the national objectives on the local level considering the concrete landscape with its specific attributes where the planned projects were parts of a complex local development plan in a synergic and successive way.

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The effect of the sporulated bacillus to the increase of the tomato and its yield
169-174

Tomato contains high concentrations of lycopene and vitamin C that is important elements of healthy foods. In intensive production, many biotic and abiotic stress-factors are affecting the tomato, and they might be harmful also to the environment. Due to these pollution problems people are highly interested nowadays in the limited use of the ag...ro-chemicals. Among the beneficial microbes, bioeffector (BE) microorganisms are used frequently in sustainable crop production. Bacillus strains can mobilize the hardly available phosphates in the soils, and therefore they can reduce the harmful effects of abiotic environmental stress factors. A bioeffector, containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 strain was used with tomato test plant (Solanum lycopersicon Mill. ’Mobil’) in pot and in field experiments. The length and weight of shoots and the weight and number of tomato fruits were tested in a biweekly periods. The treatment had positive effect on the length of shoots, the size and biomass of fruits both in the field and in the pots. Less beneficial impact was realized, however at the diverse ecological field conditions than at the controlled light chamber. Application of the Bacillus bieffectors can be helpful for the organic production of the tomato.

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The examination of the maturnity of home-made composts
175-182

In our study the stability and oxigen consumption were determined home made compost of different maturity.The results show that the oxigen consumption and the level of maturity of compost depend on the preparations, particle size of compost and the moisture content (wetting method). It is very important to adopt a standard policy in compost mat...urity determination. Standard EU directives are needed for the preparation and maturity determination.

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Application of bioeffector soil inoculation method development in a pot experinment with tomato
183-189

Fertilizers, pesticides, soil disinfectants and other agrochemicals enormously have increased the agricultural productivity recently. Beside the well-accepted positive yield-effects, however, the structural soil-degradation, acidification, decrease of soil life and soil health is also known. Alternative technologies are urgently needed to devel...op for the sustainable agri-, horti-, viti- and silvicultural productions. The beneficial microorganisms, used as biofertilizers, biopesticides and/or soil-vitality products can reduce those disorders; therefore their use is increasing simultaneously. Bioeffector (BE) products, containing vital strains of the beneficial microorganisms might improve the qualitative and quantitative properties of the plants. The effects of BE1 - Trichoderma harzianum T-22; BE2 - Pseudomonas sp.; BE3 - Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Rhizovital 42 F1 were tested in large-pot experiment of using tomato (var. Mobil) in 4 replicates. The BE-s were applied according to the instructions of the producers, in 1 step with the sewing. Before the emergence of the tomato seedlings the BE products was enhancing primarily the growth of the weeds, which is known to develop much faster, than the host. Among the tested bioeffectors, the BE 3, known to enhance P-uptake proved to be the most efficient, both as single and as combined inoculums. Result was comparable with the fertilizer (triple-superphosphate) addition. Study has shown, that the application of BE products might be accompanied more seriously with the used agricultural technology and the physiological properties of the living biofertilizer strains. A second inoculation after the seed emergence and/or the plantation could be highly suggested mainly with BE 3, which might mobilize the hardly available phosphorous in the soil.

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The agricultural value of the rest of the biogas fermentation
190-196

Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. This endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Chemical properties of digestate are correspond to the Hungaroan... Regulations. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. High ammonium and mineral salt content of digestate increased the water soluble salt content of soil. The added amount of NH4-N transformed to NO3-N while disengage hidrogen ions from the bond. This process caused the decreasing pH. Humus content determination did not show changes. Long term experiments are needed to recognise detail effects.

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The use of Hungarian herbs and fruits for functional food production
197-201

The bioactive components are usually sensitive to environmental impacts and circumstances of technological processes. During the production of functional foods it is necessary to preserve the stability of bioactive components. An often applied method of stability preservation is microencapsulation. The aim of our research is to encapsulate herb...s (lemon balm, garden and Spanish thyme) and color-rich fruits (blackberry, cherry, elderberry and sea-buckthorn) grown in Hungary and having significant antioxidant capacity. Extracts were made from these herbs and fruits with different extractans and the antioxidant capacity of them was studied applying DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) method. These extracts and fruit concentrates were used in microencapsulation experiments applying „in situ gelation” method. The antioxidant capacity of the microcapsules was determined immediately after preparation and after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Comparing the antioxidant capacity of the extracts, concentrates and the stored microcapsules a proposal was given for the optimal composition of the encapsulating mixture and long-term storage experiments were started.

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Licensed traditional small-scale producer or food processing? – The situation in Vojvodina
202-207

World tendency is that the food production is concentrating (although the animal husbandry practices in family farms relatively high yet in Vojvodina). Meanwhile there is a demand for such food products that are not uniform, which are special, local specialties. In the case of such products the higher price level is also achievable. Agricultura...l producers with low educational level in Vojvodina that are sidelined from industrial production, which yet – by the way – knows the food processing technics from their ancestors, the primary food processing could be mean a good alternative to supplement their income, of course besides appropriate authority control. The relation between the agricultural product prices and the food prices is very loose nowadays; the agricultural product prices do not have significant effect on the product prices. Food vendors can make higher profit then food manufacturers or their primary commodity manufacturers (Buday-Santha, 2011). The producers could be used this market gap in order to create a more livable area for themselves. As Mrs. Szörényi (2011) stated, the economically sustainable rural area is feasible among others with increasing of income generation. However despite to that the Vojvodian rural area and the Serbian legislation do not recognize sufficiently the concept of primary food manufacture. Agricultural actors unexperienced in the field of food safety are found difficult to cope with this situation. As long as they want to sell their products in processed form (not dairy product), in that case they have to establish a food processing plant. In order to resolve this, the Hungarian primary food manufacture regulation could be a good example, which involves the relevant regulations related to control and taxes too.

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Tracebility in vojvodina's spice prepper production
208-214

The spice paprika production has a tradition in our region; however there is a risk that due to the price competition products with dubious origin or lower quality might be included into the supply chain. This could be resolved using product-traceability in the most effective way, which is also supported by legislation. Processing plants operat...e such food safety and quality management systems that are strongly committed towards implementation of the product traceability systems. However, we have experienced that some spice paprika processors operate their management system an “island-like” manner: there is no cooperation with other spice paprika processing companies in the field of procurement and transparency. We believe that could be beneficial to establish a public traceability system/database for buyers in order to prove the product origin in a transparent manner. It would be worth for spice paprika producers the LocalG.A.P program/standard issued by the Food Plus to be revised for spice paprika cultivation, with this standardized and comparable food-safety and traceability criteria could be reached for producers. There is a need for such an independent, non-profit association in order to realize all of that, which could elaborate and continually develop the production criteria by experts, as well as could be overseen and managed the traceability related database.

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Comparison of early maturity maize hybrids in function of the average yield in year 2012
215-221

The main goal of this scientific paper is the comparison of outstanding hybrids of the three largest, world-leading maize hybrid seed developers and suppliers (Monsanto, Pioneer and Syngenta) in function of the average yield and grain moisture. The author’s investigations were executed on a 600 hectare farm in the south of the Békés County ...in the extreme drought year of 2012. The examined hybrids were the DKC 4590 (FAO 360), the P9494 (FAO 390) and the NK Lucius (FAO
330). All three hybrids fall under the early maturity group (FAO 300-399).

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The reasons of bee population’s decrease, its expected consequences, its effects on the environment
222-225

Scientific studies prove that the bee population is showing regressive tendency worlwide. It is important to protect the bee families of the Hungarian bee masters together with the high quality bee products thereby protecting our environment and our lives. Preventing the problem is the most important objective. Already there are some taken acti...ons to reduce or restrain the devastation of the bee population. A good example is the prohibition of some insecticides and seed dressings as well as the raising possibilities of the GMO vegetables in Hungary controlled by laws. Besides of this the right number of the quality bee pastures must be ensured. Using all the mentioned ones and the appropriate knowledge the growth of the bee population can be assured in the future as well. In my dissertation I’m looking for the reasions that could cause the reduction of the bee population, analyzing the possible effects and providing suggestions to find a way to balance the negative impacts.

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