The Present and Future of Tokay Aszú87-92Views:80
Tokay wine is Hungary’s noblest wine. Beyond doubt, it is one of those uniquely Hungarian products, which has been without rival for centuries. Today the role of quality has become increasingly important and consumers who are ready to pay more for quality wines expect it. This wine will be able to get back its original popularity if the message of its excellence reaches the public. Knowledge of historical wine-producing regions constitutes a part of basic education and wine-marketing could take important measures to spread it since good products need to be sold properly and consumers require information about wines – with gastronomy – and wine producing regions.
With foreign invested capital, advantageous changes have been started in Tokay-Hegyalja. However, there is much still to do in order to produce, sell and consume Tokay wine on such conditions that are really worthy of a Hungaricum. It is essential to approach the famous oenologists of Europe and the world and to establish suitable production conditions for every winegrower. In addition to following consciously prepared wine-marketing directions, our country needs to make an expected name for this Hungaricum. These aims are important mainly because of approaching EU-accession. There is timely to study on what conditions Hungarian viticulture and oenology could access. It would be a great success of the Hungarian delegation if they could make current Hungarian laws of Tokay-wine-production accepted in the EU. Of course, all of these would be valid after EU-accession. During the pre-accession period, our country needs to fulfil several stipulations. For example, origin-protection, establishment of a registry system, law harmonisation, development of an institutional system.
Strengthening of home consumption has always been an inspirational tool in a product’s life cycle. It is important not only to take the requirements of foreigners into consideration and to produce for export, but we also need to satisfy the home market. Considerable stress should be laid on establishing and preserving viticulture. Increasingly, buyers expect high standards and they are ready to pay more for quality wines. They also demand appropriate professional information and consultation. So there is a lot to do and theoretical approach should be followed by action. In order to get to know what quality expectations exist, we have to examine the consumers of the Hungarian wine-market. Study of the Hungarian people’s consumption behaviour, referring to Tokay „aszú”, was closely connected with my work.
Participants of my study were consumers who buy Tokay „aszú” mainly in shopping centres, supermarkets and low-price shops specified for wine selling. Wine shops have important roles as they give opportunity for salespersons to make closer relationships with buyers. These shops could be communication channels of spreading wine culture. It would be favourable if in every town or city there were at least one wine shop giving the opportunity of consultation besides commercial activity and also providing services that support the improvement of wine culture’s position. The majority of questioned people spend less than 4.000 Forints on buying of Tokay „aszú” in a year. Results of the questionnaire survey support the fact that there is a demand for these wine-specialities, but lack of money strongly effects demand.
The Following summarises the history of Tokay wine, tasks of Hungary and the expected effects relating to EU-accession. Regulation of oenology and the wine-market, referring to quality wines and main results of the survey are also overviewed in the text.
Hungarian wine marketing ang wine consumption43-47Views:140
Hungarian wine is not in such a bad position as it is considered. We have outstanding specialists and the country’s natural conditions are also proper. The level of Hungarian wone culture is comparatively low but is capable of progress. Hungarian Wine Marketing Non-profit Company helps public wine marketing to be really effective. The development of tourism in wine-growing regions and advertising would considerably promote the popularity of Hungarian wine.
Wine tourism of Tokaj- hegyalja125-127Views:172
The wine is still in Hungary in Hungarian history, culture, and one of the key elements of the economy are considered . Last, but not to the point of producing and selling the wine regions of livelihoods. Thousands of years in wine-producing traditions preserved in the modern winemakers, wine competitions demonstrate their skills. The Tokaj wine region of the World's major and significant wine regions in Hungary.
Result of Wine Consumption Survey387-393Views:102
Wine has always played an important role in the Hungarian culture and gastronomy. Today, average wine consumption is about 33 liter per person per year, which figure, comparing with datas in Western Europe, is acceptable. However, cultured wine consumption has begun to develop only in last few years. Consumers, whose knowledges about wines have been widening, demand quality wines. The number of high standard scientific contributions on this subject has risen greatly. But comparisons of them are rather difficult because of adopting different surveying methods. This research has supported and confirmed that wine is a confidental product and previous experience could be an important determining factor during wine-purchasing. Wine is popular as a present, so the nice, elegant look, proper bottles and labels are essential for the higher rate of selling. Further, price-value rate could also be a main factor during the customers’ decision. This survey is a result of a test-research and its methodolical experience will have been used in my following researches.
Marketing analysis of the Villány wine region119-123Views:192
Hungarian wine is not in such a bad position as it is considered. We have outstanding specialists and the country’s natural conditions are also proper. In Hungary, there are wine production and wine consumption has a major traditions. The role of marketing in our wine industry is growing more and more, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The development of tourism in wine-growing regions and advertising would considerably promote the popularity of Hungarian wine.
Wine market trends in the EU and Hungary101-105Views:80
Traditions of the Hungarian grape and wine sector go back centuries. However, although this sector is proud of its rich traditions, it has gone through several shocks. Having joined the EU, Hungary has become a part of the integrated internal market. The commercial obstacles and difficulties among EU-members and Hungary have officially been removed. At the same time, within the Common Agricultural Policy, the wine market has been organised at community level by EU-members. There is no possibility for the sector to access any kind of direct supports from the Hungarian budget, unless such activity is definitely allowed by community directions or unless Hungary were authorized in the framework of a supplementary procedure. After joining the EU, the customs-protection - which aim was to protect the EU-market against the third countries - reduced, so wine producers from overseas countries emerged with their competitive wine prices in the home market and also became competitors of Hungarian wine producers who have been working under low technically equipped conditions. In order to increase the competitiveness of Hungarian wines, it is essential to improve the machinery of producers and to improve the equipment of winecellars. Finally, it is also vital that Hungarian wine producers develop a well-constructed marketing policy.
Wine adulteration and its detection based on the rate and the concentration of free amino acids139-151Views:291
Following the definition of wine adulteration, the authors briefly review its history from ancient times to present day and describe the methods that are applied for adulteration of wine from the historical point of view. More space is devoted to the Hungarian wine adulteration and to the detailed reports of the early methods, which attempted to discover fake wine. It describes in detail the current situation of wine adulteration and the fight against counterfeiting. The second half of the review article presents some examples of the analytical chemistry techniques with which fake wines can be detected. In doing so, priority is given to the discussion of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography applications. The end of this paper describes the free amino acid content of wines, and the possibilities of using the results for detection of wine adulteration.
The past and present of Érmellék wine region49-52Views:99
Érmellék is an area of the Partium. It is situated between Szilágy and Bihar counties and between River Kraszna and Berettyó. Its name is from Ér, the small brook, which crosses the area. Érmellék is famous for its wine production, because its climate is favourable for this kind of trade. Only a few information sheets of the small Partium-belonging micro-region, Érmellék are published nowadays. Érmellék has extremely picturesque architectural wine cellar rows, of which ”szalacsi” wine cellar row (wine cellar row system) with its unique structure consists of about a thousand cellars.
Comparison of the sample preparation methods worked out for the examination of the element content of wine77-82Views:111
The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element content. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion.
We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method, while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
(alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
to wine generally.
Influence of collective wine marketing on hungarian wine sector37-41Views:81
Nowadays, the importance of marketing is increasingly obvious. The number of those who apply those possibilities and methods provided by the marketing with which more efficient operation and higher amount of profit can be obtained is increasing. Special marketing fields have appeared that make the marketing characteristics of the single trades, product groups and industrial branches are widely known and utilized. During the more than 10 years following the changes of regime, the Hungarian wine market underwent a huge change. It is obvious, that this process has not stopped, and further market rearrangements may be claimed. The product and price policies have changed. Out of the marketing mix elements, mostly the marketing communication has changed, and the costumer has come to the centre. This marketing approach resulted in the formation of the newly established Hungarian Wine Marketing Public Benefit Company. The common marketing activity of the organization should have positive impacts on the industrial branch, although its efficient operation still has hindrances
Viticulture of Hungary175-182Views:305
For several thousand years, vine has been grown in the Carpathian basin, where the climatic and soil conditions are favourable for viticulture. During this long period, vine growing has been developing until it reached its current niveau. We grow propagation material, table grape and wine grape. The produced wine grape varieties are grown on the largest area, of which 72% is white wine and 25% is red wine. Only 3% remains for table grapes. The surface of vineyards is about 63 000 ha, which can be found in 22 wine regions. The biodiversity of vine is very rich in our country. There are a lot of native and valuable bred varieties and clones in cultivation. The resistant and winter frost resistant vine varieties have an important role in our continental climate. The in 75% of the vineyards is on hills and mountains, 25% of them is on the Great Hungarian Plain. High cordon with cane pruning dominates the training and pruning system.
Unfortunately, vine stocks suffer from a lot of diseases and by using pesticides we pollute the nature. Viticulturists in Hungary produce excellent raw material and provide oenologists with them who make wine of excellent quality.
The role of Local wine administration bodies in creating social and cultural capital and in the preservation of local identity135-143Views:73
Due to the peculiarities of viniculture, some kind of a community organizing force has always existed in every European wine region. The Hungarian system of local wine administration
bodies is however unique. The foundations of the system have hardly changed throughout the centuries and the communities’ function as a socio-organizing power has been historically proven. In this essay I am attempting to demonstrate this power and ability using social, ethnical, sciences, anthropological, landscapeeconomical and occasionally mathematical methods. As former leader of a local wine administration body in Egerbakta, the member of the same body in Eger and also a vine-grower in Létavértes I also have first hand information about the practical issues of the system. The paper could not be more timely after the 2006’s modification of legislations governing wine administration. One element of the modifications is the creation of large and centralized administration bodies over the ruins of small ones that
were presumed to be indispensable for a long time.
Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi connected to Grapevine Diseases, from the Tokaj wine region, Hungary61-66Views:142
Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTD) is one of the most important diseases in vineyards worldwide, which can be found in Hungarian vineyards as well. In Hungarian wine regions there is very little information about the occurrence of pathogens which cause GTD, in case of Tokaj wine region there is no knowledge about that, what kind of pathogens can be found in the vineyards.
The objective of our research is to assess the situation and occurrence of GTD in Tokaj wine region in cooperation with local specialists, as well as identification of pathogens which were isolated from the diseased trunks by morphological and genetic basis.
We were able to isolate endophytic fungi from all sampled grape trunk. The majority of them were determined as Diplodia seriata not only based on colony morphology, but also determined by rDNA sequences.
Evaluation of harvesting technology of vineyard pruning based on a Mátra wine region case study91-100Views:110
Wineyard pruning utilization for energy purpose is not only a theoretical possibility, the machine background has also been developed. Economic- and environmental experimentations has made by specialists and they seek to developed the best practice in logistics suitable for local conditions and they propagate the results for the potential users. Nevertheless, the utilization does not seem to be typical in Hungary and some other wine-grower countries. For example, in Hungary the additional energy from vineyard pruning eventuates – tillage, nutrient supply; – phy+tosanitary, environmental pollution; – energy management and economic questions.
In Hungary the most important problem is practice of the vineyard pruning utilization were mentioned by the users is the establishment of collection system and the high logistic costs as Marczinkó (2007) experiences confirm this. As I experienced in practice, the winegrowers are uninterested in utilization. Most of them burn it at the end of the vineyard in many cases without considering of the relevant statutory prohibition.
As my own several years expriment shows at Mátra wine region it is not the technical background which causes the failure. We can use effectively balers or chippers for collection. The cost of chipping is 14 535–27 000 Ft per hectars with the introduced technologies on Mátra wine region. The cost of 1 GJ of heat production is 606–1125 Ft. We can substitute the fuel with vineyard pruning and it means approximately 115 000 Ft saving for a family household per year.
Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species71-80Views:186
Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds was evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.
Chemical residue coming forward in an end product in winery technology81-86Views:62
Although many tasks wait for me yet in the course of my research work, I’ve managed to book successes with a certain degree.
On the one part as a producer I regard it as a positive result, that in the capital end product manufactured by me, - that is the wine - , has no chemical residue in it, and in the rest of the intermediary products has measure dwindling only.
On the other hand, that I hit home in cases demonstrable agent residual one in the must, wine, lees, the tendency indicates it, that in the course of the processing (distillation) or the storage they partly, or whole decay (Table 4. and Figure 3.) and a food safety risk is not caused.
But it’s a question for the future, that the more considerable quantity manifested in the grape pip does or not cause a problem in the course of its use with a cosmetic aim, concerned, that the reason of the agent wandering experienced in the other products is the relative density, or possibly the result of some kind of bond.
So I go on with my research and my aim is to gove the most exact answers for those questions, above.
Toxic elemental content of Hungarian blaufränkisch wines87-90Views:144
Toxic elemental contents are one of the food safety risks in wines. Therefore International Organization of Vine and Wine (O.I.V.) defined the limit of some elements in it. Thirty Hungarian blaufränkisch wines were analysed by ICP-MS in order to determine the concentration of toxic elements. All wines are passed by the O.I.V limits to toxic element content (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) according to analysis. Copper is the only outlier in some samples, but they also did not overstep the limit. In the case of zinc the maximum is approximately fourth, in case of cadmium and lead the highest concentration is less than tenth and sixth of the O.I.V. limit, respectively.
Testing of paraffin oil efficiency against grape powdery mildew in Eger wine region73-80Views:309
The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of paraffin oil against powdery mildew in Eger wine region. The experiment has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 with Chardonnay and Kékfrankos grape varieties, which have different resistance against powdery mildew. The effectiveness of the oil was examined on leaves and clusters (frequency and intensity). This oil was effective against Erysiphe necator infection on field trials in Chile and Brazil. The spread of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was also inhibited by this material in some experiments conducted in Spain and France.
The differences between oil treatments represented the sensitivity of the grape varieties in accordance with the applied dosages. The oil was effective against powdery mildew with different extent as a result of the so called ”vintage effect”. In 2013, the treatment of the highest dosage (D3) didn’t differed significantly in frequency and intensity of infection from the regular treatment (clusters of Kékfrankos, leaves of Chardonnay). In 2014, the oil was not so effective against powdery mildew compared to 2013. No remarkable differences were detected between the treatments due to the strong pressure of powdery mildew. Furthermore, no any effect of the lowest dosage (D1) was detected in the case of the sensitive clusters of Chardonnay and leaves of Kékfrankos in both experimental years.
In summary, the oil treatment has an effect against powdery mildew, however this efficiency largely depends on the vintage characteristics and the pressure of powdery mildew. Further investigations are neccessary, for example field trials with combinations of other sprays. The oil can be useable as fungicide with proper care in eco-friendly integrated and bio (ecological) viticulture.
Energy forests or vineyards?237-240Views:66
This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clearing of vineyards have been implemented in the last few years. The
abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.
The effect of the preparation method on the physical and chemical characteristics of propolis tinctures163-168Views:220
The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol and the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
The role of Local wine administration bodies in creating social and cultural capital and in the preservation of local identity181-191Views:69
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They should be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
The role of cultivar susceptibility and vineyard age in GTD: examples from the Carpathian Basin57-63Views:161
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are among the most severe problems in viticulture worldwide. The exact etiology and the role of endophytic microorganisms is not known yet and there is no adequate protection or curative treatment against the disease. Hungarian wine regions are also affected by the disease, and there is restricted information about the rate of infection nation-wide and about the susceptibility of the Hungarian cultivars.
The main objectives of our research are to measure the symptom expression and the damage caused by GTDs, to understand the epidemiology and etiology of the disease to establish a foundation of a proper disease management.
Cultivar susceptibility groups were created with the aim to allocate some Hungarian cultivars and the role of vineyard age was also examined in symptom expression.
What has Harmonia axyridis to do with Dante's Divine Comedy82-88Views:74
The multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)), a former successful biological control agent in the USA and Western Europe became an invasive alien species threatening the diversity of native aphidophagous insects through competition and praying, a horticultural pest consuming various fruits and adversely affecting the wine quality and a human nuisance when occurring at high densities in buildings. Due to this dubious fame, attention has been paid to it also at national level which made inevitable to find for it a fitting name in different languages. In some cases and countries a version of the English name has been chosen however, regarding the meaning of this translated term in Hungarian, the try cannot be called fortunate. The objective of this contribution is to stress the function of common animal names in the Hungarian Sprachraum and to find a right and proper alternative with the help of etymology, mythology, classical literature, art (painting) and the experiences of Hungarian fruit and grape growers.