The strengthen of the second pillar in the European Union and Hungary88-94Views:78
The Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) took shape in the early 1960s. At that time the first action was to stop food shortages. Among the objectives of the Treaties of Rome appeared the subvention of rural development had not yet.
Rural development appeared, in 1992, in connection with accompanying measures, and by end of decade, the European Agricultural Model had taken shape. Agenda 2000 pointed out the direction of rural development and introduced the first and second pillars in the CAP. The regulations of rural development were simplified by 1257/1999/EC, which stressed the importance of rural development to and it has to continue the principle of subsidiarity and has to be decentralized.
The last enlargement raised new problems, the mid-term review of Agenda 2000 occurred and resulted in a new CAP-reform in 2003. The 1783/2003/EC rural development regulation modified the previous regulation. According to the new regulation it is necessary to strengthen the new rural development policy, enlarge the circles of accompanying measures, place greater emphasis on requirements of environment, human resource, animal welfare and plant health. Digression and modulation take part in the new CAP-reform in order to increase the role of rural development in the common budget.
In the next budget from 2007-2013, the European Union wants to create a single rural development fund and simplify programming, financing, monitoring. The EU wants to enlarge the instruments of rural development with a four axis model.
Connections of the Economic, Ecological-Environmental and Social Functions of Rural Development in Communities Bordering the Hortobágy203-211Views:59
investigated the economic, ecological-environmental and social functions of rural development in communities bordering the Hortobágy National Park, such as in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. My purposes focused on four issues: (1) to work out a method on the basis of the examined and cited literatures, which defines the development of communities from economic, ecological and social aspects of rural development; (2) to reflect the changes in the role of agriculture; (3) to analyse the effects, advantages and disadvantages of Hortobágy National Park in relation to the economic, ecological and social lives of the examined communities; and (4) to make an economic analysis on the alternative income sources of Hortobágy, such as rural tourism, herb production and bio-farming in a family farm structure. When measuring the development of the communities I concluded that complex indexes hide the real consideration of the three functions of rural development and the possibility for comparing them on a community level. Furthermore, these 19 indicators are not enough to evaluate the situation, thus I raised the number of indicators and handled them on the basis of the three functions of rural areas. I classified the economic, ecological and social indicators into indicator groups within each functions, which make the determination of causes for underdevelopment possible. While only Tiszacsege and Egyek were considered to be backward on the basis of the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, my investigations showed that even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from both economic and social aspects. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not enough to establish decisions objectively. New developmental orders emerged. Measuring development of communities may be all-rounded and more established by using this new method, which may result in objective preparation of decisions in rural development and more rational spreading of subsidies.
The role of animal breeding with special regard to native pigs of food supply and rural development in Laos149-154Views:233
The present paper explored the influence of breeding native pigs on livelihood conditions and the contribution of native pigs to the rural development and rural poverty reduction in the rural areas of Lao PDR. Pig production plays an important role in meat supply for both urban and rural areas of Laos. It is clear that most of the pig products in the country come from smallholder pig farms, and more than 90 percent of those products are the native pigs mostly raised by farmers in remote areas. In general, livestock production distributed between 15–18 percent to GDP, while most of animal production still remains as the traditional methods. Rural development is always the first priority of the Laos government since its independence in 1975, however, the poverty rate in rural areas remained high at 23% in 2018. It might block the development goal of the government which will lead the country out of the least development status by 2020. The food security and malnutrition in the rural or mountainous areas are considered as the majority issue that both government and several international organizations have been thriving hard to overcome, which researchers showed that more than 45% of children under 5 years of age were stunted, and 28% of them were underweight. Inspired of more than 50 % of the households in the rural areas of Laos reported they consumed chicken and pork at least one day a week. While native pigs play an important role on meat supply, it also constituted around 9–14 % of annual income of the households in rural areas. Therefore, the increase the production of pigs and poultry is one option to promote the meat supply to households in the rural areas of Laos. This paper will be a pathway to guide and identify for the final decision to what experiment will be implemented on Lao native pig in Laos (2021–2023) to complete the comparative study on reproductive physiology and reproductive management methods of Hungarian and Lao Indigenous pig breed. Which found it still needs further afford to research and improve more about native pig performance for all areas of productive and quality management.
Economic Aspects of Rural Tourism55-71Views:67
necessary to ensure the livelihoods of those leaving the agricultural sector and to supplement the incomes of those working in agriculture. I research rural development in four settlements in Hajdú-Bihar County, in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, all bordering Hortobágy National Park.
There are many alternative income sources in settlements in the Hortobágy area, such as organic farming, production herbs, hungaricums, small animals and arts and crafts, as well as rural tourism. Rural tourism is not for subsistence, but a supplementary income source, mainly available during the summer time. I made a survey of rural hosts in the four examined settlements, and according to my results, I constructed a model reflecting the cost-benefit relation, as well as the payment period conditions of rural tourism. I am going to show whether it is worth dealing with rural tourism, and if yes, under what conditions. Rural tourism contributes to the maintenance of rural modes of living, in this way it has significant cultural, economic, ecological and social aspects, as well. It is crucial for settlements to create the appropriate conditions needed for joining rural tourism, if it is worth joining at all, and to realise investments for all these. Rural tourism has strict requirements for the levels of environment, infrastructure and services. Studying the Western-European practices, Hungary is lagged behind in the conditions of rural tourism and rural hosts have done their activities mainly out of necessity and not to maintain traditions. Rural tourism may result in success only by co-operation and over the long-run.
Measuring Development of Settlements by Using Category Numbers72-80Views:69
Several approaches are used to define the development and disparities of settlements. The investigation of four settlements in the County of Hajdú-Bihar, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, suggests that previous methods using few indicators are not suitable enough to measure economic, social and ecological development. My starting point was the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO). I examined the economic, ecological and social development of the communities by separating the 19 indicators and determined that complex indexes or indicators hide the real consideration of the main functions of rural development and opportunities for comparison in a community level. Furthermore, I established that the 19 indicators were not enough to analyse the situation, in this way I raised the number of indicators. I used more indicators, altogether 116 ones, than the previous research. I handled these indicators from economic, ecological and social aspects and carried out a method development. While only Egyek and Tiszacsege were considered to be backward according to the complex index of the HCSO, even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from economic and social aspects on the basis of my calculations. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not suitable for establishing decisions objectively. New developmental ranges evolved. Using this method this method, determining development may be more realistic and may contribute to strengthening decisions in rural development and help in spreading financial subsidies.
The Situation and Prospects of Hungarian Rural Development Preceding EU Accession224-231Views:72
Today’s Hungarian rural development is defined by the fact, that Hungary will be a member state of the European Union from May 1, 2003. Our accession means the end of a long period, and new rural development programs that are going to build on the basic of previously accepted EU standards and experience will highlight the immediate future.
From the Hungarian rural development programs I especially dealt with the SAPARD, AVOP and NVT, which in my opinion had and will have the greatest influence on the improvement of the Hungarian county. The AVOP and NVT are still under development (or just submitted to the EU), but their role in the future will be particularly essential, because these programs are going the act as the first programs in Hungary as a member state and a lot will depend on them in the improvement of the rural development.
Energy forests or vineyards?237-240Views:67
This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clearing of vineyards have been implemented in the last few years. The
abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.
Reflections on the use of subsidies received from the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the micro-region Ibrány-Nagyhalász211-216Views:71
Hungary’s accession to the European Union caused major changes in the country’s life. Rural development subsidies can be received through extensive application mechanisms. This is particularly challenging for lagging micro-regions. My study presents the lagging microregion of Ibrány-Nagyhalász, focusing on what types of organizations and upon what grounds received subsidies in the framework of the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme 2004–2006 (AVOP). I focus on the same parameters when examining the measures in the third axis of the New Hungary Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 (ÚMVP), followed by a comparison between the two programmes’ effectiveness. I conclude that due to the experience collected throughout the period of AVOP, both the number and the quality of applications have risen from the year 2007. Still, due to the lack of competence, cooperation and motivation, the region's planned improvements are not yet fully met and the capabilities of the region are not yet fully exploited. For the future, even more complex and more feasible projects are needed.
Some context of the multifunctional agricultural and sustainable rural development29-37Views:134
The paper first negotiates the concept of multifunctionality, then the main steps of the development of the connection between agriculture and rural development are discussed. It presents the situation of a most disadvantageous sub-region that is aided by a complex program. The local rural resources are estimated by the multifunctional rural resource analysis method considering threefold function of the rural areas. It is concluded, that the land use systems and labour-intensive cropping systems have specific missions in multifunctional agriculture and rural development in the sub-region.
Emerging sectors in rural development65-72Views:117
This paper focuses on the innovativeness of rural economy and in particular on the way rural entrepreneurs in endogenous and exogenous sectors make use of their rural environment. building upon the sustainable innovation framework, key strategies for rural development are formulated. the described data refers to the rural innova region (10 rural eu regions). The results show that rural innovation is essentially a process of valorising endogenous potentials by connecting them with exogenous assets.
Interpretation of rurality and the situation of land use in Hungary79-85Views:159
The summarizing data collection of our study has been carried out in the scope of the FP7-REGPOT-2010-1 ’UD_AGR_REPO’ project as a part of the cooperation with the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is an important partner of the project, the knowledge transfer activities that have been carried jointly with them are multilateral. One of the most important cooperation areas is the analysis of rural areas, rurality itself, determination of breakout points, exploration of alternative income sources, diversification possibilities. Some part of the work of the University of Lincoln on the field of rural development is based on the assessment and documentation global similarities and differences of rural areas. Present study also contributes to that work, it has been prepared on the request of the University of Lincoln with the aim of providing insight into the special political and economic changes/processes that took place in Hungary, and through them into the structure and operation of the unique Hungarian rural areas.
Spatial environment analisys of the bioenergy production and utilization235-240Views:91
The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. Rural development and the reduction of differences between the development levels of the regions have expressed roles among the programs of the European Union. Member States are even entitled to subsidisation, they just need to manage subsidies economically. In Hungary, a relatively small amount of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The opposition between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially youngsters, as they have no opportunities to find any job. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties. Also from the aspect of the national economy, migration from the rural areas to the cities is a problem. The state budget will face significant excess costs if someone moves from a village to the city. It could cause unpredictable consequences if people leave the villages, as the maintenance and development of the village living space will face a hopeless situation.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presupposes the availabilty of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, solution that provide the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments. A locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off of agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.
Evaluation of tourism in the Erdőspuszták sub-region95-100Views:66
The Erdőspuszták sub-region established an Association of Local Municipalities in 1992, 10 settlements of which set up the Erdőspuszták Association in 1995, as a voluntary organization. One third of the settlements in Hajdú-Bihar county are handicapped from an economic or infrastructural point of view.
Tourism has become the most dynamically developing industrial sector. Unfortunately, in Hungary and, especially, in the eastern region, this way of earning a living is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, these areas possess such untouched natural values, cultural monuments and unexploited possibilities which could attract tourists.
In my study, the problem is examined from two aspects. First, interviews with mayors are included, consisting of three questions. The leaders of the settlements were first asked about the impact of EU accession, then the most important development plans were mapped and finally the local tourism plans were investigated. Second, I have made an evaluation of each settlement which reviews the infrastructural and environmental conditions, the accommodation and boarding possibilities offered the different tourist attractions and leisure possibilities.
The development of tourism can be an obvious solution to this problem. The toots of tourism entails the creation of job opportunities, the development of infrastructure, the enhancement of living conditions. It has a diverse effect and it contributes to the improvement of living standards in rural areas.
Regarding tourism, it can be stated that each settlement has its own image and value, which the citizens are proud of. It has been realized that collaboration between the settlements could greatly contribute to the development of a tourist programme of several days length, as a result of which the guests would spend more time in the region, which would be beneficial to everybody. My suggestion is that the settlements should work out a plan for the development of tourism jointly, in which they would determine the targets, describe the specific development plans and tasks and elaborate the ideas for the different investments.
Mitigation and adaptation measures in the hungarian rural development programme245-250Views:59
In the Hungarian Rural Development Programme (RDP) climate change adaptation is addressed through the measures in Axis 1, 2, 3 and 4. Under Axis 1 farmers can receive support for farm modernisation that will help them adapt to climate change. The processing industry will also be able to use the available resources for capital expenditure on buildings and new equipment. Axis 2 and especially the soil and water package within the agrienvironmental
measure aim to support production methods, which protect soil quality and will help adaptation to climate change. Measures of Axis 3, such as basic services for the economy and rural population, village renewal and development will provide local communities the opportunity to identify actions that can be undertaken to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, the extension of forest resources contributes to climate change mitigation and enhances carbon sequestration. New methods have been elaborated to the sustainable regional water management, irrigation, water regulation, defence against internal water, and soil protection established. Water management contributes to the balance of water quantity on one side, but also to mitigating the climate change on the other.
Rural tourism in Hungarian development strategies194-203Views:153
Rural tourism was a popular sector of tourism development in the last few years. The importance of this sector means that it can be developed on its own or together with other tourist sectors.
The future of rural tourism depends on the supports of the national plans and strategies and the sales systems to keep on the market. In this study, I analyze how the Hungarian National Tourism Development Strategy deals with rural tourism and sustainable tourism. I also analyze how the big Hungarian travel agencies’ sales help rural tourism to advertise lodgings, and raise the number of sales. For the future, I analyze the opportunity of using travel agencies to sell rural tourism products.
The examination of human resources in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region on the basis of human resource hierarchy91-110Views:70
In this paper, I deal with the examination of the situation and change of human resources through the human resource hierarchy. My research covers the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, which includes four settlements, two towns (Hódmezővásárhely as the centre of the area and Mindszent) and two villages (Mártély and Székkutas). Based on population density the micro-region is qualified as a rural territory, which is underpinned by the micro-region’s market town and homestead like character.
I took the human resource system of Cloke and Park (1985) published in their book of Rural Resource Management as a basis of my examination and I pursued my research in consideration of Fehér’s (2005) researches related to rural economy. The system of human resources provided a hierarchical and logical framework for my examination. In the course of the research I made analyses along the three levels of human resources concerning the micro-region and its settlements.
During the examination of the human resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region I pointed out some negative changes and situations which unfavourably influence the socio-economic processes of the territory and its settlements. All this reveal that the human resources are not only factors of the economy of the micro-region as a rural economy but at the same time they are areas to be developed. The living standard (welfare) of the people living in the area and their quality of life (well-being) depend on the development and level of the different dimensions of the human resources largely. For that very reason there is a need for coordinated development of the human resources and the related fields with respect to the cause-effect relations.
My research contributes to the better cognition of rural resources of the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region, without this a rational improvement and sustainable development of the micro-region and its settlements based on inner resources cannot be imagined.
Surveys of residents’ attitudes to tourism development220-227Views:91
Tourism has an important role in the various development plans and strategies around the world. It has also become an important component of rural development programs, as rural communities experiencing serious economic downturns often consider tourism to be a possible way of development. The expected positive economic and social impacts may not occur and negative tendencies are reinforced if communities do not support or even oppose tourism development. For this reason, it is highly important for planners and decision-makers to understand how the public perceives the tourism industry.
In the international literature there is a growing number of studies about residents’ attitudes toward tourism development. In the present study I review the social and economic factors that influence the attitudes of residents and communities, as well as demonstrate the typologies that were created on the basis of the results. Finally, I summarize the theoretical models that are used to interpret the results of the investigations.
Greenhouse gas emissions and Europe 2020 strategy241-244Views:58
Common Agricultural Policy has identified three priority areas for action to protect and enhance rural heritage: (i) the preservation and development of natural farming and traditional agricultural landscapes; (ii) water management and sustainable use and (iii) dealing with climate change. Measures of Rural Development Plan in EU countries promote the development of agricultural practices for preserving the environment and safeguarding the countryside. This is achieved by targeting rural development and promoting environmental friendly, sustainable practices, like agri-environment schemes. Farmers are encouraged to continue playing a positive role in the maintenance of the countryside and the environment. Changes in total emission between 1990
and 2007 do not show any correlation with the total GHG emission. GHG emission was reduced in Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Estonia and Bulgaria, where GHG efficiency is low.
Additional information for the interpretation of the practice of rural development in the light of the corporate relations of the Agricultural Centre, University of Debrecen in the North-Great Plain Region65-69Views:59
In the spirit of the Lisbon strategy, the European Union has set out the primary aims of innovation development and competitiveness. A potential method to reach these aims is to enhance the relation between science and practice and to apply scientific results. This is the case at the Agricultural Centre of the University of Debrecen as well, since the tighter and looser cooperations of the institution provide a scientific structure, which is now a significant prerequisite for Hungarian agro-innovation, primarily for rural development processes in the North Great Plain Region. The present study, based mostly on empirical findings, strives to analyze the field of activities in relation to rural development performed by the Agricultural Centre, University of Debrecen.
The role of networks and clusters in rural development57-62Views:55
The development of rural areas is a key role for the European Union and its member states as well. The rural development primarily achieved through the development of agriculture, because the main beneficiaries of the grant are the farmers. Hungary today is close to 1 million units in agriculture, but only 10% are competitive. Agriculture as an industry according to its economic characteristics needs closely managed decentralization, where the autonomy of the units remain, but there is a central governing body, which constitutes a proffesional manager function. This is a superorganization, which stay above agricultural units, called cluster.
Agri-Environmental Issues in the National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Member States of the Enlarged EU346-353Views:71
In preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg), almost all EU member-states and some accession countries presented their national strategies for sustainable development (NSSD) during the summer of 2002. Along with other countries, Hungary is only now setting up this important document. Everywhere during the last decade, as in the EU countries, the intention was to involve the environmental problems into other political questions (agricultural, energy and transport policy, etc.). Today the strategy-builders have given up the sectoral view because of difficulties and setbacks, and use a view aiming the problem.
Agri-environmental issues appear as the elements of sustainability in the national strategies. For example, in accordance with the danger of global warming, the emission of green-house gasses of agriculture; in line with eco-efficiency, the production of renewable raw materials and energy sources originating from agriculture, and, in relation to changing lifestyle, food-safety and the future of biological agriculture will be disputed. With this study, I investigate the main characteristics of sustainable development strategies at both the EU level and at the level of the different member states from an agri-environmental point of view.
Development Level of Settlements of the Statistical Subregion of Nagykálló54-59Views:69
I have attempted to develop methods and applications for indices used to evaulate the development of settlements. At first stage the complex index applied by the Central Statistical Office (CSO) was differentiated according to economic, ecological and social aspects, and at the same time the system of indices was extended. As a result of these the ranking list of the exemined settlements has changed compared to the ranking based on the complex index applied by the CSO. There are significant differences particulary in the evaulation of the ecological development, however, in same cases ranking of economic and social development of settlements is also different. These analyses demonstrate that by using more indices the evaluation of development of settlement would be more objective, and by classifying according to the three functions of the country the countradictions would be more visible.
Development of and Lessons from the Institution System of the Common Agricultural Policy in Slovenia43-53Views:60
The comprehensive agricultural policy of Slovenia during the setting-up of its agricultural institutional system for implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy has enabled the setting-up and design of the Paying Agency system to handle national and EU subsidies according to schedule. The country has acted on the advice of the European Union to use the introduction of SAPARD measures as a preparatory and experimental field for utilising subsidies after EU accession. Moreover, in addition to the importance of gaining practical experience in the field of implementation of rural development measures, Slovenia has recognised the necessity to become familiar with the application procedures for obtaining direct payments relevant for the largest group of beneficiaries, farmers. Accordingly, farmers have been practicing for 3 years how to fill in application forms, and have gained important experience before opening the most relevant resources. Also, the advisers supporting farmers to obtain subsidies have been trained during the last 3 years, in order to provide real assistance. EU agricultural subsidies are not divided among the Member States; there will be a strong competition not only with the new Member States, but also with the farmers of the more developed EU-15.
Slovenia has done its best in order to launch its farmers – due to the different development levels of the EU-25 Member States – into this very strong competition not like pupils, but at least like mature secondary school students.
Development of LEADER in Hungary37-40Views:99
The development of the Hungarian LEADER programme was organised by the Institute of Rural development, Training and Consultancy under the control of the Ministry of Rural Development. Starting the programme without earlier experiences, lead to problems, but these were solved by the efficient work of the organizing institutions. The changing European economical situation makes it necessary to review and update the Local Development Strategies along with opening the programme again. This makes the programme work more effectively with every new turn. Continusing LEADER in Hungary after 2013, by using the hungarian and Western European knowledge, can bring economical and social benefits for rural areas and for the whole nation as well.