...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.
The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.
As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.
The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.
The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.
There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.
The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.
Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.
Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.
The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.
The decarbonisation of the power sector signifies reducing its carbon dependency. The aim of several programmes is making a conversion to a sustainable & low-carbon economy. Some of the targets by the EU are legally binding, thus appear in the national legislation and strategies. To meet the objective, we need to use renewable energy soures... expansively.
This study aims to provide knowledge about a problem-solving system and its basic components. Along the directions, it is easier to delineate the main characteristics which help Bartee’s model, the problem-solving space to come alive. I fitted the compost heap’s questions of establishing and operating into Bartee’s model.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Climate change, the increasing dependency on crude oil and other fossile fuels, the expanding import and the increasing energy costs make the world’s societies and its economies vulnerable.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The use of renewable energies has a long past, even though its share of the total energy use is rather low in European terms. However, the tendencies are definitely favourable which is further strengthened by the dedication of the European Union to sustainable development and combat against climate change. The European Union is on the right track in achieving its goal which is to be able to cover 20% its energy need from renewable energy resources by 2020. The increased use of wind, solar, water, tidal, geothermal and biomass energy will reduce the energy import dependence of the European Union and it will stimulate innovation.
In the recent decades it has become apparent that the human race can lead to a polluting and energy- wasting lifestyle and the depletion of natural resources and an ecological disaster as well.
Energy efficiency is the realization of the chance to see a wider use of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources can be found in large quanti...ties in Europe. A proper exploitation of these would be important because of the "traditional" energy sources’s sate is very critical in many ways.
The utilization of renewable energy sources depends on many factors. The local natural conditions significantly determine each country's different renewable energy potentials. I find to be important the natural conditions, such as, solar radiation intensity , the number of sunny days per year, the wind conditions , the volume and their energy characteristics of the geothermal power resources , land features , soil and rock quality, the supply of fossil fuels or the nuclear possibilities of energy production. The economic environment is also a major influencing factor for the utilization of renewables. The conditions of price of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal), the price of nuclear fuel production and other energy costs significantly influence the demand for renewables, as well as the level of subsidy and government tax policy. In addition, the international and national programs, objectives, strategies, subsidies and regulatory measures as well as technological factors can have a significant impact.
In my paper I point out the opportunities of renewable energy should be given to live. Nowadays the positive effects of their use is undisputed. In addition to the environmentally friendly produced energy, we should strive for energy conservation and energy efficiency as well. These expectations appear in practice, which can be directly perceived by citizens, in fact we should live accordingly. Furthermore, the environmentally relevant regulations of living conditions should appear as environmental demands.
The increasing consumption due to the decreasing amount of fossile energy resources, as well as the increasing fuel prices and living standard will justify the better utilisation of the opportunities lying in biofuel production. Certain countries produce biofuels for their own use or they even export them. However, there are countries which hav...e not decided which feedstock and technology to use. Biofuel – mainly biodiesel and bioethanol – use greatly contributes to environmental protection, decreased CO2 emission and reduced greenhouse effect.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county shares its borders with three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia. The county is part of the North Great Plain Region, it is the third largest county of Hungary in terms of its population. The peripheric geographical location of the county gained importance by the EU accession, as the county represents a significant part of the eastern border of the EU.
Due to the exhaustion of the fossile fuel reserves of the Earth, the increase of fossile fuel prices and the difficulties concerning stable fuel supply, the increase of electricity production from renewable energy sources has a special strategic importance. In this study, I am going to evaluate the circumstances of the production and use of ren...ewable energy sources in Hungary and in the European Union. I present the Hungarian economic, energy policy-related and social circumstances which make it necessary to support renewable energy production. I am going to give an overview on the related EU strategies concerning the sector and the Hungarian development plan in this field. I pay particular attention to the examination of development opportunities and the R&D activities going on in this area in Hungary, as well as the efficiency of the means used to improve renewable energy use.
Due to the exhaustion of fossile fuel reserves, the increase of their prices on the world market and the environmental pollution resulting from their use make alternative energy sources increasingly important. In my study, I am going to present the currently known and researched renewable energy sources. Based on the results achieved from the S...WOT analysis, I provide an overview on the future opportunities of their use. After the comprehensive examination of alternative energy sources, I give insight into the factors which influence the energetic use and utilisation of biomass, as well as the theoretical background of bioenergy. In my work, I pay particular attention to the analysis of the use of biomass as an energy source, as well as the difficulties related to its utilisation.
The domestication of choice broadening, special vegetable species offers new market possibilities in Hungary. The production of artichokes has good perspectives due to its high protein, vitamin and mineral contents and its wide usability. According to the literature, in Hungary it is worth examining the annual production technology, which has y...et to be researched in our country. The basic aim of our work was to establish the annual production of artichoke in Hungary with scientific research.
In the experiment, 5 Italian sorts (Valetta di Roma, Gobbo di Nizza, Violetto di Romagna, Violetto S. Francesino and Precoce di Romagna), 1 American sort (Green Globe) and 1 Egyptian sort (Balady) were used. For one half of the plants, we tried to bring on bud-production appearing in the first year only with early planting, while we used also a gibberellic acid hormone treatment for the other half.
Only the sort Green Globe had yields in appropriate quantity (21.4 t/ha) and quality. The low yield and inequable quality of buds of the Italian and Egyptian sorts refers to the fact that these sorts are not applicable for annual production in Hungary. Although the gibberellic acid treatment resulted an earlier harvest, increased the equality of buds and increased the proportion of stems producing buds except for the sort Green Globe, overall it did not have a positive effect. The hormone treatment fastened the physiological processes of the plants, thereby it induced early insenescence and lignifying of the buds. The high temperatures during the bud-formation period largely increased the ratio of flabby, over-blowing buds, so the planting must be timed in the future that the harvest period is in early automn or late spring, early summer months.
According to our results, globe artichoke can become a perspective culture by applying cold-resistant sorts with short growing seasons, which can be produced as annual crops without hormone treatment by the appropriate timing of bud-formation.
Based on the results of a previous experiment, we concluded that by choosing a suitable cultivar, it is possible to produce artichoke in a one-year cultivation system in Hungarian weather circumstances. The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the performance of two Californian artichoke cultivars (Green Globe, Imperial Star)...under the local conditions. Experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003, by using four
different sowing and two different planting dates (03.01. and 03.20. – planting 05.07.; 04.24. and 05.06. – planting 06.12.). For both cultivars, 100% of the plants initiated buds. In most of the cases, Imperial Star produced higher total and marketable yields than Green Globe did, while it formed bigger and more uniform buds. Our opinion is that the main reason for this result was that Imperial Star tolerated the dry and warm Hungarian summer much better. Irrespective of the variety by earlier sowing dates higher total yield was achieved. Based on our results, we found that under Hungarian circumstances, both cultivars could produce acceptable total yields. However, the weather circumstances of the given year influenced bud quality, and thus marketable yield, to a great extent.