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Examination of French bean on organic and conventional farming of Research Centre of Nyíregyháza
Published September 2, 2009
87-98

This study presents the yield results of some French bean varieties in organic and conventional farming. This study presents the advantage of organic farming in environmental point of view and in nutrition. Sale of organic products is insured, there is solvent demand rather in abroad than in Hungary.
In Research Centre of Nyíregyháza had m...ade organic farming since 1994, at present on 74 hectares.
In the first trial, variety comparison with 9 yellow podded French beans in organic and conventional farming was conducted. Varieties: Carson, Cherokee, Debreceni sárga, Goldmine, Héliosz, Minidor, Sonesta, Sundance és Unidor. The following parameters were observed: the time of emergence and flowering, number of plants per plot, plant height and flowing green harvest. We weighed yield of the standardized, un-standardized and diseased pod fractions. The results were evaluated statistically with SPSS and Excell softwares.
Emergence had all at once, but the plants of organic farming were 5 days earlier at flowering and maturity, than conventional farming.
The plants in organic place were more developed than in conventional ones. Emergence was more uniform, the growth and the number of plant were square. Significant difference was not detected in plant height between two places. Most of the varieties examined had better total yield in organic place, than in conventional ones. Deviation depended on variety. ‘Sonesta’ and ‘Debreceni sárga’ had the best yield in both places. In
conventional farming choice can be expanded with ‘Unidor’ and ‘Sundance’. In organic farming choice can be expanded with ‘Minidor’ and ‘Carson’.
In both places the Sonesta, Debreceni sárga and Unidor varieties had the most standardized yield per hectare. In organic place Carson variety had good pod yield because it was infected less by diseases.
In the another trial we studied inside content values of some varieties on organic and conventional places. The parameters were observed: dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, crude protein content and amino acid content.
The rates of asparagin or glutamine acid were the highest, which was followed by serin or histidine. In asparagin content was the most deviation between conventional and organic farming.
Significant differences were between varieties in dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, and crude protein content both on organic and conventional places. Each variety had significant differences between organic and conventional farming.
Starch had strong and negative correlation with dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content.
Budai piaci and Minidor varieties and BU-16 variety candidate had higher starch content and lower dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content on organic place. Sonesta variety had almost equal dry matter content on both places, but crude protein content was higher with 10% and starch content was lower with 6% on organic place, than on conventional place. Paridor variety had almost equal starch content, but it had higher dry matter and crude protein content on organic place. 

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Connection of crude protein content and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in the relation of quantity and quality
Published December 21, 2008
73-79

We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

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19
33
Connection of protein and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties
Published November 2, 2009
101-107

We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

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16
28
Leaf protein analyses in order to utilise the leaf shoot of artichoke
Published February 3, 2016
43-47

The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.

In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.

Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.

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Effect of weather conditions on the protein content and baking value of winter wheat flour
Published May 23, 2006
83-94

We searched for connections between weather conditions (with its sub-parameters as precipitation and average temperature) and the yearly formation of two quality parameters (protein content and baking value) on three levels of mineral fertilization, based on the results of a variety comparison experiment on chernozem soil, to select those weath...er parameters and critical periods which have significant effects on the quality of winter wheat flour.
We established that the protein content of winter wheat flour can be increased with increasing levels of mineral fertilizers. Protein content is lower and has higher deviation during non-fertilized conditions in different cropping years than on higher fertilization levels. Thus, it seems proved again that quality (as protein content) is mainly formed by the crop year, but can be improved with adequate agricultural engineering (with mineral fertilization in the present case). The higher sum of precipitation in May, and the lower average temperature after flowering, have the highest increasing effect on the protein content of flour of the examined parameters. Based on the results of the examined period, the rainier and warmer term than average before flowering and lower – average amount of precipitation and colder circumstances are favourable for higher baking values. The analysis with data of decades, proves the importance of the first half of May and the middle of June as especially important periods for quality formation. An increasing nutrient supply has different effects on the varieties; mineral fertilization increased the baking value of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety in almost every case, but the second level of fertilization decreased it in half of the examined years. Additionally, mineral fertilization played a role in the stabilization of the quality of highlighted varieties.

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Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010
126-131

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

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Effect of sowing time and planting space on change of yield and protein content of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
Published February 3, 2016
85-89

The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and differen...t spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.

The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.

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74
Alternative protein sources in the nutrition of farm animals
Published September 5, 2018
21-31

Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decrease...s constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.

There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.

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The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation
Published December 28, 2018
46-50

Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland... vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

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Stability analysis of different winter wheat genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
135-141

Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c...hanges in the wet gluten content, gluten speading and protein content of five wheat genotypes at six fertilization levels.
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization. 

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The significance of biological bases in maize production
Published March 20, 2013
61-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.

The weather of the trial year was quite droughty; the monthly average temperature was 3–4 oC higher than the average of 30 years. High temperature, together with lack of precipitation occurred during the most sensitive phenophases of maize (flowering; fecundation, grain saturation).

The following characteristics have been observed: starting vigour, date of male and female flowering, plant and cob height, dry-down dynamics during maturation and the change of yield composing elements has also been quantified. The yield was recalculated to 14% moisture content grain yield after harvesting.

The beginning of the growing period was advantageous, therefore the analysed hybrids could grow a high (above 300 cm) and strong stem. The yield of the hybrids changed between 10.33 and 11.87 t ha-1, but as a result of the unfavourable climatic extremes, their genetic yield potential prevailed only at a rate of 30–40%. However, moisture content by the time of harvesting was good despite its early date (12th September); it remained under below 14% in most cases. Dry-down was measured on a weekly basis between 14th August and 5th September.

The analysis of the qualitative parameters of the maize hybrids (protein %, oil % and starch %) resulted in significant differences. The most significant difference has been observed in the case of protein content (LSD5%=2.01). Oil content was the most advantageous in the case of hybrids belonging to the mid-late growing group (FAO 400). The X9N655 and 36V74 hybrids had the highest oil content (around 4%), while hybrids P9915 and 37F73 had significantly lower oil content. Starch content was above 70% in the case of every hybrid.

Hybrid selection is highly important in terms of yield and yield security of maize, as well as the application of modern biological fundamentals and hybrid specific technology for the improvement of the level of cultivation technology.

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51
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Effect of NPK fertilization on the yield and yield stability of different maize genotypes
Published July 31, 2012
101-104

The yielding capacity and quality parameters of 11 maize hybrids were studied in 2011 on calcareous chernozem soil in a 25-year long-term fertilization experiment in the control (without fertilization), in the base treatment of N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 and in... five treatments which were the multiplied doses of the base treatment. The N fertilizer was applied in the autumn and in the spring, while P and K fertilizers were applied in the autumn.The sowing time was 17–18 April, the time of harvest was 8 October. The 30-year average of precipitation (April–Sept) was 345.1 mm, the amount of precipitation did not differ greatly from that, however, its distribution was very unfavourable.
It was found that the largest yield increment (as compared to the control) was in the treatment N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 in the long-term experiment. The largest yields were obtained for the hybrids P9494, PR37N01 and PR35F38 (13.64–13.71 t ha-1). Due to the dry period at the end of the summer – beginning of autumn, the grain moisture content at harvest was favourably low, 12–18% depending on the treatment and the growing season.

The N fertilization significantly increased the protein content of the kernel, but the starch content of the kernel decreased (significantly in several cases) with increasing fertilizer doses and yields as compared with the control.
The highest protein content was measured in hybrids GK Boglár and Szegedi 386. The oil content was above 4% for GK Boglár, but the two hybrids were not among the best yielding hybrids in spite of their good inner content. The starch content was around 75 % without fertilization, it decreased with fertilization.
For the tested hybrids, the fertilizer dose N 120 kg ha-1, P2O5 75 kg ha-1, K2O 90 kg ha-1 can be recommended with respect to efficacy and environmental considerations.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008
111-117

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Development of maize production technology that increase the efficiency of bioethanol production
Published November 2, 2009
17-26

Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and also in Hungary, it can be utilized for multiple purposes: as a feedingstuff, for human nutrition and for industrial processing. In the last decades, the per ha yield of maize varied greatly in Hungary, between 2004 and 2006, it was 6.82-7.56 t/ha, while in 2007, it was only 3.6 t/ha. Resul...ting from this, the price of maize became 2-2.5 times higher. The high price hinders bioethanol production. The largest per ton amount of bioethanol, 387 l, can be produced from maize.
In addition to its classical utilization as feed and food, the industrial use (especially for bioethanol production) of maize is increasin.
For industrial production, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2007.
The applied fertilization treatment was N 120, P2O5 80 uniformly, and five different dosages of potassium: K2O 0, K2O 100 (KCl), K2O 100 (Kornkáli), K2O 200 (KCl), K2O 200 (Kornkáli) kg/ha active ingredient. The applied plant densities were 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 thousand plants/ha.
The yield of maize hybrids in the fertilization experiment ranged between 10.53 – 14.62 t/ha. Both regarding the form and dosage, 100 kg/ha Kornkáli proved to be the best potassium treatment. Regarding the inner content parameters, the highest starch content in the average of treatments was obtained for the hybrid PR36K67: 73.57%, and its yield was also the highest, so this hybrid proved to be the most suitable for bioethanol production. The highest protein content was observed for the hybrids KWS 353 (12.13%), which can be favourable for feeding purposes.
Most of the hybrids gave the highest yield at 80 thousand plants/ha plant density, however, hybrids PR36K67 and Mv Tarján achieved the highest yield at 90 thousand plants/ha.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance. 

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Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat
Published December 15, 2010
105-110

We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization... has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

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The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the sulphur and protein content of wheat
Published July 31, 2012
73-76

In this study the effect of N,P and K nutrients on the S and protein content of wheat grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. The calcareous chernozem soil having the following characteristics: pH (KCl): 7.3, CaCO3: 4.27%, humus: 3.45%, Al-soluble P2O5 and K2...O: 60–80 and 180–200, KCl- Mg: 150–180, KCl+EDTA-soluble Mn-, Cu- and Zn-content: 80–150, 2–3 and 1–2 mg kg-1. The experiment had a split-split-plot design with 40 treatments in 4 replications. Plant samples were collected from 2002 and 2004. 2002 was a drought year while 2004 was very wet.
The main conclusions are as follows:
– The sulphur and protein content were than the control higher in every NPK treatments.
– The sulphur and protein content of the wheat grains were higher in 2004 that had a lot of rain than in 2002 that had drouht.

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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Agronomic bases of precision barley production
Published November 13, 2012
217-220

To ascertain the importance of individual preciosion factors in achieving yield and quality of malting barley, we established a multifactor 
experiment at the research station of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2009 and 2010. Four variants of fertilization, 2 ways of soil cultivation and four varieties 'Bojos’, 'Kango...o’, 'Marthe’ and 'Xanadu’ were observed. From the quality indicators the nitrogen content (%) was observed. The results were statistically analyzed by using a multifactor analysis of variance by using Statistica 8, the program Statgraphics. The difference between years was statistically significant (1.87 t ha-1) in favour of 2010. The difference was also significant between the varieties 'Bojos’ and ’Kangoo’(1.07 t ha-1), respectively. 'Martha’ and 'Xanadu’ as well as 'Kangoo’ (0.56 resp. 0.33 t ha-1). Conventional soil cultivation in
comparison with a minimalization technology, demonstrated a  tatistically insignificant increase of yield. Significant differences were obtained between the variants of fertilization. Treatment by using Condit (b-var.) showed a very positive impact in climatic favorable year (2010) with a yield result of 7.42 t ha-1. In comparison with an untreated control, the difference in yield was 0.89 t ha-1. A significant increase of yield was achieved by using the combination of solid fertilizer with foliar fertilizer (LAV + Hakofyt, var.c) 0.47 t ha-1. The crude protein content was statistically influenced by a variety and year. In 2009, the crude protein content was above average (12.38%). Significantly lower attributes were achieved in 2010 (9.90%). From the studied/observed varieties the lowest crude protein content was showed by a variety 'Kangoo’ (1.68%).

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The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
Published May 6, 2013
21-27

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

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The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
Published February 3, 2016
21-26

We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together ...in 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.

Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).

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59
Production and disposition of purebred Jersey populations
Published November 24, 2008
89-96

In Hungary crossbreeding wit Jersey has been in practice since 2004. Uniquely in the Hungarian history of the Jersey breed two times fifty head pregnant heifers were imported in 2006. The aim of our study is to present through the description of the production and the type traits of the population the inherent possibilities of Jersey. The breed... is presented by the figures of the rolling lactations, 305 day milk production, correlations between the traits and by the results of the evaluation of type traits. Analyses of the data were done by using independent samples t-test.
Based on data of 87 cows the average number of days in milk  is 308 and 48 cows has finished lactation. During the rolling lactation they produced 5050 kg milk with 5.34% fat and 3.8% protein content.
The first lactation Jersey cows’ production when corrected to 305 days was 5089 kg milk with 5.35% fat and 3.81% protein. Between the herds there was significant difference in milk kg, amount of fat produced, protein content and amount of protein produced. On the two farms distribution of cows belonging to different production levels is very different. The biggest difference is when categorized by the amount of milk produced.
Correlation between the milk kg and fat kg is the greatest (r=0.950). Similar values were obtained for the correlation between fat and protein kg (r=0.919) and for the milk kg and fat kg (r=0,898). 
Disposition of the Jersey cows is very well balanced. Their stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle and pin width is favorable, the average scores are between 4.5 and 6.5. The leg of the cows is a bit sickly, and is hocking in a little with medium-low angled hoof. Average values of all traits describing the udder are between 4 and 5. Cows belonging to the two herds differ by disposition. Significant difference exists in the following traits: body depth, dairy form, pin width, rear leg - side view, rear leg, rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, teat length. The
Jersey population imported to Hungary has a final score of 78 points which equals with the “good” qualification. 

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17
39
The variation of breast milk composition during the lactation stage for mothers from the Csík region
Published December 15, 2010
93-98

The aim of our research was the examination of breast-milk composition from mothers living in the Csík region and to follow their milk composition variations during lactation. In this article we present the results obtained from three mothers, paying particular attention to essential components. The breast milk samples were collected from heal...thy mothers with similar habits and age. The milk samples were collected with a hand pump at the
same time after the feeding. The sampling period was from day 5 to the 14th weeks of lactation. The nutrition of mothers was  recorded on a questionnaire, completed by the mothers themselves. Comparing our experimental results with data in the literature it was concluded that the milk protein content was very similar to the milk of mothers from other European countries, and is decreased during lactation.
The total saturated fatty acid content was lower, but the palmitic acid content was slightly higher. Regarding the essential fatty acid composition the linoleic- and the arachidonic acid contents were appropriate from a nutritional point of view. The linolenic acid was present in lower amounts, but the docosahexanoic acid was almost undetectable.
The iron and manganese contents were in good agreemen with published results, but the zinc content of the breast milk was lower and its copper content was higher. These differences in milk composition can be explained by the different nutritional habits of our subjects. 

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15
25
The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 20, 2020
143-147

In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly... reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

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41
44
Variations in major quality parameters of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in storage
Published July 16, 2007
249-254

We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the o...f the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.

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17
21
Effects of cultivar and fertilization on extensograph parameters of winter wheat flours
Published December 15, 2010
19-24

In present paper we have examined the effect of mineral fertilization on the extensograph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by fertilization. Flours were from 4 cultivars grown at six nitrogen fertilizer. The average flour protein content of cultivars ...was very different (11.8, 13.0, 14.3, and 13.07%, respectively). We have found that the extensograph
properties of dough are affected by mineral fertilization, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of fertilizer doses. We estimates the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph properties, based on our investigations, it became obvious that the correlation between flour protein content and extensograph parameters is really strong.

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