...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In 2014, was an extremely early and heavy yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis) epidemic in Hungary. Significant differences were among locations, years and genotypes in the severity of infection. Ratio of the resistant and moderately resistant genotypes was higher under bio environment. The yellow rust epidemic caused significant yield decreasing in the tested winter cereals.
We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together...in 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.
Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).
Triticale is likely used in many countries in human consumption, due to its advantageous agronomical and nutritional properties mostly in blends. The baking quality of blends depends not just on the proportions of the used flours but also on their individual quality what can be influenced by fertilizer treatments.
22 flour blends were p...repared with commercial wheat flour and triticale wholemeal flour in proportions from 0% to 100%. The triticale was treated with different amount of fertilizers (N30P30K30, N60P0K0). Changes of wet gluten contents and extensograph parameters of the blends were determined. The quality of blends significantly depends on the fertilizer treatment of triticale beside the proportions of the flours. When the N60P0K0 treated triticale was used in blends, wet gluten and extensibility values were significantly higher, but in case of resistant to extensions (Rmax) the N30P30K30 treated samples gave higher values. The measured values of wet gluten and extensibility were above the expected values (synergism), while in the case of resistance to extension the expected values were higher than the measured values (antagonism).