Search

Published After
Published Before

Search Results

  • Effect of Ferilizer on the Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)
    40-46
    Views:
    114

    The effect of fertilization on the yield of maize was examined on chernoem soil with lime deposits at the experimental station at Látókép of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen. The yields of maize were evaluated using quadratic regression function, in three years – between 2000 and 2002 – in non-irrigated and irrigated treatments. After calculating the regression equations, by derivation of the functions, we have determined the amount of fertilizers needed for maximum yield.
    In the non-irrigated treatments, maximum yield and the active substance amount of fertilizer was as it follows: in 2000, yield of 9,133 t/ha with the application of 384 kg/ha mixed active substance, while in 2002 a yield of 6,289 t/ha with the application 236 kg/ha NPK active substance was achieved. In 2001, due to the favourable precipitation, a yield of 9,864 t/ha was achieved with the application of 245 kg/ha fertilizer. In the case of maximum yield, compared to the unfertilized control, the yield increase was 2,5-5 t/ha. The average increase for 1 kg of NPK fertilizer was 13-19 kg.
    We also determined the necessary fertilizer dosage for maximum yield in irrigated treatments. In 2000, 10,003 t/ha with a dosage of 423 kg/ha, in 2001, 11,542 t/ha with a dosage of 277 kg/ha and in 2002, 8,596 t/ha of maximum yield could be achieved with a fertilizer treatment of 277 kg/ha in the examined three years. The yield increase, in irrigated treatments, varied between 3,9-5,9 t/ha so it was greater than in the case of non-irrigated experimetal plots. The yield increase for 1 kg fertilizer varied between 12-21 kg.

  • Daily behaviour of Hungarian Grey Cattle under range grazing conditions
    45-48
    Views:
    156

    Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour

  • Cluster, a potential tool for rural development
    195-201
    Views:
    142

    There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm structure. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.

  • Agriculture production and rural development
    129-133
    Views:
    88

    In a national economy, the considerable part of its available territory consists of the so called rural area which is mainly used by the agricultural sector. In our days, the rural areas are characterized by the loss of their economic, administrative etc. functions. The agricultural sector is able to utilize the rural areas, though other economic activities play important role as well. To evaluate the agricultural sector in terms of the agribusiness, it is clear that the situation of the agricultural sector is not only decisive for the rural areas, but also for the whole national economy, and therefore, it is part of its balanced development.

  • Exploring Policy Options for a New Rural America: Conference Synthesis
    53-57
    Views:
    58

    This Conference has more then lived up to its billing, exploring policy options for a new rural America but in addition identifying the basis for a new framework for rural policy. Evidence that a new policy framework is needed is abundant (Stauber). In one way or another, rural areas of North America and of most of the developed world have for at least the past century experienced secular decline compared to urban areas. This has occurred during a period of high government transfers or subsidies, both direct and from policy interventions that have distorted the functioning of markets. It is clear that the systemic discrepancy between rural and urban populations/areas is a public policy priority. It is just as clear that there has not been a consensus on how to address these development and economic issues. Much funding and technical assistance has been allocated with little apparent impact on the condition of rural areas and rural people.

  • The role of SMEs in innovation-oriented economic development
    95-99
    Views:
    123

    Both at European and national level tertiary and quaternary sectors are concentrated in the metropolitan centre. In the rural areas only the sites of such sectors can be found the premises of which temporarily transform the sectoral structure of these areas, but from the regional development aspect they did not prove to be an effective strategy.
    The European Commission is now focusing on growth from innovation, which could become the driving force behind productivity growth and the economy’s long-term trend. The innovation-oriented economic development’s key players are on the one hand the knowledge-intensive enterprises, on the other hand the universities. Tertiary education can play a role – among others – in shaping and creating the development of knowledge intensive business environment and conditions, on the other hand it can assist the development of network contacts – another precondition of employment growth.

  • Conceptions regarding sustainable agriculture – the national sustainable development strategy
    42-51
    Views:
    71

    The task of the national sustainable development strategy is to provide a long term conception for the economy and society, so that this might function and develop in harmony with the environment. Creating the conditions for sustainable agricultural production requires the elaboration and implementation of long-term programs spanning generations. The objective is to find a compromise between the conceptions appearing in the long-term and the short-term programs.
    In Hungary, several principles, conceptions and proposals have been suggested regarding sustainable agriculture. In the present study, I intend to systematize the above mentioned principles and conceptions, and compare them to the conceptions regarding agriculture in the national strategies of the EU member states. Furthermore, I examine to what extent the agricultural policy of the European Union supports the conceptions regarding agriculture in the strategies. This topic deserves special attention, as the Hungarian national sustainable development strategy is being prepared and is supposed to be finished by the end of 2005.

  • Role of the landscape in spatial and rural development
    37-41
    Views:
    89

    The study is going to reveal the role of landscape potential in spatial and rural development based on the analyses of scientific literature. The target area of the research is three micro regions in Hajdú-Bihar county. In addition to the analyses of scientific literature the study pays attention to the assay of local development concepts and programmes. The conclusion of the study is that the analyses of landscape changes on micro regional level are obstructed by the lack of micro regional spatial development and substantive landscape plans.

  • Interpretation of sustainability in the utilization of renewable energy sources
    61-64
    Views:
    100

    The utilization of renewable energy sources (res) is crucial regarding to sustainable reconstruction of energy systems. The target is a balanced, sustainable development of Hungarian energy management considering equally the ecological, social and economic aspects. There are many different technologies of utilization of res varied by sources, conversion processes, size and products. The comparison of each technology and their sustainability assessment are required by the importance of efficient remodeling of energy infrastructure. The group of attributes was composed by numerous important parameters in the course of our analysis with the choice experiment (ce) methodology. The estimation of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was possible by this method and the preferences of the statistical population was concluded. So thus the utility derived from each attribute was estimated. The result of the ce analysis for the population of experts is demonstrated in the current phase of our research.

  • The Natural, Social and Economic Conditions and Opportunities for Development of Balmazujvaros, Especially in the Case of the Co-operative Kvaliko
    77-85
    Views:
    75

    Balmazujvaros as a settlement near Hortobagy has to cope with both advantages and disadvantages. Its natural and social conditions are mainly given, the agricultural characteristic is dominant, and the number of the employed is the highest in the agricultural firms and processing industry. Developing the third sector, including hosting, tourism, eco-tourism, thermal-tourism, may be an opportunity for the city. The subsidy for rural development relating to the SAPARD-programme may contribute to this, as the city is the member of the Association of Hajdu Towns.
    The agriculture plays an important part in Balmazujvaros in which production and marketing of vegetables and fruits excel. Several farmers realised this opportunity and founded the Marketing Co-operative of Vegetable Producers in Eastern Hungary, that is the Kvaliko. This PO works in a Corporation form and is constantly developing, spreading and expanding its choice making use of the local natural, social and economic conditions and applications for realising its investments. This PO may set an example for the other entrepreneurs and farmers of Balmazujvaros to co-operate and it may be considered as an already realised opportunity.

  • Coherence and connection between the good pond culture practice and the environment conscious management
    60-73
    Views:
    72

    According to the data indicating the decline and restructuring during the past decade, as well as the trend in the European Union member states, it can be expected that the role of traditional agriculture and fish production in direct rural employment decrease further. This also values those strategic directions for restructuring that will lead fishculture from quantity driven to quality production along with sustainable development (i.e. environmental conscious production) and multifunctional farming. This way the economic and social tensions caused by the concentration of the production and labour output can be mitigated.
    It is laid in the 1257/1999 Act on rural Development that farmers that enrol the agri-environmental scheme should follow the “Good Agricultural Practice” on the whole managed area. In case of agri-environmental schemes this is a precondition for which no grants are given.
    The adaptation of “Good Agricultural Practice” in fishproduction,where it is called: “Good Pond Culture Practice” is considered important on the basis of the above mentioned. This programme is undertaken in co-operation with the Research Institute for Aquaculture, Fisheries and Irrigation, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development and the Association of Hungarian Fish Farmers and Product Council.
    The European Commission proposed the formulation of the European Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EFAF) for the period 2007-20013, which will replace the Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), but it also consists of several new elements and will be working differently, too. According to the proposal the budget for the Fund will be nearly 5 billion EUR (4963 million EUR). The development level of aquaculture and fisheries and the social and economic significance in the given member state will be considered when distributing the Fund between the Member States.
    According to the plan the Fund is organised along five priority axes, of which the most important for the Hungarian fisheries sector is No. II: Aquaculture and the processing and marketing of aquaculture and fisheries products. The main measure areas are the followings:
    1. investment support for aquaculture;
    2. support for aquatic-environmental schemes;
    3. environmental- and animal health issues;
    4. investments in processing and marketing
    In case of accessing support under measure area No. 2 farms are obliged to meet the requirements of the scheme beyond the “good management practice” for 5 years, which is to be supervised by the approved body of the Member State. For this reason our work is considered to be substantial.
    Approval of the application of “Good Pond Culture Practice” is based on two elements: first the prevailing environmental and nature conservation regulations, as well as the list of controllable conditions in the new agri-environmental agreements are to be met. “Good Pond Culture Practice” are to be conducted on the whole farm area. Its main elements are:
    - nutrition management,
    - feeding,
    - pond maintenance,
    - stocking,
    - harvesting,
    - animal welfare (storage and over-wintering).

  • Survey on energetic short rotation forestry systems – Possibilities of spatial development and job creation
    7-11
    Views:
    74

    Both the European and the Hungarian rural areas suffer multi dimensional problems. Beside infrastructural under development the most important difficulty is employment. Unemployment is significant in the rural areas, while other structural characteristics like education, profession, work circumstances and seasonality worsen this unfavourable situation. It can be stated that the challenge with the highest priority in rural and spatial
    development is to create jobs and to strengthen local employment. The authors examine the job generating possibilities of energetic biomass of agricultural origin in a structural point of view. The aim is to develop spatial biomass product line models that permanently support the raise of employment by utilizing the possibilities of the European Union support policy and the popularity of this branch.

  • Agri-environmental subsidies and the National Rural Development Plan
    52-59
    Views:
    57

    The financing of agri-environmental target programs which is a prominent area in the EU became possible during the implementation and successful operation of the National Agricultural Environment Protection Program (NAPP) launched in 2002. Through this program we gained experience in the field agri-environmental measures which are financed from the Guidance Section of European Agricultural and Guarantee Fund in the European Union. The agri-environmental measures which are included in the National Rural Development Plan (NRDP) were implemented in Hungary in the fall of 2004 when the farmers handed in their application after the publishing of the related law. The NAPP financing is still active, but not significant since most farmers have chosen NRDP measures.
    We are examining the experience of the above programs after studying some theoretical aspects of the agricultural economics and the EU laws. We try to analyse the most important experiences of NAPP including the legal background, news opportunities yielded by target programs, the financing, organisation, and institutional background. We will present the results taking into consideration the data of the winning applicants.

  • Regional differences of the agricultural and rural development sector
    343-347
    Views:
    96

    Is neccessary and possible to take in consideration the regional differences of agriculture- and rural development in the rural development program for period 2014–2020? For answer of this question we try to give some references by reveal of economic and social regional differences.

  • Public opinion on the settlements’ environment and the use of renewable energy sources in the Micro-region of Gyöngyös
    267-272
    Views:
    59

    This paper intends to give an overview on some results of our studies carried out on the public opinion of the above aspects (settlements’
    comfort level and the use of renewable energy sources) directly or indirectly linked to the topic of climate change and possible adaptations.
    These studies were carried out by applying questionnaire survey in the (altogether 25) settlements of the Gyöngyös Micro-region.
    Knowledge on general human perceptions related to climate change and its impacts is considered to be important as it should advance the
    elaboration of adaptation and applied scientific works. They are highly required as rural areas, due to their closer relationship (dependence)
    to the physical environment, are more susceptible to changes resultant from the climate change with their possibilities to adaptation also
    being impeded.
    The beauty of environment plays an important role in the settlements studied within the micro-region with more than two third of pollees
    opting the environment as a factor they most proud of, especially among those residing in the villages for more than 10 years. It can be
    presumed that any change in this environment would greatly impact their everyday life and emotional relationship to their home villages. The
    overall picture after analysing the public opinion on the use of renewable energy source (as possible way of adaptation to the impacts of
    climate change) is rather controversial. Even basic knowledge and information are limited regarding the relevant technologies calling
    attention to the importance of raising environmental awareness and providing full information seems to be essential and should be
    implemented, through the media and education.

  • Analyzing the Population Retaining Ability and the Ability to Economically Provide for a Population in the Micro Region of Püspökladány
    210-219
    Views:
    69

    According to the data of population density, 98% of Hungary’s territory has rural features. Gaining EU supports, in order to focus on developing the most underdeveloped communities, and in order to decrease – not to increase – the differences between communities, the establishment of priorities and determination of the rank of rural communities based on their development potential is necessary. The claim of measurability arises because of comparison and classification. A possibility or a target area of measuring is analysing population retaining and income producing capability of rural areas.
    To gain adequate, many-sided information about the development potentials of a given community, micro- or macro region, complex condition survey, as well as secondary information completed with empirical data and subjective value judgment is essential. The aim in every case is to gain experience of the present condition via determining the direction of change.
    In this study, I deal with the clarification of the definition of population retaining ability and the ability to economically provide for a population and introduce the most important results of the inquiry with questionnaires completed in the frame of an empirical survey.

  • Development alternatives of rural economy
    187-191
    Views:
    100

    Environmental, natural, social and economic processes undergoing both in Europe and in the world predict such a 21st century that is characterised by increasing resource-crisis from both economic and ecological aspects. Therefore, it is very important for Hungary to see what happens to its natural resources, epecially to its agricultural land, water reserves as well as the biodiversity of the local unique flora and fauna. One of the most significant issues of the rural areas of Hungary is whether we can preserve the natural habitats and the various biodiversity of the related species, the favourable biological background of agriculture. In addition, whether we are able to provide high quality food for the country as well as for the broader reagion, whether we are able to produce energy from the resources available as well as to provide sufficient opportunities for the population to  live and work. These can be considered as the most significant issuesof the coming decades which determine the strategy of the Hungarian rural economies in long term.

  • Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization
    159-162
    Views:
    57

    The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

    Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

  • Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
    181-187
    Views:
    85

    The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
    Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
    The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
    The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

  • The role of agriculture in regional development
    25-30
    Views:
    173

    Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.

    Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.

    The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.

  • Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
    61-68
    Views:
    122

    The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
    If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
    Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
    In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
    – the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
    – the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
    – the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
    – the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
    – the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
    – the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

  • The possibilities of biomass utilization in the field of spatial development
    59-63
    Views:
    63

    By joining the European Union, Hungary made a commitment to increasingly utilize renewable energy sources. Keeping in view the agricultural circumstances of Hungary, we can state that biomass utilization has, overall, the greatest range of possibilities to use its products as ‘energy sources’. Biomass raw materials are useful in meeting emission control regulations for environment protection and to reduce climate change. The role of biomass production in spatial and rural development and in rural employment, and also in the decrease of Hungary’s energy dependence, supports development in biomass energy use. My aim in studying biomass utilization is the creation of a micro-regional level, decentralised, agro-energetic system-model for the use of plant and animal biomass for energy purposes, whether naturally or by anthropogenic activity, on agro- and sylvicultural areas, and on animal breeding farms. This model simulation method serves as a planning base for policy-makers during the spatial planning processes. The examination is presently in the stage of data collection. The collection of the basic data of the examination area and the purchase of the necessary equipment, materials and maps has already started. Contact has been made with local stakeholders, municipalities, municipality associations and micro-region managers.

  • Comparative analysis in residential property price level and price dynamics in urban and rural areas of Hajdú-Bihar County
    85-90
    Views:
    113

    In modern market economies residential real estate prices, price shifts and their correlations with macroeconomic factors are surveyed quite frequently. However, in contrast with the wide scope of foreign examples, so far existing analyses in Hungary have ignored examining relation and extensity of macroeconomic indicators and failed to examine their effect on real estate pricing. The scope of this survey is to highlight these potential correlations and thus develop new aspects of analysis. Although the examination needs further extension both in time and space, the results of this survey may help to understand the importance of the responsible management of the most precious element of national wealth from the perspective of sustainable rural development.

    Based on my preliminary results, there exists a strong correlation between the number of inhabitants of a settlement and the average real estate prices. Nevertheless, the correlation seems to be significant only for cities. In the case of smaller settlements the correlation still exists but at a lower level. As opposed to the results of former publications and my own expectations, no direct link could be tackled between the amount of income tax paid by private individuals and real estate prices either in the cities or in the villages within the territory and time span examined in my analysis. Although this correlation is measurable on a macro-economic level, my micro-regional analyses revealed the complexity of asset pricing and price volatility. Continuing this survey, my goal is to identify the hidden factors influencing real estate prices, whose thorough mapping may promote conscious rural development.

  • The Effect of Fertilization and Irrigation on Maize(Zea mays L.) Production
    26-29
    Views:
    110

    In a long-term field experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University, the data of the last five years (1995-1999) were analyzed to determine the crop production factors with the greatest influence on maize production and the relationship and interactions between irrigation and fertilization.
    In the extremely dry year of 1995, fertilization was found to cause substantial yield depression in the absence of irrigation. According to results of analysis of variance, fertilization significantly reduced the maize yield by 40-90% compared to control plots. Under irrigated conditions, there was a considerable increase in the maize yield, the yield surplus being 4.4-9.4 t ha-1, depending on the nutrient supply level.
    During the period from 1996-1999, when rainfall conditions were favorable for maize, fertilization significantly increased the maize yield even without irrigation over the average of the four years. The yield surplus due to fertilization was 3.9-4.6 t ha-1, depending on the fertilization rates. The maximum yield surplus was obtained on plots fertilized with 120 N kg ha-1, while at the rate of 240 N kg ha-1 the maize yield did not differ significantly from this value. During the period examined, corn yield was significantly higher at all three nutrient supply levels as the result of irrigation than in the non-irrigated treatment. As in the case of non-irrigated conditions, the highest fertilizer dose did not result in a substantial yield increase. An analysis of the interaction between fertilization and irrigation indicated that the yield-increasing effect of fertilization was not significantly different under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. The significant year x irrigation interaction was confirmed by the fact that the yield surplus (1.3-2.3 t ha-1) differed greatly from the irrigation effect recorded in 1995.

  • Relationship of the employment policy with rural development in the European Union
    27-36
    Views:
    67

    Employment policy has won primary attention both at national and EU levels for the past decade. Managing its problems has become one of the major social economic and political challenges. One of the problems is the aging of the continent’s population, which is in close relation with the slow increasing or decreasing economic trends.
    Comparing the EU’s unemployment, employment and labour productivity rates to those of ten years earlier a positive tendency can be traced. On of the other hand compared with the USA, Japan or the average of OECD countries the Community has still not been able to reduce its several decades lasting leeway. Difficulties of labour management are much more striking in rural territories than in urban districts. Not even the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy: the rural development has been successful in managing the employment of the labour superseded
    from the primer sector so far, which is significantly reflected in the unfavourable indicators of labour management and unemployment.