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  • Examining the competitiveness of the Great Plain region through a few basic indicators
    35-40
    Views:
    63

    There are significant differences in the level of economic development and social relations between the various regions of Hungary, consequently, their competitiveness is also dissimilar. The term ’competitiveness’ has recently gained a regional meaning from various aspects. The unified interpretation of ’competitiveness’ is applicable to all basic units of the economy in a flexible way, and is therefore applicable on regional level as well. Regional competitiveness is measured against four economic categories: regional income per capita, work efficiency, employment rate and age composition. In addition to an overview of the region, this study will analyse the above components of regional competitiveness based on data describing the region.

  • Economic policy strategy of UNITAB
    83-90
    Views:
    71

    Under the leadership of the International Association of Tobacco Producers – UNITAB – there is a struggle going on for stabilizing the situation of European tobacco growers. UNITAB unites the tobacco associations and tobacco growers of all EU countries.
    Tobacco production ensures economic stability for more than 100 thousand small- and medium-sized farms in the rural areas of 10 EU countries. In addition, its social importance in the survival of rural communities is emphasized by the 400 thousand direct or related seasonal jobs.
    Within the framework of the CAP reform, the European Union is gradually changing the regulations of production. This is based on the decoupling of subsidies, which will be implemented in two phases. Between 2006 and 2009. the decoupling will be 40% and then after 2010, 50% (the other 50% will be used for restructuring within the second pillar). The question is raised, how will the second 50% be restructured to the second pillar. Between regions and how it can be ensured that this support would go to tobacco production.
    With its participation in the principles of the European Tobacco Charta, UNITAB targets for production under economically-balanced conditions, the production of products meeting the customer requirements, consideration of the working conditions (especially for seasonal workers) and adherence to the health regulations related to the consumption of the end product already in the production and environmental protection. They aim to ensure the survival of the sector via tobacco growing with sustainable development and high quality. To maintain the continuity, there is a need for the support of regional, national and EU authorities. Future of the sector is dependent upon adaptation of tobacco growers and upon meeting the social expectations.
    According to UNITAB, efforts should be made to modify the decisions so that the majority of the funding could be used by the grower. The tobacco industry has been able to effectively fight for its survival.

  • Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary
    31-34
    Views:
    83

    The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
    These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

  • Preparatory studies for modelling production on protected grasslands
    64-69
    Views:
    145

    There is a mutual dependence between nature conservation activity and agriculture in Hungary, as the management of the protected areas cannot be achieved without ecological farming methods. Moreover, viable economic activity can be only imagined through the harmonization of agricultural and nature conservation interests. From a nature conservation point of view, grass management systems play the greatest role in domestic agricultural systems. Yet, due to the prohibition of certain management methods and the spatial and temporal restraints on grazing, nature conservation activities have priority on protected grasslands. While nature conservation activity is still of prominent importance, it is not equally suitable for the economical management of protected grasslands per se. With our examinations, we would like to emphasize the common interests of these mutually dependent activities and to promote bilateral cooperation. Our aim is to model the production of grass on the great pastureland of Hajdúbagos. Potential grass production levels are easily calculable with a computer model based on data collected through a series of test harvests, as well as by factoring in changing climatic factors and by simulating the effects of grazing animal species and stocks. This model is not only useful for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and grazing method, and therefore the most suitable management strategy, but it also supports local farmers to be able to plan their activities. In this way, both nature conservation and economic aims can be easily harmonized, which would be an important factor for the sustainable development of rural areas.

  • Price Risk Management by Futures Markets and Public Warehousing
    58-65
    Views:
    80

    The principal achievement of this paper is the combinative use of two market institutions: public warehousing and commodity exchange and how their joint application is beneficial for the players on the grain market. Based on a theoretical foundation, a calculation model was developed in order to assist short and long-term marketing decisions. It allows all the three participants of the market: producers, consumers and traders, to use this model in order to establish their own business strategy. The model can be used to analyse factors influencing the establishment of price; therefore, it can be also used for policy-making decisions.

  • Challenges – the impact of climate change on the nutritional management of Hungarian orchards
    323-334
    Views:
    208

    The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in intensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

    Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.

  • Work Organisation Supported by an Expert System in Agriculture
    57-60
    Views:
    70

    Expert systems are softwares that incorporate the experience of an expert and support decision makers by leading them through the thinking processes of an expert in the form of „if…then” rules. To use an expert system we have to work with knowledge expressed in a pre-determined form. To do so, we used a shell that can be purchased, and we acquired knowledge about the topic from experts through interviews and personal monitoring. Attributes that are non-measurable, such as many of the factors determining work-place organisation and revealing knowledge related to it, can be formed into words by using expert systems. The goal of the study was to present a suggested form of expert system model to help judge the level of work-place organisation.

  • Sporting habits of students at the University of debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences
    155-162
    Views:
    111

    In 2007, a new sport strategy was implemented, (XXI National Sportstrategy), which analyses the current conditions in recreational sports in Hungary and describes its developmental potentials. Additionally, last year a new concept for university sport was introduced (Hajos Alfred Program), having as its most important goal, to develop the recreational sporting activities within the universities’ environment. The latter is of high importance, as this is the last period, when, on an institutional level, we can establish and enhance the need for physical activity among young generations. In this study recreational sport is analysed in the University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. The purpose of the study was to analyse data on the sporting habits of the faculty students, their preference of where they like to exercise, within or outside of the university campus, and the reasons which can be found behind these preferences. Moreover, this study aimed to evaluate the service quality offered in university recreational sports. Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 123 students completed it. Based on the results, college students usually complete their competitive level sport activity when they enter college and they continue this activity on a recreational level. Almost two third of them choose to exercise in places outside of the university campus. For those who choose university facilities for their recreational exercise, they do so because; it is usually cheaper and closer to access. In the service quality results we see, that females are less satisfied with teaching staff quality than males, it may be possible that females need more and more effective implementations in order for the universities to better satisfy their needs for physical activity.

  • Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)
    30-35
    Views:
    291

    We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
    Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Between the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
    According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

  • Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
    43-47
    Views:
    90

    Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per cow could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

  • Effects of combined nutrient supply treatments on some physiological parameters of autumn wheat
    241-251
    Views:
    137

    The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in case of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.

  • The Effect of Tillage Treatments on Soil Temperature at Planting and on Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield
    40-44
    Views:
    92

    The effect of soil temperature was evaluated on the yield of the Occitan corn hybrid at a depth of 5 cm. We examined this effect on the time required from planting to emergence for three average durations: five, ten and fifteen days, all calculated from the day of planting. Winter plowing (27 cm), spring plowing (23 cm), disc-till (12 cm) treatments and 120 kg N per hectare fertilizer were applied. As a result of our analysis, we determined the post planting optimum soil temperatures for various time periods. The average soil temperature for a time period of 15 days post planting is the most usable for determining actual yields, followed by ten days, with five days proved to be the least usable (winter plow R2 = 0.86, spring plow R2 = 0.87, disc-till R2 = 0.64).

  • Economic Aspects of Bioethanol Production
    30-38
    Views:
    66

    Sustainability and multifunctionality look to be crucial points of the future of developed agriculture. Energy utilization of a part of the available biomass perfectly fits in these expectations. Bioethanol production allows for the substitution of the most expensive and most pollutable energy source, gasoline, by agricultural materials. This article contains a complex evaluation of economic characteristics of this method and calculations for the expectable economic effects of a would-be Hungarian bioethanol program. This essay includes the most important technological knowledge, a comparison between bioethanol and the competitive energy sources (gasoline, biodiesel, MTBE) and the most interesting elements of bioethanol programs operating in foreign countries. Introduced are which participants in the bioethanol chain have financial interests and counter-interests under present economic conditions in the spread of bioethanol by the enumerazation of macro- and micro-economic factors. The statements and consequences are based on my own calculatiosn so I am truly interested in any professional opinion.

  • Managerial aspects of operating performance groups in agriculture
    43-46
    Views:
    64

    Although we often witness groups, teams operating on various fields of life, we have not learnt much about various types of groups and teams in the agricultural sector, little is know about operational rules, internal properties, even less the managerial aspects. The Department of Management of University of Debrecen has been conducting research in this field for many years. In the framework of the research program, I have surveyed the managerial approach to identify main and typical characteristics of performance groups.
    During my researches I was determined to find out more about internal rules, relations and characteristics.

  • Health factor in food consumption
    125-132
    Views:
    72

    Consumer lifestyle and health are relevant factors to understanding consumption preferences. In the last few decades the number of lifestyle diseases has dramatically increased. The main cause for these diseases is the change in lifestyle; including a lack of attention to physical activity and good nutrition. Health and lifestyle are important factors by purchase decision process. In accordance with these, I examine the consumer behaviour toward soft drinks with special regards to healthy lifestyle and the state of health. My examinations can be considered mainly as a
    qualitative research, which can serve as a basis for further analyses and research, however, the conclusions and experience gained from it are worthy of consideration. I differentiated five soft drink categories: ice tea, carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, mineral waters, sport and energy drinks and studied the consumer behaviour toward them. The study focuses on the consumption of these and the factors influencing their purchase with special regards to lifestyle.

  • Post-control of agricultural subsidies provided by EU
    31-35
    Views:
    85

    The greatest part of the incomes (nearly fifty percent) of the European Union is spend on the agriculture and the agricultural policy is the most complex field among the common policies. In Hungary the payments from Guarantee Section of EAGGF are carried out by one Paying Agency (Agricultural and Rural Development Agency), the post audit of payments are carried out by Investigation Network of Hungarian Customs and Finance Guard on the base of Council Regulation No. 4045/89. A full co-operation of the business operators is expected during the audit, which means the presentation of the complete accounting file related to subsidies. To avoid declarations on irregularities during the audit and the following order on repayment of the subsidy, all requirements of gaining subsidies have to be kept. The state authorities, in present case the customs authority should pay special attention to the risk analysis activity, and its harmonising with the proposals and guidelines of the Commission. Getting acquainted and using in practice the actual requirements and proposals of the Commission’s guidelines is expected at all levels of the control service of the HCFG, but primarily the Special Service has to continue its present practice in this field. The measures mentioned above, respectively the effective period taken under analysis teens from the date of accession until June 2005.

  • Movement of Particles in the Air
    22-26
    Views:
    100

    The physical characteristics of particles (seeds and fertilisers) can strongly influence their movements both in seeding and spreading machines and in the air. It is therefore essential to study these particles when constructing such machines. In this respect the size, shape, coefficient of friction and aerodynamic resistance of particles are of great importance.
    Due to their irregular shape, determining the size of particles is a troublesome process. A precise description of particles has to include several sizes and can be obtained from their screen size. Many physical properties of particles are relevant during movement in the air, but the aerodynamic resistance coefficient is the most important (Hofstee et al., 1990). Two types of wheat and four types of fertiliser particles were investigated (supported by the National Scientific Foundation OTKA, T-026482). An elutriator was designed and constructed (Csizmazia et al., 2000), in which an airflow is supplied by a centrifugal fan. Air velocity was measured with a thermal sensor. Particle sizes, mass and terminal air velocity were measured. The influence of the aerodynamic resistance coefficient on the particles’ motion is also discussed.

  • Baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the long-term experiments on chernozem soil
    152-156
    Views:
    69

    Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
    is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
    importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-average yields of wheat were about 5,0-5,5 t ha-1 („industrial-like”
    crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
    of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
    (eastern and middle-parts).
    The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
    agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
    element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
    be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
    could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
    The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
    direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
    rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
    Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
    in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.

  • The electronic claiming for the Single Area Payment Scheme (eSAPS) in Hungary: the evaluation of a new system
    61-68
    Views:
    64

    The agricultural subsidies play a crucial role in the policy of the European Union. Remarkable part of the EU budget is dedicated to agriculture and rural development. The enlargement of the EU, the global changes in the market and other challenges are raising the demand for a better and more efficient way of work in the organization, using information and communication technologies, and especially the implementation of e-government
    services. The article presents the Hungarian electronic claiming system (called eSAPS) for European founds in agriculture, and evaluates the first year of its operation.

  • Case study based analyses of economic viability of Hungarian beef farms
    184-193
    Views:
    72

    Our country has great traditions in the field of beef production. As early as the Middle Ages, Hungary was known as Europe’s beef exporter. In this decade, production of the Hungarian Grey has increased, due to the popular method of keeping these animals extensively. These animals were even exported to the European markets on foot.
    After joining the European Union, this sector of agriculture has been receiving attention due to the major subsidies which were given. Accordingly, numerous farmers have tried to enter this sector of production. However, the power relations have been changed lately, as have the technology used in production, which has undergone several developments. The integrative connections in the sector had been split and also the size of optimal and sustainable production has arisen.
    The economic activities must be judged by their effectiveness and profitability, but in most cases their effectiveness can only be seen through such outstanding facts which are independent from the farmer.
    I would like to model the economy of a certain enterprise, and the size and the level of its production, through my research under the actual economic circumstances. In my research, I pay special attention to the circumstances which are important in the Hungarian agricultural sector and rural development.

  • Mathematical modelling of surface irrigation for field crops in Jordan based on soil hydrological-physical properties
    137-148
    Views:
    87

    Jordan suffers from drought and depletion of water resources. In-field crop management, the issue of irrigation scheduling is important and influential. In this research note, a simple method was developed for scheduling surface irrigation of field crops based on inputs of crop ecology, effective root depth, soil texture, soil hydrology, and logical mathematics. It was concluded that the science of mathematics has succeeded to meet academic irrigation scheduling in terms of surface irrigation for field crops based on both soil hydrological and physical traits. Extension scholar has a decision to choose mathematical irrigation model depends on the traditional inputs or updating the model by searching for renewable inputs such as different varieties root depths, optimum row spacing of each crop, drip irrigation mathematical modelling, and digital sensing. In both cases, the input related to the effective root depth is a major and basic factor in mathematical irrigation scheduling. It is, therefore, recommendable that extension research-based systems should focus on basic mathematics to capacitate the complementary role of academics, research, and extension in irrigation modelling, and rural development.

  • Risk and Risk Management in the Hungarian Sheep Sector
    25-29
    Views:
    65

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the risk attitudes of Hungarian sheep producers regarding the changes they have had to go through since the political changes of 1989-1990. Moreover, the objective of this study is to strengthen the empirical basis for risk analysis by identifying the importance of farmers’ risk attitudes. The results of a nationwide survey of over 500 sheep farmers presented a framework of risk attitudes, risk sources and applied risk management techniques of livestock producers.

  • Developing vegetable and fruit marketability potentials in Hajdu-Bihar county in terms of Hungary’s EU accession
    60-69
    Views:
    78

    prearrangement, Hungary will be ready to join the EU by the 1st of January 2003. In the course of negotiations, the Government places special emphasis on agriculture, because Hungary is an agrarian country. Agricultural production is an important economic factor in Hungary: larger a factor in its economic structure than in those of the present EU member-states. In order to preserve competitiveness, Hungarian farmers and its
    processing industry require information on the EU's CAP and other market influences.
    In Hajdú-Bihar county the quality of agricultural products fall behind the standards of the European Union. There is no real solidarity among farmers, so they are left alone and are unable to meet higher, those standards, which were introduced by the structural changes of the market. Unfortunately, there is only one fruit and vegetable marketing organization (PO) in the county, although its necessity and effectiveness has been proved several times.
    Within the framework of Rural Development, agricultural marketing is vital, because together with the local FVM institutes, it can help the farmers by providing consultation, information, and by marketing their products. Since fruit and vegetable growing has a considerable history in Hajdú-Bihar county, marketing activities can be effective in assisting both the farmers and the processing industry in preparation for EU integration.

  • Examination the users’s opinion of the electronic submission programme
    47-51
    Views:
    62

    In Hungary the Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ARDA) started to introduce electronic filling and submission of application forms for the two-hundred-thousand farmers in 2008. For submission it is recommended to be registered using by client gate. The producers' benefits have more results from electronic filling. Filling in and submitting the applications electronically ensure data will be correct and the application technically flawless and this can be the basis on the payment of former financial support and avoidance of sanctions or subtractions due to technical faults. The farmers may ensure the money more quickly. Based on survey is analysed the users of system conceive of the electronic submission programme.