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  • The Fattening and Slaughtering Examination at the Hungarian Racka Sheep
    37-42
    Views:
    91

    Fattening and slaughtering characteristics of both types (black and white) of the Hungarian racka sheep were investigated at the site of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Atkár. The Hungarian merino, the dairy cigaja and the British milksheep were applied as control groups. 10 animals were examined from both sexes in each genotype. The examination was carried out according to the principles set in the Codex for sheep breeding. During the test acute diarrhoea occurred in each control group. However, only few lambs were excluded from the test from the British milksheep and the Hungarian merino groups because of significant changes in their condition. Consequently, the results obtained were not significantly influenced. No symptoms of any illness could be recognised in the Hungarian racka sheep, though. The significance of the difference between the average of the examined groups were checked by T-tests.
    Daily gain was significantly less compared to the control groups, except for the white racka males. The lambs starving for 24 hours before slaughtering weighed 25.3-30.0 kgs on average. The black and white racka females weighed the least while the Hungarian merino females weighed the most. The quantity of abdominal and kidney fat was significant in the case of our native females. The quantity of abdominal fat was significantly bigger compared to each control group. On comparing the investigated groups it turned out that the white racka males had the biggest skin weight while the white Hungarian racka females had the smallest, that is the two extremes were recognised in the same colour (white) of one bred. On qualifying the slaughtered animals females had better results than males in each bred; the racka sheep were better than the dairy cigaja but were worse than the Hungarian merino and British sheep groups.
    The huge differences in the carcasses of the groups were seen clearly when chopping. Examining the leg, it was noticed that the native groups proved to be smaller than the control groups, except for the black racka males. As for the short loin, the Hungarian racka and the Hungarian merino sheep proved to be the best, whereas the dairy cigaja and the British milk males had much smaller ones. The results gained when investigating the rack were similar to those of the short loin. As far as the rib and shoulder are concerned, the black racka females and the dairy cigaja females had the worst results. After chopping, the right side was also boned in every group. The small proportion of bone in the case of racka sheep was easily noticeable that resulted in the fact that the white racka females had the highest quantity of short loin compared to the other groups. When examining the back quarter, the bone proportions of the 4 racka groups proved to be significantly less than those of the control groups but it was not true for the meat proportions. As for the front quarter meat, the racka males were prominent in the great shoulder meat and in the small proportion of bone. The quantity of the first quarter bone was the least in the case of racka sheep and was the biggest for dairy cigajas. This difference proved to be significant in most cases.
    In short, the Hungarian racka groups had the best results in meat quantity, which was especially significant compared to the dairy cigaja sheep. However, the quantity of external fat increased.

  • Bacteria in the milk of sheep with or without mastitis- mini Review
    47-52
    Views:
    337

    From a nutritional point of view, sheep milk is more valuable than cow and goat milk and the interest for sheep milk is increasing in many countries. However, sheep milk is easily contaminated during milking, handling, and transport and it is an ideal medium for bacterial propagation. Consequently, sheep milk spoils quite quickly. The proper, clean handling of milk is not only of sanitarian interest, but it also serves the farmers’ interests, because contaminated milk may not be distributed, and is unsuitable for producing good quality products. Following this technological trend, this review addresses the bacterial composition of sheep milk with and without mastitis. Even though sheep milk contains a lot of bacteria, this review article highlighted total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. Mastitis in sheep is a vital cause of mortality, reduction in milk production and early culling. The reported risk factors for mastitis in sheep were age, a case of mastitis, breed, husbandry systems, and location. The main priority should be implementation of programs to minimize human pathogenic bacteria and mastitis in raw ewe milk.

  • Investigation of the milk composition of three Tsigai sheep varieties, and the detection of cazein fractions of sheep milk by Reversed-Phase HPLC
    13-22
    Views:
    90

    The measurements started in 2005, the author used the milk of 3 types of Tsigai Sheep that are suitable for milking, they examined the milk composition, the possible differences between the milk types, the coagulation characteristics, cheese processing, yielding characteristics and the transfer of solid content into cheese. From the large number of measurements, the results of milk composition examinations are described.
    During the research the author examined the milk coagulation property of three types of Tsigai Sheep QTS 25 is a substance investigating instrument, and its primary mission is the analysis of the substance profile. The advantage of this instrument is the representation of the survey graphs from which the part of the substance characteristics could be directly read off. By the help of the applied mathematical and statistical operations we tried to establish connection between the congealment-hardness and the specialty of the different types of Tsigai Sheep.
    In 2006 the author began the identification and qualification of the major sheep milk proteins by RP- HPLC method. She used a scientific article written by Bordin et al. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins. However Bordin’s procedure was developed using bovine milk, the author adapted it to sheep milk.

  • Presentation of sales price reserves for live lamb
    37-45
    Views:
    89

    Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The sector is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
    part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
    Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms  “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
    My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income. 

  • Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
    61-68
    Views:
    130

    The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
    If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
    Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
    In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
    – the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
    – the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
    – the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
    – the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
    – the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
    – the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

  • The status of conservation and management of indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa - A review
    79-91
    Views:
    64

    Indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa play an important role in local food security and they are adapted to local conditions. Their genetic and cultural values have to be recognised for national importance. The conservation of these breeds is very critical as most of them are already classified as endangered. The South African government has the initiative to attempt the conservation of these animals; however, it comes with several challenges. In addition to funding, breed conservation demands farmers to understand and recognise the role of such breeds in society. This is especially crucial in the rural communal lands where breeds are kept. Farmers that raise indigenous breeds should be taught the necessity of maintaining the purity of these breeds. Indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa are not favored by the commercial farmers and thus they are more vulnerable. This review outlines the nature of sheep farming and the conservation status of four indigenous sheep breeds in South Africa. The effort and challenges that are met in current conservation arrangements are discussed. Moreover, we emphasise on the conservation techniques that are employed in South Africa.

  • The status of the Hungarian Merino sheep breed compared to the other merino breeds
    151-156
    Views:
    253

    Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely known and distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent a diverse genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In spite of this, their gene-pool potential is still unexplored. The Merino sheep represent the most important sheep resource of the Hungarian husbandry. It has the largest amount of individuals between both of the stock and commercial flocks. But in Europe the Merino stocks went through a drastic reduction in number. Thus these breeds became endangered in several countries as well as in Hungary. In this study we would like to present the recent status of different Merino breeds of the world to ground our further phylogenetic research with the Hungarian Merino breed.

  • Changes in the Composition of the Milk of Racka Sheep During Lactation
    24-28
    Views:
    119

    We examined the changes in the composition of the milk of 36 Racka sheep during lactation. As milking of Racka sheep is not performed anywhere in the country, the test was restricted to the examination of milk components. However, quantity could not be measured. We analysed the fat, protein, lactose, carbamide and somatic cell count content of the milk from sampling. By means of correlation analysis, milk components were compared to the age of ewes, then the number of lactation days. With the advancing of the lactation and by analysing the milk components, we found differences between the two colour-variants of Racka sheep. Additional trials are required to decide whether the differences between the two colour-variants may be considered as constants, or can be attributable to the relatively small number of samples.

  • Studying the reproduction-biological effect of the GPR54 receptor gene in sheep
    48-51
    Views:
    94

    One of the main economical problems of sheep breeding is that continual production is not possible due to the seasonality of animals. Today, genes, mutations that may develop aseasonality in sheep are extensively researched in order to make the establishment of populations capable of aseasonal estrus possible.
    According to the current knowledge, the GPR54 gene participates in the GnRH release from the hypothalamus, and thus in the alteration of the reproduction state of the organism. Our research is aimed to determine whether the GPR54 gene has allele variations that influence the proneness to aseasonal estrus in sheep in a different extent. Therefore, the GPR54 gene sequence of sheep is first examined.

  • Some Aspects of the Relationship Between the Quality of Sheep Milk and Dairy Products
    12-15
    Views:
    86

    The correlation between the quality of raw milk and the quality of milk products is evident. In spite of this fact we can find only a few references contained exact data related sheep milk. In recent paper we investigated the effect of SCC of sheep milk on the cheese yield (semi hard traditional cheese) and certain texture parameters of yoghurt from sheep milk. We wanted to know the relevant limit values of these properties for dairy applications.
    In our opinion – in the case of the cheese yield – that the strong negative effect can be experienced when SCC is above 700.000-1 million/cm3.
    In the case of yoghurt from sheep milk the limit values of SCC can be 1 million/cm3 for Adhesivity and Whey draining and 500.000/cm3 for Hardness. Considering these limit values in the selection of milk become materialise the highest quality of products and the economical production.

  • The effect of genotype and the location of sampling on the mineral content of wool
    157-160
    Views:
    218

    Mineral supplementation is very important in high producing farm animals. The estimation of exact mineral intake is very difficult in forage eating animals, like sheep. Accessing of long term mineral status seems to be possible using wool mineral analysis. However several factors can affect the results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the effect of breed and sampling location on the mineral content of sheep wool. 20 Dorper and 20 Tsigai sheep were chosen from the same farm. Samples were obtained from 3 locations (withers, side and quarter) and tested for 8 elements: Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Cu, P, S, Se , Zn. The samples were cleaned with ethyl alcohol from organic contamination, then after adding nitric acid were mineral analized using ultrasonic cleaning unit. The samples were analysed with ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer, Optima 3300 DV). Statistical analyses were carried out by GLM procedure of SAS statistical analyses software. Differences between means were checked with Tukey-test. Significant breed differences were detected in the case of Mg, Na, S, Se in spite of the same feeding regime. The wool mineral content were within the reference range. The sampling location had no effect on the mineral content of wool.

  • Application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in conventional Lacaune sheep farm using frozen-thawed semen
    133-138
    Views:
    272

    The complex anatomical structure of the ewe reproductive tract accompanied with low quality of frozen ram semen for artificial insemination, resulted in a challenge with regard to using superior genotypes for reproductive ovine performance. Hence, improved genetics in ovine management has not been efficiently and widely used especially in undeveloped countries. Therefore, intrauterine semen deposition by laparoscopic insemination should be adopted in the current sheep production systems. Thus, this study aimed to assess the pregnancy rate and lambing rate of ewe inseminated by laparoscopic insemination techniques using frozen-thawed semen. The research used imported frozen semen from two rams of the Lacaune breed. Ewes were grouped according to age in years (1, 2 and 4). Before insemination, the semen was examined microscopically for its motility and viability and thereafter the laparoscopic artificial insemination technique was performed to 19 Lacaune breed ewes using frozen-thawed semen. The overall pregnancy and prolificacy rates were 31.57% and 42.10% respectively. Out of 2 ewes in the 1-year age group that were inseminated, only 1 ewe lambed representing 50%. However, from 16 ewes inseminated of four-year age group, 5 ewes lambed representing 31.25%. Significant difference based on age group was not evaluated due disproportionate of the data, (such that the data included 2 ewes in one-year-old age, 1 ewe in 2-year-old age and 16 ewes in 4-year-old age). Based on the ram semen, 33.33% and 30% of the inseminated ewes were pregnant from ram A and ram B semen respectively. However, in the case of prolificacy rate, 44.44% and 40 % of the ewes lambed from using semen of ram A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in pregnancy and prolificacy rates based on semen from the two rams. In conclusion, in this research study, ram semen had no significant effect on pregnancy and prolificacy rates using laparoscopic AI on Lacaune sheep. This could be due to the fact that the rams had very good quality semen. Evaluation of ram semen, accompanied with appropriate ewe selection based on age and rightful deposition of semen could lead to better and more consistent results. Overall this could contribute to the successful application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in Lacaune sheep production systems for enhanced productivity.

  • The effect of wool staple length on the mineral content using the same sheep feeding regime
    97-100
    Views:
    251

    The wool of sheep is suitable to test the mineral supply; however, a number of factors could affect the results. The growth rate and length of staple can be very different according to season, physiological state and individual variation. These factors are likely to affect the quantity of minerals accumulated into the wool. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine whether there is a difference between the mineral content of wool nearly reached the full staple length and the freshly grown wool using the same feeding regime.
    10 Tsigai pregnant sheep have been selected randomly from the same farm. Wool samples were obtained from the withers, side and quarter with bended scissors. Samples were mineralized using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide using ultrasonic cleaning unit. P, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Cu,Se and Zn content were determined by ICP-OES. Statistical analyses were carried out by SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) GLM procedure.Differences between means were tested by Tukey test. Significantly lower Ca, Na, P, Zn values were found in case of intensively grown wool. Sampling location did not affect the mineral content. Herd mineral supply was adequate. Our results suggest that intensively grown wool samples have to be used for mineral analyses.

  • Examination of microsatellite markers of Dorper sheep breed
    57-61
    Views:
    199

    Number of not woolly and molty sheep exceeds 60 million throughout the world. Their numbers and their importance is growing, still they have appeared in the past two decades all over in North-America, Australia, New-Zealand and also in Europe. The South African Dorper has been a pioneer among them in Hungary. It was introduced in 2006 in the country. The Dorper sheep is the second largest breed in South Africa, which was developed from the crossing of Dorset Horn and the Blackhead Persian. The aim of the EU Member States in terms of this specific breed is increasing the small populations, improving the productive qualities, in addition to this avoiding inbreeding. However, finding appropriate breeding stock is difficult due to the small size of available populations and also to the suspected common of origin. With the help of various molecular genetic methods we could get a total view of the genetic background of these flocks. Nowadays the most commonly known and used genetic markers are microsatellites, because their applications give fast, accurate and easily reproducible results. There is no specific descriptive information on the genetic background of Dorper populations in the various EU countries , also regarding diversity between populations. Therefore in our work we want to optimize the conditions of applicability of 31 selected microsatellite reactions as a first step of mapping the entire genetic background of the different EU Dorper populations.

  • Risk and Risk Management in the Hungarian Sheep Sector
    25-29
    Views:
    69

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the risk attitudes of Hungarian sheep producers regarding the changes they have had to go through since the political changes of 1989-1990. Moreover, the objective of this study is to strengthen the empirical basis for risk analysis by identifying the importance of farmers’ risk attitudes. The results of a nationwide survey of over 500 sheep farmers presented a framework of risk attitudes, risk sources and applied risk management techniques of livestock producers.

  • Feeding questions of organic lamb fattening
    155-160
    Views:
    92

    Organic farming has done in line with conventional farming in the Karcag Research Institute of DU CASE since 2001. Our organic farming activities were enhanced with sheep farming and
    grassland management in 2005. We started our study of technology development of organic lamb fattening and the treatment of its economic effect this year. Our goal was to develop
    the elements of the technology to reach a more efficient organic lamb fattening. We also studied what economic advantages the organic sheep farming could realize in the present economic environment. Our studies were carried out between 2005 and 2007. We established that the excellent ewe feeding (good quality of fodder and silage) can decrease the lamb feeding cost between the 2nd and 8th weeks of the lambs’ life. We established that the
    yield of convention lambs are significantly higher than the yield of organic lambs. The cost of organic lamb fodder is significantly lower than the cost a convention lamb fodder, but the profit was higher in the case of convention lamb fattening. The organic lamb fattening technology (without extra price) is not competitive to the conventional lamb fattening technology. We think that the profitability of organic lamb fattening is significantly less than of the convention one. The organic lamb price should be 20-30% higher than the other price to be competitive.  Unfortunatly there is only a little demand for organic lamb and there is no difference between the prices of organic and convention lambs, so organic sheep farmers have worse economic circumstances than conventional sheep farmers. 

  • Some Practical and Biotechnological Methods for Improving Reproduction Traits in Sheep
    15-20
    Views:
    118

    However, reproduction in sheep is seasonal, many breeds of sheep are able to mate not only in autumn, but out-of-season as well. The main factor determining seasonality is the photoperiod, but other factors can influence reproductive pattern, such as genetics, management practices and social cues. The fertility of spring and early summer breeding is usually lower; this imposes the need for alternative methods (e.g. hormonal treatments, biotechnological practice), to increase the conception rate.
    The author summarize the main practical techniques and biotechnological methods for controlling reproduction completed with some own experimental results in connection with different topics.

  • Economic aspects of innovation in sheep breeding
    33-36
    Views:
    80

    Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
    The innovation activities performed by the enterprises, business organizations can be evaluated at firm (microeconomic) and national economy (macroeconomic) levels. In the case of sheep breeding also, a complex evaluation system should be applied, since this is a sector, which has significant rural development and social impacts. The innovation processes are analysed from the identification of the problem inducing research and development until the return of the invested resources.

  • Investigation of the heat shock gene Hsp70 polymorphism in different sheep genotypes
    41-45
    Views:
    148

    Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries collected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.

  • The results of the investigation of the β-casein gene polymorphism in sheep breed – Review
    75-80
    Views:
    191

    β-casein is the most abundant protein fraction in sheep milk, and has at least six different alleles (A, B, C, G, X, Y). The alleles of the β-casein gene may influence on the quality and quantity of milk. Knowing the gene polymorphism has an important role in the process of milk production. The properties of milk could be positively influenced by themolecular genetic methods.

  • Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina
    501-513
    Views:
    67

    The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main breeding organization is the Departmant of
    Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

  • Recovery and confirmation of Haemonchus contortus from abomasal contents of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Eastern-Hungary (Biharugra): A diagnostic case study
    59-62
    Views:
    131

    Gastrointestinal parasites are ubiquitous. They occur both in wild and domesticated animals. Among such parasites of veterinary importance is the trichostrongyle worms, out of which the Haemonchus contortus species is regarded as the most pathogenic one in the small ruminant industry. The occurrence of this parasite in the sheep flock is now very well documented and an established fact in Europe, although the parasite was original of the warmer climatic region. Studies on the cross-transmission of H. contortus between the wild and domesticated animals are also on the rise although the question of the direction of transmission is still debated. This is an important area that needs to be addressed as it could potentially contribute indirectly to mitigating anthelmintic resistance. Hungary also has reported its share of the occurrence of the parasite, mainly in the sheep flock and a certain population of roe deer. The study presented here is the preliminary results of a diagnostic case study that confirms the presence of H. contortus in wild ruminant deer species that are close to the domesticated sheep population.

  • Data supporting the quality of sheep milk for processing
    67-73
    Views:
    97

    Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm. We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
    The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.

  • Location of Retrograde Changes in the Nervous System Following Unilateral Sympathectomy in Sheep
    7-10
    Views:
    68

    Following unilateral right sympathectomy in sheep, it was found on the strength of retrograde changes in the anterior cervical ganglion, the stellate ganglion and neuromeres Th1 – Th4 that there exists a connection between the cervical sympathetic trunk and the vagus nerve.

  • The effect of compost made of sheep manure on the first cut of a semi-natural grassland
    25-29
    Views:
    197

    In an experiment, two types of compost were tested on natural grassland in order to improve the productivity of a natural sward on solonetz soil. Both composts were made of on-farm produced sheep manure, but the second one was enriched in phosphorus. These fertilizers/composts are officially authorized and can be applied in organic farming. Zero application and three rates of fertilizer were tested (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1, 30 t ha-1) on 30 m2 experimental plots wit four replications. Dry matter, crude protein and net energy content for maintenance were measured and determined and their yields per unit area were calculated. We found that all the treated plots produced significantly higher yield than the control ones, and in some cases the yields were almost three times higher. However, the optimal compost dose varied, depending on the examined parameter. Based on the evaluation of the experiment results along with rainfall data, it was concluded that, with higher precipitation, the positive effect of the compost application was bigger. The difference between the natural and enriched compost is remarkable, but it has to be mentioned that even the natural compost showed good results; therefore, it is also effective in improving the fertility of grassland.