In the mill industry, the purpose of the grinding technology is to separate wheat endospermium and shell and to recover grists. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is shredding. Flour quantity and quality produced from wheat depends on the variety of wheat that will be shredded, the type of grinding equipment and the co...ndition used before the grinding. For this reason, during my experiments, I ground two grain structured varieties of wheat in laboratory conditions using a disk grinder, stone grinder and roll grinder in air-dry and conditioned states. We measured the equipment’s performance and the produced grist’s particle size distribution, followed by the calculation of the energy requirements of the grinders. In the grinding experiments we compared the ash contents of the different particle sized grist’s fractions to map the wheat’s particular properties.
The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together in ...30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour. Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).
The fungi causing the infection and most of the harmful toxins they produce are concentrated in the bran of the grain, thus the intensive surface cleaning, the so-called debranning operation could allow the reduction of contamination in the milling technology. The essence of the PeriTec technology – originally developed by SATAKE, a Japanese com...pany, to clean rice – is that it gradually removes the bran layers of the grain by mechanical means before further processing. We modeled the PeriTec technology with a laboratory size, batch-operating, horizontal debranning machine by SATAKE. The flour, milled grain after grinding 40 sec, the initial toxin content was only a small proportion (~15–20%) measured. The results showed that below the limit of DON toxin contaminated wheat (DON: 1.15 mg kg-1) during the grinding surface of the detached bran toxin contamination shows a very high (6.16 mg kg-1). The 40 seconds debranning before grinding shows lower DON toxin content than without debranning. So it is importance before the grinding. The toxin contamination of the bran fractions is significantly reduced, which is importance to the feeding point. As a result of debranning, the toxin content of the grinding fractions decreased, which justifies that that PeriTec method is suitable for the reduction of toxin contamination.
Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat. The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON toxin concen...tration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method. Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.
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