...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">As in other parts of the world, the frequency of weather extremes has increased greatly in Hungary in recent years. This means that maize production is faced with greater risks from all aspects: nutrient replacement, irrigation, plant protection. This is especially true of fusarium diseases. In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. They infect the ears, which – besides reducing the yield – poses considerable risk to both human and animal health due to the mycotoxins produced by them. Depending on which Fusarium species are dominant at a given location, changes can be expected in the level of infection and in the quality deterioration caused by the mycotoxins they produce. Fusarium spp. not only damages the maize ears but when pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. The degree of infection is fundamentally determined by the resistance traits of the maize hybrids, but also a great role in that region Fusarium species composition as well.
The phytotoxic effects of herbicides applied pre-, early post- and post-emergence were studied in maize in a herbicide sensitivity experiment were set up in Martonvásár and Törökszentmiklós. The herbicides were applied in normal and in double doses to 37 Martonvásár inbred lines and to six parental single crosses. The small-plot experime...nts were set up in two replications. The wet weather that followed the pre- and early post-emergence treatments promoted the appearance of phytotoxic symptoms on maize. The degree of phytotoxicity was recorded on the 14th day after post-emergence treatment and on the 14th and 28th days after the pre- and early postemergence treatments. Herbicides applied pre-emergence only caused slight symptoms on maize. Although the double dose increased the damage, it was still not more than 5% on average. The symptoms caused by herbicides applied in the early post-emergence stage were more intensive than those detected in the pre-emergence treatments. However, the damage caused by the double dose of isoxaflutol + thiencarbazone-methyl and by the split treatment with nicosulfuron remained below 10%. The symptoms became somewhat more severe at the 2nd scoring date. Among the post-emergence treatments the maize genotypes had the least tolerance of the mesotrione + nicosulfuron combination of active ingredients, where the double quantities resulted in 13–14% damage in average.
The crisis of the hungarian agricultre is continuous since the ’80s. The compensation is made a dual farm system, which has created barriers to efficient agricultural production. It is confirmed by the economic indexes as well. But the most important natural resources of our country is still the land. Over the past 20 years, the government wa...s not able to work out strategic aims and adequate system for the hungarian agriculture. In the past three decades the clusters has become the most common tool in economic development worldwide. Clusters always base on some local knowledge, and a country can be competitive on the industry in which the resources are concentrated. So the question is, is it possible to „clusterize” the
agriculture and through this develop the rural economic.
The development of rural areas is a key role for the European Union and its member states as well. The rural development primarily achieved through the development of agriculture, because the main beneficiaries of the grant are the farmers. Hungary today is close to 1 million units in agriculture, but only 10% are competitive. Agriculture as an... industry according to its economic characteristics needs closely managed decentralization, where the autonomy of the units remain, but there is a central governing body, which constitutes a proffesional manager function. This is a superorganization, which stay above agricultural units, called cluster.
In Hungary 6.2 billion hectares are used for agricultural and from this area 5.0 billion are polluted by ragweed. In addition, the export of agricultural products will be threatened because of their pollution. Ragweed results also problems in human medicine because of its pollen allergy. More than 30% of the habitants are affected directly or i...ndirect by allergyc diseases. On an annual basis nearly 60 billion HUF is spent on defense against ragweed. From this budget 30 billion HUF comes from the damage of the agriculture and other 30 billion for the cost of the therapy and health insurance. To solve the problems caused by ragweed needs new ideas. The proposals are the gathering and comprehensive utilization. A leap forward, from the ragweed new, market–orientated product should be developed.
The cluster concept is well defined in the literature, but its agricultural adaptation has not been detailed. A method is needed, which involves
experts into the study, who are able to confirm that the modell is correct and help to define the conceptual gaps. The Delphi technique is suitable
for the task. This is a well-structure, i
The aim is not statistically significant result, but to build in new ideas into the modell with brainstorming.
There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm struc...ture. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.